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by a body of exiles from Sparta in 708 B. O.; febrile condition called tarantism, which was but of its early history little is known, though supposed to be curable only by dancing to liveit seems to have become important in con- ly music until the person fell exhausted; the sequence of the fertility of the surrounding extraordinary accounts of travellers in relation country and the security of the harbor, which to the bite of this spider are mere fables, though was then the best on the coast. It subse- in patients thus bitten it is well to combat the quently became a large and powerful city, terrors of the imagination by the musical remeand had 14 other towns subject to it. It dy which the popular belief regards as effectual. carried on long contests with the neighboring -The L. Carolinensis (Bosc) is called tarannative tribes, the Messapians and Peucetians; tula in the southern states; it attains a length and in 473 B. O. its army suffered a disastrous of 2 inches, with an extent of legs of 4; it is defeat from the former, in which so many of mouse-colored above, with white sides and its nobles were killed that its government, pre- whitish dots and lines on the abdomen; below viously an aristocracy, was thereafter demo- blackish ; legs whitish tipped with black. It cratic. It afterward became predominant in makes deep excavations in the ground, which the league of the Greek cities of Italy against it lines with silk; the females carry their young Dionysius of Syracuse and the Lucanians. on the back, giving them a hideous appearance, During the Samnite wars it came into collision as if covered with warts; the young run off in with Rome, which declared war against it in all directions if the mother be disturbed. Its 281. The Tarentines, as they had frequently poison is active, and might cause troublesome done in former wars, looked to Greece for aid, symptoms in man if the fangs could be opened and called in Pyrrhus, king of Epirus (see at an angle proper to pierce his skin. PYRRHCS), after whose defeat and withdrawal TARASCON, a town of France, department from Italy assistance was sought from Carthage of Bouches-du-Rhône, situated on the left bank by one party, while another favored submis- of the Rhône, 10 m. N. from Arles, and 50 m. sion to Rome. The latter prevailed, and the N.N. W. from Marseilles; pop. in 1856, 19,092. city surrendered to the consul Papirius in 272, It is connected with Beaucaire, on the opposite while a Carthaginian fleet was approaching to side of the river, by two bridges, one of which its relief, and thereafter continued subject to is one of the finest suspension bridges in France. Rome. During the second Punic war the citi- Among the public buildings is an old castle of zens betrayed it into the hands of Hannibal, the counts of Provence, on a rock overhanging who held it for more than two years, with the the river, which commands the town, built in exception of the citadel, the Roman garrison the 15th century, and now used as a prison. of which he was unable to subdue. In 209 The church of St. Martha is a fine Gothic ediFabius Maximus retook the city and gave it up fice commenced in the 15th century, with a to plunder, after putting the Carthaginian gar- richly sculptured entrance and a crypt which rison to the sword. It continued to be the chief contains several remarkable tombs and a martown of S. Italy, though greatly decayed, under ble statue of St. Martha, who is supposed to the empire, and during the middle ages shared have introduced Christianity in the neighborthe fate of the other cities of Magna Græcia. hood. Silk, woollen, and cotton goods are The present town occupies only the site of the manufactured. The railroad between Avignon ancient citadel, which was originally a prom- and Marseilles passes through the town, and ontory, but was made an island by Ferdinand there is a branch from Tarascon to Nimes. I. of Naples, by cutting through the low isth- TARDIGRADES. See SLOTI. mus to strengthen its defences.

TARE (vicia satira, Linn.), one of the legumiTARANTO, DUKE OF. See MACDONALD. nosc, and when used as a green crop of great

TARANTULA, or TARENTULA, a terrestrial agricultural importance in certain districts of hunting or wolf spider of S. Europe, belonging Europe. Its root is annual, its stem climbing, to the genus lycosa, the L. tarentúla (Latr.). about 3 feet high ; the leaflets of its pinnate It is the largest of European spiders, measuring leaves are oblong, and terminate abruptly in a 11 to 2 inches in the length of the body; the small point; stipules small and toothed ; flowcolor is ashy brown above, marked with gray ers usually in pairs, sessile, red or purplish; on the thorax, and with triangular spots and pods more or less downy. There are several curved streaks of black bordered with white varieties, but the best are known as the winter on the abdomen; below saffron-colored, with tare, standing the severest weather unharmed, a transverse black band. It received its popu- and the summer tare, which being tenderer lar name from being common in the vicinity must be sown in spring. The tare requires a of Taranto in S. Italy; it makes no web, wan- clean rich soil, but will grow well in clayey dering for prey, which it runs down with great land. It does not seem suited to the climate swiftness, and hiding in holes in the ground of the United States, though occurring occaand crevices lined with its silk; there is one sionally by the roadside as an adventitious spiracle on each side, one pulmonary sac, and weed. The seeds are found to be nutritive, and 8 eyes; it is very active and fierce, and the fe- can be used much in the same way as peas. males defend their eggs and young with self- There are several other species of tare or vetch sacrificing bravery. Its bite was once consid- found in the United States, having ornamental ered highly poisonous, producing the nervous blue or purplish flowers. (See LENTIL.)

