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tail coverts black, with a patch of buff white ing particles from their sensitive membrane. on each side; wing coverts plain olive gray; The lachrymal belong to the aggregated glands, in the female the under parts are white, and or those in which the vesicles or acini are arthe upper dark brown with gray edgings. It ranged in lobules; there is one situated at the occurs over the whole of North America, and upper, external, and anterior part of each oraccidentally in Europe; it migrates principally bit, in a depression of the frontal bone, in relaover the land, breeding from the great lakes to tion with the external rectus muscle, resting the fur countries; it runs well, is a good swim- behind on a fatty areolar tissue; each gland is mer and diver, and a very rapid and graceful of the size of a small almond, of reddish white flier; having a comparatively long neck, it color and flattened form, enveloped in a fibrofeeds while swimming, and, being choice in its cellular capsule, and receiving an artery, vein, selection of food, affords a delicious flesh, and nerve of the same name; the secretion is much superior, according to Audubon, to that poured out by 6 or 7 trunks opening within the of the canvas-back; it is not very shy; the upper lid. At the inner angle of the eyes, in eggs are 14 by 1$ inches, much rounded, dull both lids, are 2 very narrow, always open aperyellowish with indistinct deeper tints. The tures, the lachrymal puncta, situated in the English teal (N. crecca, Kaup) differs from the middle of a slightly prominent tubercle, about above in having no white crescent in front of 11 lines from the inner junction of the lids; the bend of the wings; the elongated scapulars they are opposite each other, the lower turned are velvet black externally and creamy white up and the upper down, and both outward and internally; this has occasionally been observed backward. Through these openings the tears on the E. coast of the United States.- In the are conveyed by the short lachrymal ducts in genus querquedula the bill widens a little to each lid to the lachrymal sac, situated at the the end, which is obtusely rounded, is higher inner angle of each eye, in the bony groove bethan broad at base, has a wider nail and the tween the lachrymal bone and the ascending lamellæ visible on the sides. There are about process of the superior maxillary; it is a small half a dozen species in North America, Europe, membranous sac, opening below into the nasal and Asia, with habits similar to those of the duct, which conveys the tears into the nose other genus. The blue-winged teal (Q. discors, beneath the inferior turbinated bone, explainSteph.) is 16 inches long, 24 or 25 in alar extent, ing why after a copious secretion of tears it with a bill of 1%; the head and neck above becomes necessary to blow the nose. At the are plombeous gray; top of head black; white inner angle of the lids, in front of the globe and crescent in front of eyes; under parts purplish behind the lachrymal points, is a small reddish gray, each feather spotted with black; fore tubercle, pyramidal with the summit turned part of back brownish with 2 narrow bands of forward and outward; this is the lachrymal capurplish gray; back behind and tail greenish runcle, and consists of a mass of small mucous brown; under tail coverts black; outer webs follicles, covered by the conjunctiva, which of some of the scapulars and the wing coverts forms in front and to the outside a semilunar bright blue; greater coverts tipped with white, fold, called the nictitating membrane; this is with grass-green speculum below them; bill rudimentary in man, but remarkably developed black; in the female the top of the head is in birds. The act of crying, generally accompabrown, chin and throat yellowish white, back nying an increased secretion of tears, as far as brown with paler edgings, under parts whitish the movements of respiration are concerned, with obscure brown spots, and the same blue is very nearly the same as that of laughing, and white in the wings as in the male. It is though occasioned by a contrary emotion; the found throughout eastern North America to expiratory muscles are in more or less violent the Rocky mountains, but not in Europe; it is convulsive movement, sending out the breath very abundant about the mouths of the Missis- in a series of jerks, accompanied by well known sippi in winter, and is less hardy than the sounds; in children the act is sometimes congreen-winged species; the flocks pass and re- tinued almost to the complete emptying of the pass many times over a place before alighting, chest of air, to the great dismay of parents, but and the glistening of their wings in the sun is the besoin de respirer is always stronger than like that of polished steel; it is easily kept in the convulsive muscular movements. Modercaptivity, thriving on coarse corn meal, and ate excitement, whether of joy, tenderness, or could be domesticated with a little care. This grief, increases greatly the quantity of the tears, species is replaced west of the Rocky moun- though the secretion is checked by violent emotains and on the Pacific coast by the red-breast- tions; in intense grief the tears do not flow, the ed teal (Q. cyanoptera, Baird), a larger bird, restoration of the secretion being a sign of of a general purplish chestnut color, without moderated sorrow, and itself affording relief by white on the head or tail; the feathers of the the resumption of nervous action previously flanks are uniform chestnut.

