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his essays is his Mémoire sur les relations his wife was divorced from him, afterward becommerciales des États Unis vers 1797. He coming the princess of Chimay (see CHIMAY); left personal memoirs, which are supposed to and he was neglected by all. In 1805 he was throw considerable light upon the events in appointed consul to Alicante ; but sickness obwhich he participated, and are to be published, liged him to return to Paris, where he received according to his will, 30 years after his death, a paltry pension from Napoleon. This he lost that is to say, in 1868.

in 1814, and would have starved had he not reTALLIEN, JEAN LAMBERT, a French revolu. ceived some help from his old friend Barras. tionist, born in Paris in 1769, died Nov. 20, 1820. TALLMADGE, BENJAMIN, an American He was the son of the house steward of the revolutionary officer, born in Setauket, Long marquis de Bercy, who gave him the means of island, Feb. 25, 1754, died in Litchfield, Conn., a classical education, and when the revolution March 7, 1835. He was graduated at Yale colbroke out was for a while connected with the lege in 1773, entered the continental army at newly established Moniteur as proof-reader. the commencement of the revolution, attained In 1791 he started a newspaper of his own, the rank of major after much active service, L'ami du citoyen, which passed unnoticed, be- and was stationed at North Castle, Westchescame a member of the Jacobin club, was ap- ter co., N. Y., at the time of the capture of pointed clerk of the commune, Aug. 10, 1792, Major André, who was placed in his custody and was elected deputy to the convention by until his execution. In 1780 he planned and the department of Seine-et-Oise. He took his conducted the expedition which resulted in the seat among the montagnards, evinced some taking of Fort George at Oyster Bay, and the oratorical talent, voted for the death of Louis destruction of the British stores on Long islXVI., and proved one of the bitterest oppo- land. He held intimate relations with Washnents of the Girondists. Being sent on a mis- ington, and retired from the army with the sion to Bordeaux in 1794, he became acquaint- rank of colonel. He afterward engaged in ed with Mme. de Fontenay, one of the most fas- mercantile business at Litchfield, Conn., and cinating women of her age, then a prisoner on from 1801 to 1817 was a member of congress. . account of her suspected royalism, and whom TALLMADGE, JAMES, LL.D., an American he married on his return to Paris. His love statesman, born in Stamford, Dutchess co., N. for her somewhat abated his revolutionary fer- Y., Jan. 28, 1778, died in New York, Sept. 29, vor, and Bordeaux was treated with compara- 1853. He was graduated at Brown university tive mildness. This, in conjunction with his in 1798, studied law, and was admitted to the known friendship for Danton, awoke the sus- bar in New York. He was for some years picions of Robespierre; his wife was again im- private secretary of Gov. George Clinton, and prisoned, and was in peril of her life, when, in the war of 1812 was appointed brigadieryielding to her entreaties, he resolved upon general and placed in command of a part of the overthrowing the tyrant. After securing the force stationed for the defence of the city of combined assistance of Robespierre's enemies, New York. In 1817 he was elected to conhe denounced him in a virulent speech on the gress from Dutchess co., and was a prominent 9th Thermidor, and by unfaltering energy suc- debater and actor in the stormy scenes which ceeded in procuring from the convention an preceded the passage of the Missouri comproorder of arrest against the dictator, and then mise bill, advocating the restriction of slavery bringing him to the scaffold. This triumph in the region west of the Mississippi. He demade him the leader of the Thermidorians; clined a reëlection. In 1821 he was an active through his influence Fouquier-Tinville, Car- member of the state constitutional convention, rier, and Lebon were doomed to condign pun- in 1824 was a member of the legislature, in ishment; and through his energy the revolu- 1825 was elected lieutenant-governor, and in tionary attempt of the 1st Prairial was baffled. 1846 was a member of the state constitutional As commissary of the convention near the convention. From 1833 till his death, with army of the west in 1795, he ordered all the the exception of two years, Mr. Tallmadge was royalist prisoners made by Hoche on the Qui- president of the American institute. In 1835 beron peninsula to be shot. On the 13th Ven- he visited Europe. He introduced American démiaire he was among the unterrified defen- cotton machinery into Russia, and collected ders of the convention against the rebellious there and elsewhere maps and specimens of sections of Paris. After the establishment of natural products for the institute. He was one the directorial government he was a member of the founders of the university of the city of of the council of 500, and shared in the repub- New York, and received from it the honorary lican coup d'état of the 18th Fructidor. In degree of LL.D. in 1841. 1798 he sailed with Bonaparte for Egypt, as TALLOW, the fat of quadrupeds, separated one of the committee of scientific men, and from the fibrous matters by melting it down, a held there a high administrative office. While process called rendering or trying out. It conreturning to France he was taken prisoner by sists of a little more than f stearine, and is the English, and welcomed to London by the largely employed in the manufacture of canwhig party. When he finally reëntered France, dles and soap, the dressing of leather, &c. It his fortune changed. Bonaparte treated him is obtained of various degrees of purity accordcoldly and declined granting him any office; ing to the care with which it is prepared.