VOL. XV.-19

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TARE AND TRET, allowances made by the most efficient corps the British had in the South seller of package goods which are sold by weight during the war, and Tarleton, by his activity, to the buyer, for the real or supposed weight his daring, and the celerity of his movements, of boxes, casks, bags, &c., and for the dust or contributed much to the success of the British refuse inatter contained in some classes of goods. arms in that quarter. His reputation was Tare is distinguished as real tare, or the exact much stained by the massacre of Col. Buford's weight of the box, cask, &c.; customary tare, regiment, stationed on the Waxhaw creek, on or a fixed allowance for this weight, sometimes May 29, 1780, and “Tarleton's quarter” beregulated by ordinance and sometimes by cus- came proverbial as a synonyme for cruelty. In tom; and average tare, which is deduced from the following year, at the head of 1,100 men, weighing a few packages, and taking their av- he attacked an inferior American force near erage as the allowance for the whole. In the Cowpens under Gen. Morgan, and was goods which can be unpacked without injury, badly defeated. (See CowPENS.) He was with the practice is to allow the real tare. The al- Cornwallis during the rest of the war, and was lowance of tret is a fixed one, being 4 lbs. for present at the surrender of Yorktown. After every 104 lbs. in goods which are liable to loss his return to England he was promoted to the from dust, refuse, &c.

rank of colonel, and was so popular that in TARENTUM. See TARANTO.

1790 he was sent to parliament free of expense TARGUMS (Chal. targem, to explain), the from his native town, which he represented in designation of the various Chaldee versions or 3 subsequent parliaments. In the house of paraphrases of Hebrew scriptoral books, gen. commons he voted generally with the opposierally included in the larger rabbinical, as well tion, supported liberal measures, and advocated as in polyglot editions of the Bible. The prin- the putting the officers of the navy on an equal cipal Targum is that generally, though accord- footing with those of the army. In 1798 he ing to most recent critics erroneously, attrib- married a natural daughter of the duke of Anuted to Onkelos. (See OMALDEE LANGUAGE.) caster, and in 1817 received the commission of

TARIFA, a town of Spain, province of An- a major-general, though he never reëntered dalusia, situated in the narrowest part of the into active service. He was created a barostrait of Gibraltar, on the southernmost point net, Nov. 6, 1818, and was also made a K.O.B. of the kingdom, in lat. 36° 3' N., long. 5° 35' He published a "History of the Campaigns of W., 52 m. N. W. from Cadiz, and 25 m. S. E. 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of from Cape Trafalgar; pop. about 12,000. It North America" (4to., London, 1787). is fortified, but the walls and towers are old, TARN, a 8. department of France, in the and the chief defence of the place consists of a old province of Languedoc, bounded N. and fortress upon a rocky island close to the shore. N. E. by Aveyron, S. E. by Hérault, S. by A Moorish castle stands within the walls, and Aude, S. W. by Haute-Garonne, and N. W. by is now used as a prison. There are a few man- Tarn-et-Garonne; area, 2,185 sq. m.; pop. in ufactures.—Tarifa was named in honor of Tarif 1862, 353,633. The S. E. part is mountainous, ibn Malik, a Berber chief who first landed here and the rest of the department is traversed from Africa to reconnoitre the country; and by hills, between which there are several plains it afterward became a frontier town of great of considerable extent. The principal river is importance. Here during the Moorish domi- the Tarn, a tributary of the Garonne, which nation all vessels passing through the straits receives the Aveyron, Tescou, and Agout; & were stopped and compelled to pay duties at little way above Alby, the capital, there is a fixed rates; whence the word tariff in Eng- series of falls called Saut-du-Tarn. Coal, iron, Tish and other languages. In 1292 Sancho el lead, copper, gypsum, and porcelain and potBravo captured it, and Alonso Perez de Guz- ters' clay are found. The vine is carefully culman held it against the Moors in 1294. In tivated, but the wines produced are of inferior 1340 the Moors besieged it again, but were quality. Woollen, cotton, and silk goods, and defeated by the kings of Castile and Portugal, iron are manufactured. Capital, Albi. and forced to retire. In 1811 it was garrisoned TARN-ET-GARONNE, a S. department of by 1,200 British troops and 600 Spaniards, and France, in the old province of Guienne, boundin December was besieged by 10,000 French ed N. by Lot, E. and S. E. by Aveyron and troops, who were finally forced to retire with Tarn, s. by Hante-Garonne, and S. W. and W. heavy loss after breaching the wall. The by Gers and Lot-et-Garonne; area, 1,405 sq. French captured the place in 1823 after a tri- m.; pop. in 1862, 232,551. The whole departfling resistance.