held in abeyance by great mental depression. TEARS, the limpid, colorless, slightly saline Considering their size, there are

no other secretion of the lachrymal glands, continually glands which ordinarily can so increase the poured out in quantity sufficient to bathe the amount of their secretion as the lachrymal ; surface of the eyes, to secure the easy and free the quantity is sometimes very great, and very motion of the lids, and to wash off any irritat- easily stimulated; the shedding of tears is also decidedly contagious, and it is for most persons sides and near hedges, and is sometimes found difficult to see any one weeping without feeling in similar spots in the United States, being their own eyes fill with tears. The lachrymal however adventitious. gland is rarely diseased, though it is subject to TECUMSEH, a North American Indian, inflammation, and to morbid growths, for which chief of a tribe of the Shawnees, born on the it has been extirpated. Xerophthalmia is a banks of the Scioto river, near Chillicothe, O., disease in which the eyes are dry from defi- about 1770, killed in the battle of the Thames, ciency of the tears or of the mucous secretion; O. W., Oct. 5, 1813. He was one of 3 brothers the best remedy is bathing the organs by means brought forth at the same birth. The others of the eye cup with tepid water. In epiphora were Kumshaka, who probably died young, the tears are secreted so abundantly that they and Elskwatawa, better known as the prophet. run over the cheeks, the lachrymal ducts not An engagement with Kentucky troops which being able to convey them off fast enough; it took place on Mad river, when he was perhaps is not uncommon in scrofulous persons with not more than 20, is the first fight with white very irritable eyes, and is best treated by altera- men at which Tecumseh is known to have been tives and tonics, with soothing and gently as- present, and it was reported by some of his tringent applications; this symptom is some- tribe that he then ran at the first fire; yet in times caused by foreign bodies or inverted the war that ended with the treaty of Greenlashes. The lachrymal puncta may be closed, ville in 1795, he became celebrated as one of causing the tears to flow over the cheeks, for the boldest and most active of the Indian war. which the remedy is dilatation by fine probes. riors. About 1804 he formed, in conjunction When the nasal duct is obstructed, the eye is with his brother the prophet, a project to unite watery and the corresponding nostril dry, the all the western Indians in a defensive alliance sac forming a small tumor at the side of the against the whites. Tecumseh visited all the nose; the sac also may be inflamed, with tribes on the W. bank of the Mississippi, and pain, tenderness, swelling, and feverish symp- upon Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan, and toms; this may end in suppuration and an ex- the prophet pretended to be commissioned to ternal opening, constituting lachrymal fistula, the Indians from the Great Spirit and began to requiring the restoration of the obliterated preach against the influence of the white men. duct by styles of different materials, as de- Both had considerable success, and in 1811 the scribed in surgical works.

prophet had finally gathered around him at TEASEL (dipsacus fullonum), a European Tippecanoe on the Wabash a force of several plant, greatly improved by cultivation, used hundred warriors. Governor Harrison's invesfor dressing cloths. It has a fleshy root which tigations in relation to this force brought on branches and tapers; an erect, furrowed, prickly the battle of Tippecanoe, Nov. 7, 1811, in which stem, branching near the top, 5 or 6 feet high; the Indians were defeated. Tecumseh's plan sessile, entire leaves, spiny on the margins and was not yet mature, and this battle ruined it. surfaces, those of the stem opposite and joined His next endeavor was in the alliance with the at base, and generally filled with water, whence English. He received the rank of brigadierits generic name dipsacus (Gr. Sefakos, thirsty). general, commanded all the Indians who co