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When pure it is white and tasteless and has a ment of his style of acting. He listened willpeculiar odor. It is an important article of ingly to critical observations, and sought the commerce, the largest supplies being furnish- society of such learned men and artists as ed by Russia, amounting to an average of could give him thorough instruction. Among about 136,160,000 lbs. annually, at the value. those whom he saw intimately during the revoof about $15,500,000. It is brought to St. lution were Louis David, the painter, and BoPetersburg from the interior, much of the best naparte, then a young and poor officer, who coming from Siberia. The cattle that furnish more than once borrowed a few louis from it are there fed the greater part of the year on the more prosperous comedian. Bonaparte dry fodder, and this is said to be the cause of never forgot his kindness, and when in power the superior hardness of the Russian tallow. treated him always with special favor. Beside The largest portion of the exports are to Eng- the parts he performed in Lafosse's Manlius, land; the rest to Prussia, France, the Hanse Racine's Iphigénie and Britannicus, and Voltowns, Turkey, &c. The computed value of taire's (Edipe, which he successively brought the importations of tallow into England in 1858 as near as possible to perfection, he won great was £3,042,381, of which £2,460,275 was of applause in Chénier's Henri VIII., and abovə Russian tallow, and £115,710 of Australian mut- all in Ducis' Hamlet, Othello, and Abufar; and ton tallow. In 1860 they amounted to £4,014,- under the empire he was frequently called to 280. The import from the United States into appear before the numerous emperors, kings, Great Britain in 1860 was 8,748,961 lbs., valued and princes whom Napoleon brought together. at $901,371. The total export from the United During the restoration, his known partiality States during the same year was 15,269,535 for liberal opinions and the fallen government lbs., value $1,598,176.-A vegetable tallow is enhanced his popularity among the younger obtained on boiling the berries and other fruits class of the nation, and some of his performof various plants. (See Tallow Tree.) ances were political manifestations in disguise;

TALLOW TREE (Stillingia sebifera, Linn.), such was especially his appearance in Jouy's a Chinese tree belonging to the family of the Sylla, in which his striking resemblance to euphorbiace, from 20 to 40 feet high. It has Napoleon made an unheard of sensation. Since very smooth branches, and long-petioled, rhom- 1796 he had devoted his undivided attention to boidal, acuminate entire leaves, of about equal tragedy; but in 1823 he appeared as Damville length and breadth (from 2 to 4 inches), and in Casimir Delavigne's comedy L'école des vieil. conspicuously pointed. The sterile flowers are lards, in which he proved a worthy associate small and numerous; the fruit is attached to a of Mlle. Mars. His last and perhaps most perstalk, and is about } of an inch in diameter. It fect tragic creation was the part of Charles is cultivated in Great Britain and America in VI. in Delaville's tragedy of that name; here hothouses. The fatty matter is obtained from the it was that he evinced all his powers, and seed vessels and seeds, which are bruised and above all that dignity of manner and elocuboiled in water, when the particles of fat rise tion which was so true to nature, and conseto the surface. When cold it is of about the con- quently so impressive. In 1855 a statue by sistence of tallow, and beautifully white. The David d'Angers, representing Talma in his Chinese use it for candles, combining with it great part of Sylla, was placed in the Tuileries either wax or the wax-like product of the garden. The great actor left a very interestligustrum lucidum, in order to give it greater ing pamphlet entitled Réflexions sur Lekain hardness. It burns freely, and gives a clear et sur l'art théatral (8vo., 1825; reprinted in light. It is also used for medicinal purposes. 1856). His biography has been written by