ment belongs to the basin of the Garonne, and TARLETON, BANNASTRE, an officer of the the surface generally flat, having a gradual English army during the American revolution, slope to the W. The Garonne, Tarn, and Aveyborn in Liverpool, Aug. 21, 1754, died in Jan. ron are all navigable in this department. Iron, 1833. He began the study of the law, but on coal, and marble are found. A large proporthe breaking out of the war in America entered tion of the soil is remarkably fertile. About the army, came to this country with Corn- j's of the department is occupied by vineyards, wallis with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and and about an equal extent by forests. Great received permission to raise a body of troops attention is paid to the breeding of mules for called the British legion. This was one of the the Spanish market. Woollen, linen, and silk goods, cutlery, iron, and beet root sugar are contrived by the sons of Ancus Marcius, who manufactured. The department is intersected were fearful lest he should secure the succesby many roads, and the railway between Bor- sion to his son-in-law Servius Tullius. II. Ludeaux and Cette passes through the capital, cius TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS (THE Proud), the Montauban.

7th and last king of Rome, son of the preTARNOW, Fanny, a German authoress, ceding, died in 495 B. C. In 534 he formed born in Güstrow, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Dec. a conspiracy, murdered Servius Tullius, and 17, 1783. In early life she was a governess in usurped the throne without any of the forms & noble family at Rügen, and after residing of election or the confirmation of the senate. successively in Mecklenburg, St. Petersburg, He immediately abolished all the privileges and Dresden, established herself in 1828 in that had been conferred upon the plebeians Weissenfels near Merseburg, Prussian Saxony, by Servius, decreed the death of the senators which has since been her home. Her first work, who had supported them, took the whole ada romance entitled Natalie, appeared in 1804, ministration of justice into his own hands, and and since that time she has been an industrious put to death or exiled all persons who were writer of imaginative literature. A selection obnoxious to him, whether plebeians or pafrom her works was published in 1830 in 15 tricians. The vacant places in the senate were vols., followed in 1840–'42 by 4 vols. of her not filled up, and that body was seldom concollected tales. An anonymous romance en- sulted. But though a tyrant, he raised Rome titled “Two Years in St. Petersburg(1833), to great power. Under him the Latin league and containing an account of the condition of was joined by the Hernicians and by two Russia during the latter part of the reign of Volscian towns, and Rome became the head Alexander I., is attributed to her.

of the confederacy. With the spoils from the TARPEIA, a Roman maiden, the daughter wealthy city of Suessa Pometia he began the of Spurius Tarpeius, who was governor of the erection of the capitol. He subdued Gabii, citadel on the Capitoline hill when the Sabines a Latin city which refused to enter into the invested Rome. Tarpeia saw and admired the league, and in 510 besieged Ardea. While bracelets of the Sabines, and offered to betray Tarquinius Collatinus was with the army bethe citadel to them for “what they wore on fore this city, his cousin Sextus Tarquinius, the their left arms. She opened the gate at night, king's son, went to his house at Collatia, and and as they passed in they threw upon her there violated his wife Lucretia. Lucretia sent their shields, which were worn on the left arm, to the camp at Ardea and summoned thence and crushed'her. She was buried on that part her father and her husband. With them came of the hill thence called the Tarpeian rock. Lucius Brutus. To these 3 she told what had