The disposition of the flowers reminds one of operated with the English in the campaigns of the composite order, being numerous and col. 1812-'13, was present at every important aclected upon a cylindrical head; but from cer- tion previous to that on the Thames, and took tain structural peculiarities the teasels and the a conspicuous part in the skirmishes that prescabiouses form a distinct natural order termed ceded Hull's surrender of Detroit. In the batdipsacacea. The corolla is monopetalous, tu- tle on the Thames, near the Moravian towns, bular, 5-lobed, of a whitish color, the stamens he commanded the Indian and English right having pale purple anthers. Rigid, spiny wing, and was posted in the only part of it scales, recurved at the apex, surround each that was engaged with the U. S. troops. The floret; and when the flowers have faded, the Indians were driven back, but Tecumseh rushdried and ripened receptacles are gathered and ed forward where the American fire was thickselected with great care, being assorted accord- est and fell. He was generally said to have ing as they are terminal, lateral, or secondary been shot by Col. R. M. Johnson, afterward growth, the first being the best for use. The vice-president of the United States; but there head forms a sort of brush which is found to be was never any foundation for the statement, better adapted for raising the nap on woollen and it is now no longer credited. fabrics than any artificial substitute that has TEETH, the organs in vertebrates for the been contrived. The teasels are attached when seizure and mastication of food, placed at or in use to the periphery of a large, broad wheel, near the entrance to the alimentary canal. In which is made to revolve so as to bring them adult man there are 82, 16 in each jaw, imin contact with the surface of the cloth. The planted in sockets, and of an irregular conoid profits from teasel culture are very uncertain, form; in the child there are only 20. For much depending upon the weather and on the their development see DENTITION. Their numcondition of the soil.—The wild teasel (D. syl- ber increases in the lower animals, being greatvestris, Miller), supposed to be the original of est in the cetaceans and marsupials among the cultivated kind, is a common plant by road. mammals, and also considerable in many reptiles and fishes. The portion of a tooth above ous ossification, but in some are movable; they the socket is called the crown, the concealed are composed of dentine and its modifications, part the root or fang, between these being a enamel occurring in only a few cases, like the more or less well marked constriction or neck. Parrot fish (scarus); and they are frequently Vertebrate teeth, like bones, have for their shed and renewed, the germs being developed earthy basis phosphate of lime, the enamel also from the free surface of the buccal membrane. containing fluate of lime; the teeth of inverte- Among reptiles, the whole order of chelonians brates consist essentially of carbonate of lime. (tortoises and turtles), and also the toad family The body of a tooth is composed of a tissue among batrachians, are without teeth; in the called dentine, the outer crust of the cement or others these organs are usually simple, and crusta petrosa, with generally a thin covering adapted for seizing and holding but not chewof enamel on the grinding surface. Dentine is ing their food; the number is never so small disposed in the form of very minute cells and nor so large as in fishes, and is rarely charactubes of an animal gelatinous basis, containing teristic of species; they are generally conical, the earthy matter, some of its varieties closely sharp, and smooth, an may be placed on any resembling bone; the cement corresponds in of the bones entering into the structure of the texture with the osseous tissue of the animal, mouth; the base never branches into diverging forming nearly $ of the mass of the elephant's fangs, and in most is anchylosed in various molars, and wearing away sooner than the ways to the bone which bears them, as noticed dentine; the enamel is the hardest constituent under the different families; dentine and ceof the tooth, and the hardest of the animal tis- ment are always present, and sometimes ensues, consisting of the earthy matter contained amel, as in the saurian crown. Among mamin the canals of an animal matrix.—There are mals, some of the edentates, as ant-eaters and 3 kinds of teeth distinguishable in mammals, pangolins, have no teeth; in the others they viz., incisors, canines, and molars. The in- are implanted in sockets, and the molars have cisors are situated in the front and median 2 or more roots when they have a limited portion of the jaws, and have a simple flattened growth; they are confined to the superior, inroot and a thin cutting edge, suitable for divid- ferior, and intermaxillary bones, a single row ing and collecting food, as in the jaws of the in each. Mammals have been divided by Owen beaver and squirrel and in the lower jaw of the into monophyodonts, or those which generate ox. The canines, 4 in number, are next to the a single set of teeth, and diphyodonts, or those incisors, separated from them by an interval, which generate 2 sets of teeth; the former inexcept in man; the crown is conical, and the clude the monotremes, edentates, and carnivoroot long and simple; they are the so called eye rous cetaceans, and the latter all the other orders. and stomach teeth in man, and form a striking The teeth of mammals and their dental forcharacter and very formidable weapons in the mulas have been sufficiently described in their carnivora; they are best adapted for securing respective divisions. For full details on this and tearing a living prey. The molar teeth are subject the reader is referred to the following the most posterior, and have flattened and tu- writings of Prof. Richard Owen: “Odontogberculous crowns suited for grinding down raphy" (London, 1840–245); article “Teeth” in vegetable food; they are most developed in vol. iv. of the “Oyclopædia of Anatomy and herbivorous animals; the roots in man are Physiology" (1852); and " The Principal Forms often much bifurcated, rendering extraction of the Skeleton and Teeth,” in vol. i. of Orr's difficult.-Teeth are so intimately related to the “Circle of Sciences” (London; reprinted in food and habits of animals, so easily examined Philadelphia, 1854). from their situation, and of such indestructible TEETH, MINERAL. See DENTISTRY, vol. vi. materials, that they are of the first importance p. 396. in the classification of animals, both living and TEFFT, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, D.D., LL.D., fossil. The importance of the teeth in prepar- an American clergyman, born in Oneida co., ing food for the digestive process has been no- N. Y., in 1813. He commenced a course of ticed under DIGESTION; in man they are also classics and mathematics at an early age, and subservient to beauty and to speech; when at 15 entered upon the study of law, but fully formed they are subject to decay, but subsequently, after receiving a collegiate eduhave no inherent power of reparation; they cation with a view to the ministry, applied may increase by abnormal growth of the ce- himself for 4 years to legal, metaphysical, and ment, their most highly organized constituent. historical studies. He then became pastor of a For the diseases and the mode of treatment of Methodist Episcopal church at Bangor, Me., the teeth, see DENTISTRY.-In fishes the teeth and two years later president of a classical vary from none in the sturgeon and lopho- seminary at Providence, R. I., where he rebranchs to countless numbers in the pike and mained one year; and after residing for a year the siluroids; they are usually conical, but in Boston, he was called to the professorship sometimes flattened or pavement-like, villi- of Greek and Hebrew in the Indiana Asbury form, serrated, and cutting; they may be situ- university, where he remained 3 years. He ated on any of the bones of the oral cavity, on has since been general editor of the books and the tongue, and in the pharynx; in most cases magazine of the Methodist book concern at they are firmly united to the jaws by continu. Cincinnati, and still later president of Gene

