« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
formed in Feb. 1858, and in the succeeding in examining which they invariably proceeded May assumed the presidency of the board of without the assistance of a jury. This tribunal, control upon the resignation of the earl of El. however, was distinct from the council itself, lenborough, with the title of "her majesty's of which it may be considered a committee commissioner for the affairs of India.". Upon having delegated powers; nor did the act cited the transfer of the government of India from give the first legal authority to the criminal the East India company to the imperial crown jurisdiction exercised by that body. It receiv(Aug. 1858), he became the first secretary of ed an augmentation of its powers by act of 31 the new department of India then created. Henry VIII., " which,” says Sir Thomas Smith, Since the retirement of the Derby ministry in “ was at that time marvellous necessary to do June, 1859, he has not held office.
to repress the insolence of the noblemen and STANLEY, Thomas, an English author, gentlemen of the north parts of England, who born in 1625, died in London, April 12, 1678. made their force their law;" and after an exHe was educated at Pembroke hall
, Oxford, istence of nearly 60 years it was during the and subsequently resided for several years in minority of Edward VI. merged in the general the Middle Temple. In 1649 he published a body of the council, which thenceforth, as in volume of “Poems and Translations," followed earlier times, constituted the real court of the in 1655–60 by his “ History of Philosophy, star chamber. The latter continued under the containing the Lives, Opinions, Actions, and Tudors and their successors, in spite of numerDiscourses of the Philosophers of every Sect” ous restraining statutes, to exercise a jurisdic(3 vols. fol.), by far his most important pro- tion, particularly in criminal matters, unauduction. A Latin translation of it by Olearius thorized by the act of Henry VII. erecting a was published at Leipsic in 1711. • In 1663 ap- new court, and which gradually rendered it peared his edition of Æschylus, including the one of the most odious instruments in overfragments and the Greek scholia, together with throwing the liberties of the people. Every a commentary and a Latin version. A reprint misdemeanor, and especially those of public of this edition, with the commentary enlarged importance for which the law, owing to the and corrected, was published at Cambridge in timidity and narrow-mindedness of its judicial 1809 by Dr. Butler (4 vols. 4to.). In 1814–15 interpreters, had provided no sufficient punishappeared an edition of his poems with a bio- ment, seems to have come within the scope of graphical memoir by Sir Egerton Brydges. its inquiry. Among these were corruption,
STANZA (Ital.), a certain number of lines breach of trust, and malfeasance in public af. regularly adjusted to each other, and forming fairs, attempts to commit felony, or breach of one of the divisions of a poem. The stanza proclamations; and to such an extent was its should properly terminate with a full point or authority stretched under the Stuarts, that, acpause, whence its name, which signifies a station cording to Clarendon, “any disrespect to any or resting place; but in practice this rule is not acts of state, or to the persons of statesmen, always observed, even in such varieties as the was in no time more penal, and the foundations Spenserian stanza, where the metre would seem of right never more in danger to be destroyed.” especially to require a full pause.
The mode of process was generally by informaSTAR. See ASTRONOMY.
tion filed at the suit of the attorney-general, STAR CHAMBER, COURT OF THE (curia ca- or, in certain cases, of a private relator, and in mera stellatæ, so called from the gilded stars on other respects resembled that familiar to the the ceiling of the old council chamber of the court of chancery. Although the court was palace of Westminster, in which it sat), a tribu- held incompetent to pronounce sentence of nal famous in the political history of England, death, fines, imprisonment, the pillory, whipand of which mention is made as early as the ping, branding, and various species of maiming reign of Edward III. It appears to have been were freely resorted to; and the greater certhen, and for upward of a century and a half tainty of conviction,” says Hallam, "and the afterward, identical with the ancient concilium greater severity of the punishment, rendered it regis, or king's ordinary council, which alone incomparably more formidable than the ordiexercised jurisdiction, the concilium secretum, nary benches of justice.” According to the or privy council, being a deliberative body; and same authority, the object of drawing so at the accession of Henry VII. its powers had large a number of criminal cases into the star become so greatly abridged by restraining stat- chamber seems to have been twofold: first, to utes as to render it almost inoperative as a court inure men's minds to an authority more immeof justice. The statute of 3 Henry VII. (1488) diately connected with the crown than the orplaced the jurisdiction of the council, or rather dinary courts of law, and less tied down to any of a part of the council, on a permanent basis rules of pleading or evidence; secondly, to eko by establishing a court composed of three high out a scanty revenue by penalties and forfeitofficers of state (to whom a fourth was subse- ures." After flourishing with constantly inquently added), a bishop and temporal lord of creasing power for upward of a century, the the council, and two justices of the courts of court of the star chamber was finally abolished Westminster, which took cognizance of riots, by act of parliament in 1641, although such perjury, the misbehavior of sheriffs, and other was the reverence for precedent still remainoffences against the administration of justice, ing, that at first nothing more than a bill to
regulate the tribunal was intended, and accord- is performed partly by the vesicular appendages ing to Clarendon the act finally passed was due attached to the central ring; all the viscera are to a suggestion from one not connected with bathed in water, and respiration is also effected the more ardent reformers.
