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STANDARD, the most considerable banner ried the flag known as the “Great Union,” of an army, or the national banner when dis- which was first displayed by Washington upon played in the field, on public occasions, or at the heights before Boston, upon assuming the sea to distingnish the ships of one nation from command of the newly organized army of the those of another. In common parlance the colonies, Jan. 1, 1776, and which consisted of the term is synonymous with banner, flag, ensign, crosses of St. George and St. Andrew on a blue or colors. For some time previous to the revo- ground in the upper corner, with a field comlutionary war, and even after the declaration posed of alternate horizontal stripes of red and of independence, a variety of flags were dis- white, to indicate the union of the colonies played in the revolted colonies of British Amer- for the maintenance of their rights within the ica, emblematic of the popular grievances and empire of Great Britain. The combination of of the particular arm of service. Frequent these two colors was probably suggested by mention is made of union flags in the newspa- the red flag of the army and the white one of pers of 1774, but, from the absence of any de- the navy, previously in use, and the form of scription of the devices employed, it has been stripes by the order of Washington that officers supposed that they were the common ensigns of different grades should wear stripes of differof the commercial marine, in which were ent colors " to prevent mistakes,” and to enable blended the crosses of St. George and St. An- “both officers and men to make themselves drew in commemoration of the union of Eng- acquainted with the persons of all officers in land and Scotland. In March, 1775, a union general command." The emblems of British flag with a red field was hoisted upon the lib- union having become inappropriate after the erty pole in New York, with the inscription: declaration of independence, it was ordered by ** George Rex, and the Liberties of America." congress, June 14, 1777, “that the flag of the The Connecticut troops bore upon their stan- 13 United States be 13 stripes, alternate red dards and drums the arms of the colony, with and white; that the union be 13 stars, white in the motto: Qui transtulit sustinet; and by act a blue field, representing a new constellation." of the provincial congress the standard of each It is not known precisely to whom is due the regiment was distinguished by its color, as "for credit of suggesting the stars for the union. The the seventh, blue; for the eighth, orange," &c. idea is supposed to have emanated from John The flag displayed by Gen. Putnam on Pros- Adams, who was then chairman of the board of pect hill near Boston, July 18, 1775, was red war; and it has also been urged with considerin token of defiance, and bore on one side the able plausibility that the stars and stripes of the motto of Connecticut, and on the other the national standard were borrowed from the coat words: “An Appeal to Heaven,” which were of arms of the Washington family, the shield adopted by a resolution of the provincial con- of which presents a white or silver field travSTESS of Massachusetts, April 29, 1776, as the ersed by two red bars, with three spur rowels motto to be borne on the flag of the cruiserg or stars in the upper portion. The resolution of that colony—“ a white flag with a green pine of June 14 was not made public until Sept. 3, tree." The first American flag unfurled in South 1777, and the stars and stripes first figured conCarolina, “ a blue ground with a white crescent spicuously at the surrender of Burgoyne in the in the dexter corner,' was designed by Col. succeeding month; in December of the same Moultrie at the request of the council of safety, year they were carried to Europe by Paul and was carried at the taking of Fort Johnston, Jones on his ship, the Ranger. The flag, havSept. 13, 1775. By a letter of Col. Joseph Reed, ing been instituted on the representative prinOct. 20, 1775, it appears that the flag of the float- ciple, to designate the states of the united ing batteries was similar to that of the Massachu. republic, remained unaltered until 1794, when, setts cruisers. The standard of the first Ameri- on motion of Mr. Bradley, senator from Vercan fleet was hoisted at Philadelphia, Dec. 22, mont, which state, with Kentucky, had recent1775, by Paul Jones with his own hands, as ly been admitted into the Union, it was resolved Commodore Ezekiel Hopkins embarked on that from and after May 1, 1794, “the flag of board his flag ship, the Alfred; it represented the United States be 15 stripes," and that "the a rattlesnake on a yellow field, with the mot- union be 15 stars," &c. The act of 1794 conto, “Don't tread on me”-a device suggested tained no provisions for future alterations, and probably by the head pieces of many of the until 1818 none were made, notwithstanding newspapers in the revolutionary interest, in that in the mean time the states of Tennessee, which a disjointed snake divided into 13 parts, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi were with the motto, " Join or die," was employed added to the Union. On the admission of Into typify the necessity of union. When this diana in 1816 a committee was appointed, on result had been accomplished, the device was motion of Mr. Wendover of New York, “to changed into a united snake or into a rattle- inquire into the expediency of altering the soake about to strike. A paper attributed to flag,” by whom the whole subject was careDr. Franklin gives an elaborate explanation of fully examined. The proposition to carry out the reasons for selecting this device, founded the principles of Bradley's act of 1794, which upon the character and habits of the rattle- contemplated the addition of a star and a snake. The fleet did not sail from the Dela- stripe for each state admitted into the Union, Fare capes until Feb. 17, 1776, when it car- was deemed objectionable on the ground that