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see college. He has published “The Shoulder Nattwardsbarnen ("The Children of the Lord's Knot, or Sketches of the Threefold Life of Man" Supper”). His writings were collected and (New York, 1850); “ Hungary and Kossuth, or edited by his son-in-law Prof. Bottiger (6 vols., an American Exposition of the late Hungarian Stockholm, 1848). The best translations of Revolution” (Boston, 1852); and “Methodism Tegnér's poems, according to his own opinion, Successful, and the Internal Causes of its Suc- are those

of Longfellow. cess” (New York, 1859).

TEHAMA, a N. co. of California, drained by TEFLIS. See Tiflis.

the Sacramento river; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; TEGEA, an ancient and powerful city of pop. in 1860, 4,044. The surface is hilly, and Greece, situated in the S. E. part of Arcadia. the soil fertile and well adapted to grazing. Its territory was called Tegeatis. It is mention- The productions in 1858 were 133,450 bushels ed in the Iliad. Its early history was marked of wheat, 232,000 of barley, and 18,886 lbs. of by a constant war between it and the Spartans, wool. A large amount of timber is exported. whọ for a long time unsuccessfully attempted There are two Indian reservations in the county, to bring about its subjection. Charilaus, a on which 8,000 Indians are settled. Capital, Spartan king, invaded at one time the land of Red Bluffs. the Tegeans, but was defeated and made pris- TEHERAN, or Tehran, the capital of the