TARQUIN. I. Lucius TARQUINIUS Priscus happened, enjoined them to avenge her, and (THE ELDER), 5th king of Rome, assassinated in stabbed herself with a dagger. Brutus led the 578 B.O. According to the common story, he way into the market place, whither the corpse was the son of a Corinthian, and was born in was carried, summoned the people, and related Etruria, whence, instigated by his ambitious the occurrence. So great was the hatred alwife Tanaquil, be removed to Rome; but it ready entertained of the Tarquins and the inis now believed that he belonged to a Latin dignation now excited, that a decree was immefamily. He acquired the confidence of King diately passed by which the king was deposed, Ancus Marcius, became guardian to his chil- and his family banished from the city. Tarquin dren, and upon the king's death seized or was hastened to Rome, but found the gates closed elected to the vacant throne, 616 B.O. He de- against him. Brutus repaired to Ardea, where stroyed the wealthy Sabine town of Apiolæ, he was received with joy, and the army reand subdued the Latin towns of Cameria, Orus- nounced its allegiance to the tyrant. The detumerium, Medullia, Ameriola, Ficulea, Corni- posed king took refuge at Tarquinii, and thence culum, and Nomentum. His greatest exploit sent ambassadors to Rome to demand his priwas the defeat of the Sabines, who advanced vate property. While in Rome these ambassato the gates of Rome, but were driven back dors conspired with some young nobles for the and at length completely overthrown upon the restoration of Tarquin, but were discovered, Anio. Some authors state also that the united and with their confederates—among them two 12 cities of Etruria were overcome by Tarquin sons of Brutus-were executed, and the private and compelled to submit to his authority. In property of the king was given up to plunder. the intervals of war he built the vast sewers Tarquin now formed an alliance with the Etruswhich drained the lower part of the city, and can cities of Tarquinii and Veii, and endeavored are still perfect; laid out the Circus Maximus, to recover the throne by force, but was defeatand instituted the great or Roman games; as

ed near the forest of Arsia. He next obtained signed the rows of shops in the forum to pri- the assistance of Lars Porsena of Clusium, who Fate citizens; and began to surround the city marched against Rome with a great army. (See with a stone wall, which was finished by his Porsena.) Finally the whole Latin confedersuccessor. Under Tarquin 100 new members acy espoused the cause of Tarquin against Rome, (the patres minorum gentium) were added to and the contest was decided by the Roman victhe senate, and the number of the vestal vir- tory in the battle of Lake Regillus, fought 498 gins was increased from 4 to 6. His death was B.O. Tarquin retired to Cumæ, and there died.

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TARRAGONA, a province of Spain, in Cata- merce, and probably in ship building; the lonia, bounded N. by the provinces of Lerida ships of Tarshish and their precious freights and Barcelona, E. by the Mediterranean, S. by are often mentioned (Isa. ii. 16; xxiii. 1-14; Castellon, and W. by Teruel; area, 1,866 sq. lx. 9; lxvi. 19, &c.); it derived its name appam.; pop. in 1857, 320,593. A great deal of rently from Tarshish, the grandson of Japheth, the surface is mountainous, the province being who, it is supposed, settled some of the Grecian traversed from N. to S. by the Prades range, isles or coasts, and it is several times spoken of which has numerous offsets that extend to the as an island or seacoast (Gen. X. 4,5; lx. 9; coast. The only river of importance is the lxvi. 19); it had large traffic with Tyre and Ebro. There are mines of lead, copper, silver, Sidon, especially in gold and silver, tin, iron, and manganese. The valleys are generally very and lead (1 Kings x. 22; Jer. x. 9; Ezek. xxvii. fertile, and the hills are covered with forests of 12); it is usually represented as W. of Palespine, cork, and oak. Silk, woollen, and cotton tine and of Tyre, and its ships are spoken of as goods, &c., are extensively manufactured.- broken by an E. wind (Ps. xlviii. 7). Yet we Tarragona (anc. Tarraco), the capital, is situ- are told distinctly in 2 Chron. ix. 21, that “Solated on the left bank of the Francoli, on the omon's ships went to Tarshish with the sershore of the Mediterranean, 273 m. E. N. E. vants of Hiram; every 3 years once came the