nothing would be left to recall the past; and he followed the sea, acquiring thereby a knowl-
1789, he returned to New York, and again beSTANDISH, Miles, the first military leader came a teacher; and in 1791 he commenced a of the Plymouth settlers in New England, born course of Sunday evening lectures. A Baptist in Lancashire, England, about 1584, died in "church having been formed through his exerDuxbury, Mass., Oct. 3, 1656. He came to tions in 1794, he served in connection with his Plymouth with the first company in 1620, pre- other duties as its pastor for the next 6 or 7 vious to which he had served in the army in years. He continued teaching till 1813, when the Netherlands. He was a man of great cour- he finally relinquished his school. In 1808 he age, energy, and determination, with a fiery preached for the first time in the almshouse, and temper, and rendered important services to the in 1811 became the chaplain of that institution. early settlers. He commanded frequent expe- His field of labors ultimately embraced the ditions against the savages that annoyed the prisons, hospitals, and charitable asylums of the settlements, and by the boldness and skill of city. He also gave instruction to classes of his attacks inspired them with great awe of theological students. Beside the “History of his military prowess. He visited England in the First Baptist Church of Providence," al1625 as an agent for the colony, and after his ready mentioned, Dr. Stanford was the author return settled at Duxbury, and for the remain- of numerous tracts and small religious works, der of his life held the office of magistrate or and published a number of addresses and disassistant for that town.
courses, and a collection of essays entitled “The STANFIELD, CLARkson, an English painter, Aged Christian's Companion” (8vo., 1829), born in Sunderland about 1798. In early life which has passed through several editions.
STANHOPE. I. JAMES, earl, a British states- tion to the subject of electricity, and in 1779 man and soldier, born in 1673, died in London, published his theory of what is called the reFeb. 5, 1721. He was the son of Alexander turn stroke. His political works consist of a Stanhope, a brother of the 2d earl of Chester- refutation of Price's “ Plan for a Sinking Fund," field and a diplomatist of some distinction un- a reply to Burke's “Reflections on the French der William II. Entering the military service Revolution," and an “Essay on Juries." III. at an early age, he was in 1694 commissioned a. Philip Henry, 5th earl, a British statesman captain in the foot guards. After serving with and author, grandson of the preceding, born at credit in the wars in Flanders which terminated Walmer, Kent, in 1805. He was graduated at with the peace of Ryswick, he participated in Oxford in 1827, and in 1830, being then known the disastrous expeditions of 1702 and 1704 to by his courtesy title of Lord Mahon, entered the Spanish peninsula; and in 1705, being then parliament as member for Wotton Bassett, a brigadier-general, he shared in the exploits upon the disfranchisement of which borough of the earl of Peterborough's brilliant Spanish he was returned for Hertford. Being unseated campaign. In 1707 he was made major-gen- on petition, he was reëlected in 1835, and coneral, in 1708 commander-in-chief of the British tinued to represent Hertford until 1852. He forces in Spain, and in the latter year effected has been conservative in politics, and held ofthe reduction of Minorca and the capture office during brief periods in the cabinets of the Port Mahon. After gaining further important duke of Wellington and Sir Robert Peel. As successes in Spain, he was on Nov. 27, 1710, a legislator he is favorably known by the copysurprised by the duke of Vendôme at Brihuega, right act of 1842, which he introduced and carand forced with his army of 2,000 men to ca- ried, and he occupies an important place among pitulate. Subsequent to his return to England modern English writers of history and biograhe held no military command, but became a phy. His first work was the “Life of Belisaprominent whig member of parliament, to which rius” (8vo., 1829), succeeded by a “ History of he had been regularly returned since 1702. the War of Succession in Spain” (8vo., 1832), Having distinguished himself by his opposition and the “History of England from the Peace of to the commercial treaty with France and on Utrecht to the Peace of Versailles, 1713–'83" other occasions, he was appointed by George I. (7 vols., 1836-'54). His remaining works comon his accession one of his principal secretaries prise “Spain under Charles II.” (8vo., 1840); of state, Viscount Townshend being the other. "Life of Louis, Prince of Condé” (18mo., 1845); The intrigues of the earl of Sunderland, by “Historical Essays contributed to the Quarterly whom Stanhope, it has been asserted, was in- Review” (8vo., 1849); a “Life of Joan of Are" cited to betray his ministerial colleagues, led (1853); and a“ Life of William Pitt" (4 vols. to the retirement of Townshend, Walpole, and 8vo., 1861 et seq.). He has edited “The Letters others of the cabinet; and Stanhope was in of Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of ChesterApril