Two centuries later Leon and Agesicles kingdom of Persia, and of the province of Irakwere unsuccessful in another invasion; but Ajemi, 70 m. S. from the Caspian sea and 210 about 560 B. C. the city fell into the hands of m. N. from Ispahan, in lat. 35° 41' N., long. the Spartans, and though retaining its indepen- 51° 23' E.; pop, in winter about 80,000. The dence was bound to furnish a military force town stands in a sandy plain, with mountains when required. In the Persian war 500 Te- to the N. and E., and a fertile, well cultivated geans fought at Thermopylæ, and at Platæa country to the W. It is of a square form, sur3,000. Subsequently they were again at war rounded by thick walls about 4 m. in extent, with Sparta, and were defeated; but during the and is entered by 4 gates ornamented with the entire Peloponnesian war they adhered con- figures of different kinds of animals. Inside stantly to the side of the Spartans, as they did there are many vacant spaces and gardens and also in the Corinthian war which followed. extensive ruins; but the streets are narrow, After the battle of Leuctra in 371, the Spartan irregular, unpaved, and exceedingly filthy. The party having been expelled, Tegea became a houses are badly built and mean in appearance. member of the Arcadian confederacy, and its The royal palace consists of a great number of citizens in 362 fought under Epaminondas at buildings and gardens, and covers nearly 1 of Mantinea. Subsequently it joined the Ætolian the area enclosed within the walls. It is fortileague, and in the wars between Sparta and fied, and has a seraglio surrounded by lofty the Achæan league was alternately in the hands walls and guarded with great care. The baof the contending parties. After the Roman zaars are extensive, but are wretchedly kept and conquest of Greece, it continued to be a place very dirty. There is a royal foundery, where of considerable importance, but toward the guns of large caliber are made. One of the. close of the 4th century of the Christian era mosques is roofed with plates of gold. In sumwas taken and totally destroyed by Alaric. mer the climate is unhealthy, and the monarch

TEGNÉR, Esaias, a Swedish poet, born at and about jo of the inhabitants leave the city Kirkerud, Wermland, Nov. 13, 1782, died in and encamp on the plains of Sultanieh. Ona Wexiö, Nov. 2, 1846. He was graduated at hill in the neighborhood the king has a palace the university of Lund in 1803, and made pro- and beautiful gardens.-Under the Suffavean fessor of Greek literature there in 1812, having dynasty Teheran was not a place of importance. in the interval been an under professor. Ă It was almost destroyed by the Afghans after patriotic poem entitled Svea (Sweden) was his the battle of Salman-abad; but it was afterfirst production, and obtained for the author ward rebuilt, and has since received frequent the prize of the Swedish academy. In 1824 he additions to its fortifications. It was made the was made bishop of Wexio, and from that capital of Persia in the early part of the 18th period devoted himself to his episcopal duties. century. The most admirable of Tegnér's poems is TEHUANTEPEC, a territory of Mexico, orFrithiofs Saga (* The Legend of Frithiof"), ganized about 1850, and comprising the isthmus which first appeared in 1825. It consists of of the same name, bounded N. by the gulf 24 cantos, of different metres, each according of Campeachy, E. by the states of Tabasco and to the style of the subject, and in imitation of Chiapas, s. by the gulf of Tehuantepec, and the old Icelandic sagas. The most striking pas- W. by Vera Cruz and Oajaca ; area, about sages have been admirably set to music by Cru- 16,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1854, 82,395. Its width sell, a Swede, and are constantly sung in family from gulf to gulf is 130 m. It is drained by circles throughout the country. Among the the Coatzacoalcos river, which flows northworks of Tegnér may be cited also the “First ward, discharging into the gulf of Campeachy, Communion;" "Axel," the story of a lifeguards- and extending about of the width of the terman of Charles XII. ; the “Song of the Sun," a ritory; and by the Tehuantepec river, flowing fine bacchanalian; the “Hero," a sketch' of into the gulf of the same name. There are Napoleon; the "Sage," a didactic poem; and several lakes and lagoons in the territory.