TALMA, François JOSEPH, a French tragic Moreau, Mémoires historiques et littéraires sur actor, born in Paris, Jan. 15, 1763, died there, Talma (8vo., Paris, 3d ed., 1827). Oct. 19, 1826. The son of a dentist who re- TALMUD' (late Heb., study), the collective moved to London, he passed his childhood name of the Mishna and Gemara, containing there, and returned when 9 years old to the oral law and other traditions of the Jews. France, where he completed his collegiate edu- (See Misun and HEBREWS, vol, ix. p. 41.) In cation. He early evinced a taste for the stage, a limited sense the term is used of the Gemara and after pursuing his father's profession for alone. There are two Gemaras (or Talmuds), 18 months he took lessons from Molé, Dugazon, the Palestinian (Yerushalmi, of Jerusalem) and and Fleury. In 1787 he appeared at the théâtre the Babylonian (Babli). The former contains Français in the subordinate part of Séïde in comments on 39, and the latter on 36 treatises Voltaire's Mahomet, making a deep impression, of the Mishna. The Babylonian, which is of and two years later became a partner in the later date, is the principal authority. The association of comedians who were attached to chief commentator is Rabbi Solomon ben Isaac, that theatre. He at once attempted to substi- known under the abbreviation Rashi. The best tuto contemporary historical dresses for the fan- compendium of Talmudical decisions is the cy costumes then worn, and finally accomplish- Mishneh torah of Maimonides. The editions of ed a complete reform. His first original crea- the Talmud, mostly in 12 folio volumes, includtion was the principal part in Joseph Chénier's ing the most important commentaries and notes, Charles IX.; and while his success steadily in- are very numerous. One of the fullest is now creased, he assiduously studied the improve- (1862) in course of publication in Warsaw.

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TAMA, an E. co. of Iowa, intersected by the TAMARISK, the name of delicate and beauIowa river; area, 720 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, tiful shrubs and herbs with polypetalous flow6,285. The surface is undulating and the soil ers, many-leaved calyx, hypogynous petals, dishighly fertile and well timbered. There are a tinct-styles, and consolidated fruit. They are number of rich valleys along the streams. The grouped under a distinct order of tamarisciner productions in 1859 were 28,937 bushels of by Desvaux, other eminent botanists not enwheat, 256,697 of Indian corn, 10,412 of oats, tirely agreeing in respect to their alliance with 110,472 lbs. of butter, and 11,205 gallons of other families. The species mostly cultivated sorghum molasses. There is good water power in gardens is the French tamarisk (tamarix for manufacturing purposes, though it is not Gallica), a native of Spain, France, and Italy. much used yet. It is intersected by the pro- It is a highly elegant shrub, 12 to 15 feet high, posed route of the Chicago, Iowa, and Nebras- with deciduous, very narrow, and fine scaly ka railroad. Capital, Toledo.

leaves of a light green; flowers small, pale red, TAMAQUA, a town of Schuylkill co., Penn., growing in spikes near the extremities of the on the Little Schuylkill river, 16 m. E. N. E. branches, and so numerous as to give the from Pottsville, and 73 m. N. E. from Harris- appearance of panicles. When in full blossom, burg; pop. in 1861, 4,919. It is situated in scarcely any other shrub can be compared with a rich coal and iron region, and has 3 founde- it in beauty, uniting lightness and grace with ries and machine shops, 6 collieries, gas and wa- elegance. Even the bark and twigs are conter works, a bank, a newspaper, and 9 churches, spicuous for their pleasant purple or red color. viz. : 2 Methodist, and 1 each Congregational, The German tamarisk (T. Germanica) grows Episcopal, Evangelical, German Reformed, Lu- only about 8 feet high; its branches are more theran, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic. The upright, very brittle, and odorous, its bark Cattawissa and the Little Schuylkill railroads smooth and yellowish; but the spikes of flowpass through the town.