, 1717, made first lord of the treasury, and field” (1845; 2d edition, 5 vols. 8vo., 1853), and, a few months afterward raised to the peerage in conjunction with Mr. Cardwell, 2 vols. of the as Baron Stanhope of Elvaston and Viscount Memoirs by the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Stanhope of Mahon. In the succeeding year Bart.” (1856–7), to be followed by a selection he resumed his office of secretary, Sunderland from his correspondence. During the pubbecoming first lord of the treasury, and was lication of his history of England he entered created Earl Stanhope. On Feb. 4, 1721, while into a controversy with Mr. Jared Sparks on replying with much heat to an attack upon the the accuracy and value of the latter's ediministry by the duke of Wharton, he burst a tion of the "Writings of George Washington.” blood vessel, which caused his death on the He subsequently exonerated Mr. Sparks from succeeding day. II. CHARLES, 3d earl, grand- the charges of serious “omissions and addison of the
preceding, born in Aug. 1753, died tions” originally preferred against him, but in 1816. By his first wife, a daughter of the continued to “differ widely from him on the Earl of Chatham, he had 3 daughters, the eldest privileges and duties pertaining to an editor." of whom was the eccentric Lady Hester Stan- Lord Stanhope succeeded to his title in 1855, hope. Succeeding to his family honors in 1786, since which time he has taken a less active be became noted for his radical democratic part in public life. In 1834 he received the opinions on the prominent questions of the day, degree of D.C.L. from the university of Oxford, in discussing which he carried the principles and since 1846 he has been president of the of the whigs, with whom he voted, to a point society of antiquaries. He was appointed by deemned so perilous by that party that none the duke of Wellington his literary executor. darad follow him; and in the latter years of his STANHOPE, Lady Hester Lucy, an eccenlife he used to be called “the minority of one." tric English woman, born in London, March As a mechanical inventor he is well known by 12, 1776, died at Joon, in the Lebanon, June the printing press which bears his name, by 23, 1839. She was the eldest child of Charles, his improvements in the construction of locks 3d Earl Stanhope, by Hester, daughter of the for canals
, and by two ingenious calculating great earl of Chatham, and' in girlhood was machines, one of which performed addition remarkable for precocity, and boldness and and subtraction, and the other multiplication independence of character. Unlike her father, and division. He also gave considerable atten- who was almost a democrat in principle, she
prided herself upon her aristocratic birth, and various dishonorable shifts to elude her credi, the superior mental and physical qualities tors, dying at last with no European near her, which she supposed to be its concomitants; and surrounded by a crowd of native servants, and it was probably in consequence of this who plundered the house almost before life antagonism between parent and child that at had left her body. She was buried in the garan early age she entered the family of her uncle den adjoining her residence by the British conWilliam Pitt, with whom she lived until his .sul at Beyrout and Dr. W. M. Thomson, an death, acting as his private secretary and shar- American missionary, the latter of whom, for ing in all his confidences. Pitt having recom- several years her neighbor, thus sums up her mended his niece to the care of the nation, she qualities: “On most subjects she was not received a pension of £1,200, which proving in- merely sane, but sensible, well informed, and adequate to support her according to her former extremely shrewd. She possessed extraordirank and style, she retired to solitude in Wales. nary powers of conversation, and was perfectly In 1810, disgusted with the artificial character fascinating to all with whom she chose to make of European society, and influenced also by the herself agreeable. She was however whimimpression that a great destiny awaited her in sical, imperious, tyrannical, and at times rethe East, she resolved to expatriate herself. vengeful in a high degree. Bold as a lion, she After spending several years in travel, during wore the dress of an emeer, weapons, pipe, which she visited Jerusalem, Baalbec, Damascus, and all; nor did she fail to rule her Albanian and Palmyra, at which last place she is said to guards and her servants with absolute authorhave been crowned by 50,000 Arabs queen of ity. She kept spies in the principal cities, and the East, she established herself in 1813 at the at the residences of pashas and emeers, and deserted convent of Mar Elias, beside the little knew every thing that was going forward in village of Joon, and within miles of Sidon. the country.” Her “Memoirs as related by Her striking manners and conversation, her Herself” (3 vols. 8vo.), and “Travels” (3 vols. munificence and reputation for extraordinary 8vo.) by Dr. Meryon, who had been for several wealth, produced a strong impression upon the years her physician, were published soon after neighboring tribes and their chiefs, who learned her