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Capital, Minatitlan.-At one time it was pro- feet plantigrade; the teeth are as in the skunk, posed to construct a ship canal across the isth- the snout prolonged like that of a pig, the head mus, improving the navigation of the Coatza- badger-like, ears very small and concealed by coalcos for a part of the distance, and using the long hair, and the eyes very high in the some small lakes as reservoirs at the height head; the claws of the fore feet are long, comof land for the canal; but a subsequent pro- pressed, nearly straight, and adapted for digject was the connection of the gulf and ocean ging; the fetid secretion is poured out from 2 by a railway which should form a part of glands near the end of the rectum, opening about the route from New Orleans to San Fran- half an inch within the canal. It is a nocturcisco, the isthmus being S. S. W. of New nal animal, making a shallow burrow, and feedOrleans, and the route shorter by several hun- ing on insects, larvæ, and worms. The color is dred miles than any other proposed ocean blackish brown, with a narrow whitish stripe route. Measures were taken to secure the extending from the occiput to the tail. It is grant of the route from the Mexican govern- slow in its movements, trusting for safety to ment, and it was provisionally opened by the its fetid odor; the natives are fond of its flesh, despatch of vessels to the ports on either side, which is almost always fat and tender; it someand the transportation of passengers by stage times does considerablo mischief by destroying across the isthmus. The want of any good the roots of young plants in cultivated districts. harbor on either side of the isthmus, and the TELEGRAPH (Gr. mnie, afar, and ypadw, immense expense which would be incurred in to write), an apparatus by which intelligence the erection of breakwaters adapted to produce is communicated to a distance. It properly even a partial shelter, as well as the shallow- includes the various methods of signalling, of ness of the harbors, have caused the project to which some account has been given in the arbe relinquished.--TEHUANTEPEO, a town of the ticle SIGNALS. The most obvious form of abore territory, is situated on Tehuantepec these, and one which has been adopted by river, about 10 m. above its mouth, and 150 m. different nations from remote antiquity, is that E. 8. E. from Oajaca ; pop. 14,000. It has salt of fires made upon commanding points, which works and cotton factories, and a considerable were visible at great distances, by their smoke pearl fishery in which many of the inhabitants by day and their light by night. By preconare engaged. Indigo is raised in the vicinity, certed arrangements, these are made to desigand a purple dye is procured from a shell fish nate such intelligence as it may be desirable to abundant there. The harbor is shallow and communicate, such as the warning of the apexposed to the hurricanes from the N. W. proach of an enemy, and to call the people

TEIGNMOUTH, JOHN SHORE, baron, an together for their protection. The Roman English statesman, born in Devonshire, Oct. 8, generals, as described by Julius Africanus, 1751, died Feb. 14, 1834. He entered the civil perfected this method of communicating inservice of the East India company as a cadet in telligence, so as to spell words by means of 1769, and by successive promotions reached in fires of different substances. The North Amer1786 the position of member of the supreme ican aborigines made use of regular stations council under the governor-general, Lord Oorn- over the western country for these signals; wallis, whom in 1793 he succeeded in office, and the Indians of the north-west territory in and in 1794 he was made a baronet. The new this way communicated intelligence of the apsettlement of landed property in the presidency proach of Fremont, as he passed through their of Bengal, and the new judicial system intro- regions. Polybius describes two methods of duced under Lord Cornwallis, were mainly at- telegraphing by means of torches; and Bishop tributable to the efforts of Sir John Shore. He Wilkins, after giving an account of this in his retired from office in the latter part of 1797, book entitled “Mercury, or the Secret and and was created Baron Teignmouth in the peer- Swift Messenger," describes a method of conage of Ireland. Subsequently he was for many versing at a distance with 3 lights or torches at years a member of the board of control, and night, which may be so used as to indicate the from 1804 until his death president of the Brit- 24 necessary letters of the alphabet, these being ish and foreign Bible society. He published divided into 3 classes of 8 letters each, which in 1804 a memoir of Sir William Jones, whom are severally designated by one, two, or three he succeeded as president of the Asiatic society, torches, and the number of the letter by the and in 1807 he edited his works in 13 vols. 8vo. number of times the torches are elevated or His “Life and Correspondence” was published displayed. Another method was also proby his son (2 vols., London, 1837).

posed by Bishop Wilkins, in which intelligible TELEDU, or Telagon, the name of the my, signals were conveyed by means of two lights daus meliceps (F. Cuv.), & carnivorous animal attached to long poles; and for long distances of the family mustelina, emitting a fetid odor he suggested the use of the then newly invented like that of the skunk, inhabiting Java, and telescope, or, as he called it, “Gallileus his perconfined exclusively to mountains 7,000 feet at spective.” A variety of systems of telegraphic least above the level of the sea. It is about the signals were brought into notice by different insize of a polecat, being 15 inches long with a ventors in the 17th and 18th centuries, one of tail of half an inch, but the body is much thick. the earliest of which was that of Dr. Robert er, the neck and limbs short and stout, and the Hooke described in the “Philosophical Trans

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