3 from Madrid; pop. 13,014. It consists of two ships of Tarshish, bringing gold and silver, parts, the high and the low, and is strongly ivory, and apes, and peacocks;" and that Jefortified. There are in Tarragona remains of hoshaphat joined with Ahaziah in building ships an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and other works at Ezion-geber, a place on the Elanitic gulf of constructed by the Romans. The town is sup- the Red sea, to go to Tarshish (2 Chron. xx. 36), posed to have been originally settled by the Phæ- while the corresponding passages in 1 Kings (ix. nicians, and under the Romans it became the 26–28, x. 22, xxii. 49) state that Tarshish vessels capital of the province of Hispania Tarraconen- were built at Ezion-geber and sent to Ophir, sis, and is said to have contained 1,000,000 in- whence they brought “gold and silver," &c. habitants. It was captured by the Goths, and This apparent discrepancy has been explained in 516 was the seat of a church council. The in 3 ways: 1, that the name “ships of Tarshish" town was destroyed by the Moors under Tarif, does not necessarily imply that the ships were and remained uninhabited for 4 centuries. In built at Tarshish or intended to ply between the early part of the 12th century it began to that and some other port, but designated a pebe rebuilt, but did not regain its former im- culiar style of ships, either in the shape of the portance. It was captured by the British in hull or rigging, as we now say an “ East Indiathe war of succession, but they abandoned it man,” a “ Baltimore clipper," &c., and that when they got possession of Gibraltar. In hence ships intended for a long coast voyage 1811 the French under Suchet took it by storm. (to Ophir, wherever that might be) were called

TARRANT, a N. W.co. of Texas, intersected ships of Tarshish” from their resemblance to by the West fork of Trinity river; area, about the Phænician model ; 2, that the ships built 960 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 664; in 1860, 6,020, at Ezion-geber (Solomon's only seaport) were including 850 slaves. The surface is undulating taken through the canal of Sesostris (then open) in part, but mostly prairie, and the soil fertile. into the Nile, and thence into the Mediterra. The productions in 1850 were 66,000 bushels nean, a view which is urged by Dr. N. Davis in of Indian corn, 17,336 of potatoes, and 43,442 his work on Carthage; and 3, that there were lbs. of butter. Capital, Birdsville.

two and possibly more places called Tarshish, TARRYTOWN, a village of Westchester co., the name being perhaps a generic rather than N. Y., on the E. bank of the Hudson river, 27 a specific one; that while one of these may m. by railroad from New York; pop. in 1860, have been Tartessus (which has on its side most 3,500. It has 6 churches, 3 academies, and a critical authorities, among them Bochart, Mifemale seminary. The Hudson is here very chaelis, Gesenius, and Rawlinson) or Carthage, wide, and is called Tappan Zee. Major André or perhaps one of the Grecian isles, the other was captured in this neighborhood, and execu- was in the East, and most probably Point de ted at Tappantown, on the W. side of the river. Galle in Ceylon. This view is that of Sir J.

TARSHISH, the name of an ancient com- Emerson Tennent as presented in his “Ceylon.” mercial emporium, or, according to some critics, TARSUS, or Tarsous, a city of Asiatic Turmore than one, as the context of some of the key, in the pashalic of Adana, situated on the passages of Scripture in which it is mentioned right bank of the Cydnus, about 10 m. from would indicate that it was W. and of others E. the Mediterranean; lat. 36° 56' N., long. 34° of Palestine. There are 25 or 30 references to 59' E.; pop. about 8,000, but during the winit in the Scriptures. Tarsus in Cilicia, the island ter months it is much greater. It stands in a of Thasos in the Grecian archipelago, Tartessus fertile plain, and the houses are interspersed in Spain, Carthage, some seaport of the British by gardens and orchards, and are mostly low isles, and Point de Galle in Ceylon have all with flat roofs, but well built of stone. The been urged as fulfilling certain conditions of town is partly enclosed by an ancient wall the scriptural references. The following facts supposed to have been erected by the caliph may be gleaned from the passages in which it Haroun al Rashid ; and there is an old castle is mentioned: It was largely engaged in com- said to have been built by Bajazet. Tarsus has

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an ancient Christian church, several mosques, TARTAR, CREAM OF. See CREAM OF TARhandsome caravansaries, and public baths. Thé TAR. land in the vicinity is remarkably fertile, and TARTAR EMETIC, a double salt, consisting wheat, barley, and cotton are exported, to- of tartrate of potash and tartrate of oxide of gether with copper and gall nuts brought from antimony. (See ANTIMONY, vol. i. p. 660.) the neighboring mountains. During the sum- TARTARIC ACID, an acid compound existmer months the climate is unhealthy, and the ing in the juice of a great variety of fruits, inhabitants migrate in large numbers to the sometimes free, but for the most part in comelevated grounds in the neighborhood.—Tarsus bination with potash or lime. It is most abun. is a place of very great antiquity, and is said dant in the juice of the grape, forming with to have been founded by Sardanapalus. It potash the bitartrate or tartar named above. was the chief city of Cilicia, was taken by Al- It was first separated by Scheele in 1770. The exander, and became a military post of great composition of the ordinary form of tartaric acid importance under his successors in the East. is represented by the formula 2HO, O.H, O,0. Under the Romans it was much favored by both It is a white solid, of specific gravity 1.75, crysAugustus and Hadrian, and rose to such impor- tallizing in oblique rhombic prisms, which are tance as to rival Athens, Antioch, and Alexan- sometimes colorless and transparent. It is dria in wealth, learning, and science. It was permanent in the air, very soluble in water and adorned with many magnificent temples, a gym- in alcohol. Its aqueous solution becomes nasium, and a theatre. Tarsus was the birth- mouldy when kept for some time, and is slowly place of the apostle Paul, as well as of several converted into acetic acid. It has a strong Greek philosophers, poets, and grammarians. acid taste, which is pleasant in a weak solution,