death. to admire and ultimately to fear her. The STANHOPE, PHILIP DORMER. See CHESold convent, perched upon an isolated eminence TERFIELD. among the wildest scenery of the Lebanon, was STANISLAS I. LESZCZYNSKI, king of Posoon converted into a fortress garrisoned by a land, and afterward duke of Lorraine and Bar, band of Albanians, and became a refuge to all born in Lemberg, Galicia, April 20, 1677, died in the persecuted and distressed who sought her Lunéville, Feb. 23, 1766. He was the son of assistance. Possessing a passion for intrigue Raphael Leszczynski, palatine of Posen and and considerable diplomatic talent, she exer- treasurer of Poland, and was appointed archcised a despotic sway over the surrounding butler of the crown by Augustus 11. When war country, fomenting and allaying commotions broke out between Charles XII. of Sweden and at her pleasure. So powerful was the influ- that prince, he was in 1704 sent on a mission ence which she wielded, that Ibrahim Pasha, to the former by the diet at Warsaw, won the when about to invade Syria in 1832, was con- good graces of the conqueror, and through his strained to solicit her neutrality. After the influence was in the same year elected to the siege of Acre in the same year, she is said throne of Poland. This he held but a few to have sheltered several hundred refugees. years; his patron having been defeated at Pul. Whether for the purpose of awing her follow- towa in 1709, he was unable to resist his comers or from inward conviction, she practised petitor Augustus II., left Poland in 1712, and astrology and other secret arts, and promul- took refuge in Pomerania, and then in Sweden. gated some peculiar religious sentiments which For the sake of peace he was willing to abdishe held to the last. That her mind was dis- cate, and having gone for this purpose to eased on certain points is clear from the fact Charles XII., then at Bender, was taken pristhat she kept in a magnificent stable two mares, oner by the hospodar of Moldavia and delivon which she fancied she was to ride into Je- ered to the Turks; being released in 1714, he rusalem with the Messiah at his next coming, returned to Sweden, was appointed governor to inaugurate the millennium. She treated of Deux-Ponts by Charles XII., and remained with extreme rudeness many of the travellers there until that prince's death in 1719. Withwho visited her, particularly Englishmen, and out protection and berest of his patrimonial had an especial enmity against consuls and com- estates, he sought an asylum in France, and mercial agents, who, she said, “were intended the regent Philip of Orleans granted him a to regulate merchants, and not to interfere with pension and permission to reside at Wissemor control nobility." The extravagant state bourg, Alsace, where he lived obscurely with which she maintained and her numerous bene- his only daughter Marie Leszczynska. He had factions gradually brought pecuniary embar- given up all ambitious aspirations, when he rassments, and during the latter years of her was suddenly apprised that the hand of his life she was constantly harassed by debts. daughter was desired for Louis XV., to whom Nothing, however, could tempt her to return she was married Sept. 5, 1725. In 1733, on to England, and she was forced to resort to the death of Augustus II., he was recalled to Poland by his adherents, who hoped that he published in 1851, with a memoir by his son would be supported by the French govern- Arthur Penrhyn Stanley. His remaining works ment; he however received only lukewarm as- comprise “Questions on the Bible," and a sistance, while Russia strongly favored his com- number of occasional sermons, pamphlets, &c. . petitor Augustus III.; he was obliged to retire He was a fellow of the royal society, and presio Dantzic, where he was besieged by a Rus- ident of the Linnæan society.–ARTHUR PENsian army, and after a bold resistance of sev-, Rhyn, an English clergyman and author, son eral months had a remarkable escape. In ac- of the preceding, born in Alderley, Dec. 13, cordance with the preliminaries of the peace 1815. Ile was educated at Rugby under Dr. of Vienna in 1738, he resigned his pretensions Arnold, and in 1838 was graduated at Univerto the throne of Poland, but was allowed to sity college, Oxford, where he subsequently preserve his royal title; his confiscated estates resided for several years as tutor. In 1851 he were restored to him, and he received beside was appointed one of the canons of Canterfrom Austria the duchies of Lorraine and Bar, bury, which office he still holds, and he was which on his death were to be united to also one of the chaplains of Prince Albert. In France. He died after 3 weeks' suffering, caused 1856 he was elected regius professor of eccleby his garments taking fire as he was reading. siastical history at Oxford. In 1842 he preachHe has been deservedly styled Le Bienfaisant. ed the funeral sermon of Dr. Arnold in the He left several essays on philosophy, politics, chapel of Rugby school, whose "Life and Corand morals, which have been printed under the respondence" he published in 1844. He has title of Euvres du philosophe bienfaisant (4 also published "Sermons and Essays on the Fols. 8vo. and 4 vols. 12mo., 1765), a selection Apostolic Age” (Oxford, 1847); a “ Lecture on from which (Eurres choisies de Stanislas, roi the Study of Modern History" (1854); “ Historde Pologne, duc de Lorraine et de Bar) was ical Memorials of Canterbury" (1855); “Sinai published in 1825.