ers and the small foliage render it equally deTAMARIND TREE (tamarindus, from the sirable. Both are readily propagated from Arabic tamarhendi, Indian date), a tropical cuttings, and grow best in a light, rich soil. exogen of the natural order leguminosa, having All the tamarisks are exclusively confined to pale green pinnate leaves, the flowers with 3 the northern hemisphere of the old world, exyellow petals streaked with red, which are al- tending as far as the Cape Verd islands. They ternate with the 3 upper lobes of a calyx hav- were early introduced into gardens in Britain, ing 5 divisions, the middle petal cucullate and though preferring in their native habits the the lateral ones ovate, the stamens 9 or 10, of sea shore or the banks of rivers and torrents. which 2 or 3, larger than the rest, are united Their bark is astringent, and abundance of sulat the base and bear anthers, the remainder phate of soda has been noticed in its ashes. being sterile; the fruit a hard-shelled pod (le- Manna is produced by an aphis or coccus which gume) supported on a footstalk, 1-celled, com- feeds upon a species growing in the East. Salt pressed, containing 3 to 6 seeds, which are is secreted from several, and in medicine and of a somewhat square form and lie within an the art of dyeing the galls found on particular acid pulp. The oriental tamarind (T. Indica, species are valuable. Linn.) is a handsome tree with wide-spreading TAMAULIPAS (formerly New Santander), branches, its wood hard, heavy, and firm, and an E. state of Mexico, bounded N. by the state useful as timber. Its fruit pods are large, and of Coahuila and Texas, E. by the gulf of Mex6 times longer than broad; the acid pulp which ico, S. by Vera Cruz, and W. by San Luis Pothey contain is dried in the sun and consumed tosi and New Leon; area, 29,314 sq. m.; pop. at home, or salted or dried in copper ovens for 147,133. The chief towns are Victoria, the exportation. In Africa, Arabia, and India this capital, and Tampico. The coast is low and pulp is invaluable to travellers, both as a cool- sandy, and several lagoons extend along the ing food and in the preparation of a refreshing shore, the largest being Lake del Madre, which drink. Even the hard seeds, after parting with is upward of 100 m. long, and in some places their astringent skins, are boiled or dried, and 20 m. wide. The Rio Grande del Norte forms eaten in times of scarcity, in flavor resembling the northern boundary line, and the other the field bean. The western tamarind (T. occi- streams of greatest importance are the Ferdentalis, Linn.) is found wild in the West Indies nando or Tigre, Borbon, Santander, and Tamand South America, and is to be distinguished pico; the mouths of all are so much encumby its pods, which are not more than 3 times bered with bars that they are almost useless for longer than they are broad. It is also a large navigation. In the northern part of the state tree with spreading branches, pale green foli- the flat country extends inland for some disage, and yellow-petalled and purple-stamened tance from the shore, and the surface then rises flowers. A rude sort of preserve is made of into elevated plains; but in the south it is diits fruit

, by removing the shells and packing versified by numerous mountains and fine valthe pulp in layers with sugar between, or by leys. During the hot season the climate on the pouring boiling sirup over them, which pene- coast is unhealthy, but in the elevated parts of trates to the bottom.-The value of tamarinds the interior it is temperate and agreeable. A in medicinal uses is well known, their proper- great deal of the soil is fertile, and large numties being nutritive, refrigerant, and laxative. bers of cattle and sheep are reared.


TAMBOURINE, an instrument of the drum TANAGER, a name given to the tanagrine, species, consisting of a wooden or metal hoop, a very large division of the finch family, pecuover which parchment is distended, and which liar to America, and almost entirely confined to is hung with a sort of bells. It is held in the southern portion of the continent, the lateither hand and beaten with the knuckles of ter containing nearly 200 of the more than 220 the other. Certain peculiar effects of sound species described by Sclater. The bill has the are produced by rubbing the parchment brisk- upper mandible notched, and is usually triangu. ly with the thumb. The tambourine one lar at the base and arched; the toes are armed of the most ancient instruments known, and, with strong claws, and the hind toe is long and from the graceful use which can be made of it strong. They are small and brilliant birds, the in the various movements of the body, has al- prevailing colors being orange, scarlet, and ways been a favorite with dancers.

black; many have a pleasing song, and a few TAMBOV, a central government of Euro- are remarkable for their musical powers; their pean Russia, bounded by Vladimir, Nijni Nov- flight is rapid, movements active, and habits gorod, Penza, Saratov, Voronej, Orel, Toola, arboreal ; most unite in flocks, often in the and Riazan; area, 25,542 sq. m; pop. in 1856, neighborhood of human habitations, but a few 1,808,172. The surface is generally level, are solitary; the food consists of insects, fruits, broken in places by low hills, and in the S. it and seeds. Of the 20 genera, only a few of the bears a strong resemblance to a steppe, being common ones can be bere noticed. - In the gealmost devoid of trees. It is drained by the nus pyranga (Vieill.) the wings are long and navigable rivers Moksha and Vorona, tribi- pointed, the 2d quill nearly as long as the 3d, taries of the Oka and Don. The soil of the which is longest; tail moderate and nearly N. part consists principally of a light sand, and even. One of the most richly colored of North the surface is covered by extensive forests and American birds is the scarlet tanager (P. runumerous marshes. Woollen and linen cloth bra, Vieill.), about 77 inches long and 114 in and iron are manufactured.—Tambov, the capi- alar extent; the male in the breeding season is tal, is situated on the left bank of the Tzna at of a general bright carmine color, with the its junction with the Studenetz, 263 m. S. E. wings and notched tail velvety black; the fefrom Moscow; pop. about 20,000. It is a very male is dull yellowish green, which is also the ancient place, and is surrounded by a rampart. color of the young and the other sex in autumn