TARTAGLIA, Nicolo, an Italian mathema- and is much used in the preparation of effertician, born in Brescia about 1490, died in vescing draughts with the bicarbonates of the Venice in 1557. He was left an orphan and alkalies. Its crystals when heated become Fery poor at the age of 6 years, but became strongly electrical. Its solutions when hot exthe ablest geometer of his time. He taught ert a powerful right-handed rotation upon a mathematics at Verona and Vicenza, was ap- ray of polarized light, a property which dispointed professor of mathematics at Brescia, tinguishes this from another isomeric form of and in 1534 was called to the same post in tartaric acid, in which the rotation is to the Venice. He discovered the method of solving left. The two varieties also exhibit some rethe cubic equation containing the 1st and 3d markable peculiarities in their crystallization, powers of the unknown quantity, and in re- an account of which has been given by M. Paspeated contests with the ablest mathematicians teur in Annales de chimie, (üi.) xxiv. 442, and of his time defeated them, being able to solve xxviii. 56. At a temperature of 340° tartaric all their problems, while his own remained un- acid fuses, and without losing weight changes solved. In 1539 and 1540 Cardan, under the into two metameric acids, metatartaric and isopromise of strict secrecy, obtained from him tartaric; and various other modifications are his discovery, and afterward, in violation of produced according to the different degrees of his promise, published it in his 'Ars Magna. heat to which it is subjected. Tartaric acid This led to a violent controversy and a public is distinguished from other acids by forming a mathematical contest, in which Cardan being white precipitate, bitartrate of potassa, when worsted, his townsmen raised a mob, and pre- mixed with any of the potash salts, thus sepavented a continuance of it. This solution is rating this alkali from its combination with still known as Cardan's rule. Tartaglia pub- other acids.—Tartaric acid is prepared from the lished a treatise on gunnery, which has been crude bitartrate of potash, of which 4 parts are translated into English; the first Italian trans- added to boiling water with 1 part of chalk. lation of Euclid; and 7 or 8 other mathemati- An insoluble tartrate of lime is precipitated, cal works, the best known of which is Quesiti and neutral tartrate of potash remains dissolved. ed intenzioni diversi (Venice, 1550).

This is decanted, and is further decomposed by TARTAR (named from Tartarus, the infer- adding an equivalent of chloride of calcium, nal regions, according to Paracelsus, on account which separates the remaining tartaric acid as of its fiery heat), also called argol, the crude tartrate of lime. The precipitates are well bitartrate of potash, precipitated from wines as washed and digested at a gentle heat with sulthey ferment, being set free as alcohol is pro- phuric acid diluted with 8 or 10 parts of water. duced, in which it is insoluble. When purified Sulphate of lime is formed, and the tartaric acid it is known as cream of tartar. Salt of tartar is a remains in solution. After filtering, the soluname often given to pure carbonate of potash. tion is evaporated in leaden vessels to the conSoluble tartar is a compound of boracic acid, sistence of sirup, when the acid crystallizes. tartaric acid, and potash, used in medicine as a The process on a large scale is somewhat differpurgative.—Tartar is also the name of an incrus- ent. About 1,500 lbs. of washed chalk is introtation which collects upon the teeth, and may duced into a wooden vessel called a generator, be broken off in hard scales. Its composition, holding about 2,000 gallons, and is thoroughly according to Berzelius, is: salivary mucus, 13,5; mixed with about 500 gallons of water heated by animal matter soluble in muriatic acid, 7.5; a jet of steam and stirred by an agitator. The phosphate of lime (earthy phosphates), 7.9. tartar is then introduced a little at a time, till

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