and Palestine in Connection with their History" STANISLAS AUGUSTUS, king of Poland. (2d ed., 1857); “History of the Eastern Church” See POLAND, vol. xiii. pp. 432–3.
(1861); and several occasional sermons and lecSTANISLAUS, a central co. of California, tures. He is a leader of the so called “Broad bounded N. in part by the Stanislaus, and Church" party in England. drained by the San Joaquin and Tuolumne STANLEY, EDWARD HENRY Smith, styled by rivers; area, nearly 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, courtesy Lord Stanley, an English statesman, 2,245. The surface is generally hilly, and the born at Knowsley Park, July 21, 1826. He is soil well adapted for farming and grazing. The the eldest son of the present earl of Derby, chief productions in 1858 were 18,500 bushels and was educated at Rugby under Dr. Arnold, of wheat, 48,000 of barley, and 75,000 lbs. of and at Trinity college, Cambridge. Having wool. Gold and other minerals are found. contested unsuccessfully the representation of Capital, La Grange.
Lancaster in parliament, he made an extended STANLEY, a S. W. co. of North Carolina, tour in North America, visiting Canada, the bonnded E. by the Yadkin and S. by Rocky United States, and the West India islands, and river; area, 280 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 7,801, during his absence was, in Dec. 1848, elected of whom 1,169 were slaves. The surface is for the borough of Lynn-Regis. During a submonntainous and the soil generally fertile. sequent visit to India he was appointed unThe productions in 1850 were 31,267 bushels der secretary of state for foreign affairs in the of wheat, 203,281 of Indian corn, and 22,877 first administration of his father (Feb. 27 to of oats. There were 2 tanneries, 6 grist mills, Dec. 28, 1852); and at the general election of 21 churches, and 600 pupils attending public 1852 he was again returned for Lynn-Regis, schools. Gold and silver in considerable quan- which he has continued to represent down to tities have been found. Capital, Albemarle. the present time. In the spring of 1853 he
STANLEY, EDWARD, an English divine and submitted to the house of commons a motion author, born in London, Jan. 1, 1779, died at which contemplated a more complete reform Brahan castle, Ross-shire, Sept. 6, 1849. He of Indian affairs than the measures proposed was educated at St. John's college, Cambridge, by the Aberdeen-Russell administration, and and in 1805 presented to the living of Alderley, which was & foreshadowing of the policy which he retained for the next 32 years. He adopted in 1858. Although & conservative in gare much attention to the natural history of his politics, Lord Stanley showed such liberal neighborhood, and became a contributor on such views on many questions, particularly the abotopics to " Blackwood's Magazine” and other lition of church rates, and recommended himperiodicals. His “ Familiar History of Birds, self to public approval so strongly by his eftheir Nature, Habits, and Instincts” (2 vols., forts for the intellectual improvement of the 1835), was published under the auspices of the lower classes through the establishment of society for promoting Christian knowledge. mechanics' institutes and libraries and the proIn 1837 he was offered by Lord Melbourne the motion of popular education, that on the death bishopric of Norwich, which he accepted with of Sir William Molesworth in 1855 he was ofsome reluctance. His views were of so liberal fered by Lord Palmerston the seals of the coloa character, that he was accused of latitudina nial office, which he declined. He however rianism. His “ Addresses and Charges” were accepted the office in the second Derby cabinet,