TAMBURINI, Antonio, an Italian singer, and winter. It enters the United States from born in Faenza, in the Papal States, March 28, Mexico early in April, arriving in New Jersey 1800. After several years' practice in the thea- about the middle of May; it goes as far north tre and churches of his native city, he made his inland as Lake Huron, and has been found public début at Bologna in 1818, and soon rose breeding in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; into great celebrity in Italy, in the chief cities it is very sensitive to cold; its migrations are of which he repeatedly performed. In 1832 he performed at night;- its notes are lively, but first appeared in London and Paris, and thence- not musical according to Wilson, resembling forth until his retirement in 1854 was one of the syllables "chip, churr." The change from the annual attractions at those cities during the the winter to the sum er plumage takes place musical season. He was, with Grisi, Rubini, very rapidly; it is a shy and unsociable bird, and Lablache, one of the original performers in preferring the deep recesses of forests, and Bellini's Puritani, and for several seasons con- rarely approaching human habitations in crowdtinued to form one of that most remarkable ed villages; the food consists of fruits and inquartet of singers. His voice, a baritone of sects, especially wasps and bees. As in the great power and sweetness, was shown to the sub-family generally, the nest is thin and best effect in the operas of Rossini, Bellini, and coarsely made; the eggs are 3 to 5, dull green. Donizetti, and he was also an excellent actor ish blue with brown and purple specks, and both in serious and buffo opera. His finest are } by of an inch in size. This species is parts were Figaro and Don Giovanni.

found in the eastern states as far as Missouri. TAMERLANE. See TIMOUP.

The Mississippi tanager or summer red bird TAMPICO, or Santa Ana de TAMAULIPAS, (P. æstira, Vieill.) is 77 inches long and 11 in a town of Mexico, in the state of Tamaulipas, alar extent; the color is light red, brightest on situated on the river Panuco, 5 m. from the the head, the back dusky, and the quills and gulf of Mexico, and 215 m. N. N. W. from Vera shafts of tail feathers brown; bill light horn Oruz; pop. about 7,000. It is tolerably well color, and the gape, as in others of the genus, built, and contains 2 churches, a custom house, well

provided with bristles bending downward; 2 hospitals, a prison, and some monuments. the females olive above and reddish yellow beThe harbor is not very safe.

low, as are the young males; the color is lighter TAN, the ground bark of trees used in tan- and more rosy than in the scarlet tanager, and ning leather. (See LEATHER, and Tannio ACID.) the bill is much larger. It is found in the S. When tan has been exhausted of its tanning Atlantic and gulf states and Guatemala, so property, it is still useful as a material for hot- sensitive to cold that it rarely goes further beds, supplying long continued and uniform north than Massachusetts, and is not seen in heat as it undergoes fermentation. It is much the southern states after the middle of Septemused by gardeners for this purpose.

ber; it is of solitary habits, preferring growths

of stunted hickories and oaks. The song is blue; forehead and under bill and upper back like the syllables “chicky, chucky, chuck," and black; scarlet collar, widest on sides of neck; is chiefly at night; the food consists of insects, rest of plumage parrot green; it is about 4 especially large beetles, taken on the wing; thé inches long. nest is rudely made and insecurely fastened to TANAIS. See Don. its supporting branch; the eggs are 4 or 5, light TANCRED, one of the heroes of the first blue, and are incubated for 12 days by both crusade, born in 1078, died in Antioch in 1112. seses. The Louisiana tanager (P. Ludoviciana, He was a son of the marquis Odo or OttoboBonap.) is about the same size as the last ; the nus and of Emma, a daughter of Tancred de male is yellow, and the middle of the back, Hauteville, and sister of the celebrated Robert wings, and tail black; head and neck tinged Guiscard, duke of Apulia. He took the cross with red; 2 bands of yellowish across the under his cousin Bohemond, son of Robert wings, and tertials edged with whitish ; female Guiscard, made over his heritage to his youngolive green above, yellowish below, with dark er brother, and embarked in 1096 from Taranbrown wings and tail. It is found from Kan- to. In the plains of Chalcedon his troops sas to the Pacific and south to Mexico; it has joined those of Godfrey of Bouillon, and with & pleasing, warble.-In the genus tanagra that leader he soon formed an acquaintance (Linn.) the bill is short, elevated at base, rather and an intimate friendship. At the siege of triangular; the wings moderate, with the 3d Nice in 1097 he distinguished himself by his and 4th quills longest. There are many species, daring, at the battle of Dorylæum saved the all South American, living in troops, and often army of the cross from total destruction, and committing serious depredations in orchards after the taking of Nice led the advanced guard and gardens by destroying buds and fruits; the of the crusading host through the unknown nest is carelessly made. The bishop tanager and desert countries of Asia Minor. He took (T. episcopus, Linn.) is purplish violet, with the possession of Tarsus and Menistra, to both of small wing coverts bluish white, the middle which Baldwin laid claim, giving rise to a bitshaded with violet, the larger ashy, and the ter quarrel; but they were not long afterward wings and tail blackish bordered with blue.- reconciled. He achieved great distinction duIn the genus ramphopis (Vieill.) the lower man- ring the long siege of Antioch; and at the dible is dilated at the base, with a horny cov- storming of Jerusalem he was with his men ering produced beyond the upper. The Bra- the first to mount the walls. In the horrible zilian tanager (R. Brasilia, Vieill.) is a very scenes of carnage and rapine which followed, beautiful bird, of a deep scarlet or carmine he alone of the Christian knights manifested color, with brown wings and tail; bill brown- any sentiments of compassion, and at the risk ish, except the base of the lower mandible, of his own life he saved the lives of thousands which is white.-In the genus euphonia (Desm.) of the captured. When the sultan of Egypt the bill is short, broad, depressed at base, arched marched toward Jerusalem, Tancred defeated and keeled; wings moderate, the 1st and 2d his advanced guard, and he shared in the subsequills longest; tail short and even. They live quent victory at Ascalon, Aug. 12, 1099. He in small troops on the top of forest trees in afterward took Tiberias on the sea of Gennetropical America, principally near rivers; they sareth and beleaguered Jaffa, and was made are very active and restless; there are about prince of Tiberias or Galilee. Bohemond, now 30 species, the prevailing colors of which are prince of Antioch, being taken prisoner by the black, blue, and yellowish. The organist tanager Saracens, Tancred marched to his relief, and (E. musica, Desm.) is about 4 inches long, the administered bis government during his detenmale beautifully varied with black and orange; tion; and when the former after his release it is found in the West Indies, and is remark- went to Europe to arm the West against the able for the sweetness and great compass of its Byzantine empire, he left the defence of Anvoice; it is very shy and difficult to obtain. tioch to Tancred. During his absence his prinThe blue-headed tanager (E. elegantissima, cipality was attacked on all sides, but was heGray) is 45 inches long; the sides of head and roically defended by his kinsman, who reduced neck, chin, throat, and upper parts generally, Artesia, besieged Tripoli in 1109, and subseare steel bluish black; top of head and semi- quently withstood in Antioch a severe siege collar behind opaque blue; beneath yellowish from the Saracens. Long and anxiously he brown tinged with chestnut; forehead dark awaited the arrival of Bohemond, but that chestnut, margined behind with blue. It is prince died at Salerno, and the vast host he found from northern Mexico to Guatemala, and had collected was scattered. Tancred now reprobably in California.- In the genus calliste sumed the offensive, defeated the Saracens, and (Boie) the bill is short and slender; wings forced the sultan to recross the Euphrates. lengthened, 2d and 3d quills longest; tail short This was his last work. His exploits have and nearly even. There are more than 30 spe- been celebrated, partly in prose, partly in cies in the warm and damp forests of South verse, by Raoul de Caen, in Les gestes de TanAmerica; they are generally seen on the tops crède ; but to the “Jerusalem Delivered" of of palm and other high trees, and are almost Tasso is due the romantic interest which now all richly colored. The blue-throated tanager belongs to his name. His love for Clorinda, de(C. festita, Boie) has the throat and crown scribed in that epic, is an invention of the poet.

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