through the delicate blood vessels thereon disSTAR FISH, the popular name of the radi- tributed. The vascular system is very simple; ated animals of the class of echinoderms and the nervous ganglia are 5, arranged around the the order asteroidea, well exemplified by the mouth, each sending filaments to the arm at common species of the New England coasts, whose base it lies; the sense of touch is very the 5-tingered Jack of the sailors. The quinary acute; the power of reproducing lost parts is arrangement prevails to a remarkable extent in very great, as every one knows from the muthe star fishes; one of the problems proposed tilated and irregular specimens so commonly by Sir Thomas Browne was: “Why, among seen in the sea and in aquaria. On the upper sea stars, nature chiefly delighteth in 5 points ?" surface, to one side of the centre and between The body of the star fishes is depressed, and two of the arms, is a round bright-colored spot, divided into rays like a star; the upper surface the madreporic plate or body, communicating is studded with rough knobs, varying in color with a canal leading to the water vessel around with the species, but generally reddish or yel- the mouth; this, according to Sharpey, is a lowish, between which are the openings of sieve through which the water is filtered as it many very minute tubes for the passage of wa- enters the aquiferous system for circulation ter in and out of the body; the skin is coria- through the whole body. They propagate by ceons, and contains the above named corpuscles, eggs only, and the sexes are in separate indibeneath which is a cutaneous skeleton of porous viduals; the larvæ are at first oval, ciliated calcareous pieces, movably articulated, and ex- bodies, without external organs or distinct tending on the lower surface from the mouth parts; from these, which have a strictly bilatin the centre to the end of the rays. In the eral symmetry, the radiated perfect animal is lacunæ between these pieces are the ambula- developed, at various stages of its growth, by a eral pores, along the centre of the lower surface process of internal gommation. The crinoid of each ray, through which are protruded the comatula, or feather star, free when adult, has ambulacral tubes; these are the principal or- its young attached on a long slender stem; gans of locomotion, are arranged in a double or Sars, a Norwegian naturalist, has traced the quadruple row, and are provided with contrac- growth of echinaster from a spheroidal freetile sacs or vesicles on the inner surface of the moving mass to the perfect star fish. Some en relope; the tubes are constantly in motion, species secrete a reddish fluid on the surface, each ending in a suctorial disk, and pull the probably the coloring matter, often irritating animal along as by the successive action of so to the skin of persons handling them; accordmany little anchors. On the external edges of ing to Deslongchamps, they can inject a fluid the rays are series of stiff spines, probably into the shells of their victims, which stupefies serving for protection, and at the end of each and re lers them an easy prey. Rymer Jones ray is a small reddish eye speck; there are says star fishes may be considered as mere also scattered over the upper surface small pro- walking stomachs, their office in the economy cesses ending in calcareous hooks or pincers. of nature being to devour all kinds of garbage The mouth opens into the stomachal cavity, which would otherwise accumulate on the from which branching cæcal tubes extend to shores ; they eat also living crustaceans, molthe extremity of each arm; having no long lusks, and even small fish, and are believed to tentacles like the sea anemone (actinia), the be very destructive to oysters; they are not stomach can be everted over their food and used as food by man, but are in many places then be turned back again; the mouth is very highly esteemed as manure. For a popular acdilatable, and will admit large mollusks with count of the British species the reader is re- . the shell, the hard parts being ejected after ferred to the “ History of British Starfishes," the soft portions are digested. There is great by Edward Forbes (London, 1841), illustrated variety in the spreading, division, and subdivi- by excellent figures. In that work are describsion of the arms, and in the relative size of the ed comatula (Lam.), the crinoid feather star; central disk, but all are arranged after the ra- ophiura (Lam.), the sand star; ophiocoma (Ag.), diated plan; the rays can be bent in any direc- the brittle star, so named from the facility with tion, according to the will or need of the ani- which the delicate arms are broken, but which mal, by the contractile skin and muscles. The are also readily repaired; astrophyton (Link), slender ophiurans progress by the undulatory the Medusa's head, so called from the curling movements of the rays, which, when very slen- and interlacing of the very numerous ends of der, long, and branching, have no eyes at the the rays; uraster (Ag.), the cross fish; solaster tips; there is generally no anal aperture, and (Forbes), the sun star; palmipes (Link), the when present it is on the dorsal surface. By bird's foot star; goniaster (Ag.), the cushion the action of cilia water flows through the star; and asterias aurantiaca (Linn.), the combody, through the aquiferous system, distend- mon star fish. The common star fish of the ing and protruding the ambulacral feet, filling North American coast (asterias rubens, Linn.), the circular vessel around the mouth, and serv- generally considered the same as the European ing for respiration, which, according to Siebold, species, is too well known to need description;
the colors vary from reddish to yellowish, and them with cold water on a cloth strainer. The the diameter from an inch to more than a foot; fluid passes through milky from the particles it is a very common inhabitant of public and of starch taken along with it, and being left to private aquaria, and very interesting to study. repose, these after a time subside. When pure
STAR OF BETHLEHEM (ornithogalum um- they appear as a white glistening powder; and bellatum, Linn.), a pretty liliaceous plant with when magnified 300 to 400 tiines, distinct white bulbs, numerous radical smooth green grains are seen of flattened ovate forms, varying leaves striped with a white longitudinal line, in size and exhibiting peculiar marks accordand corymbose racemes of starry white flowers ing to the particular vegetables that furnished consisting of 6 sepals, greenish without and them. Such are the concentric rings or ruge with white margins. The plant is a native of surrounding a minute circular hole or hilum Europe, but, escaping from gardens, has become at one or both ends of the granule. Thus it is naturalized in fields and orchards in the United that the adulteration of wheat flour by potato States by means of its tendency to multiply its starch or flour may be detected. Several phebulbs, which, remarkably tenacious of life, have nomena exhibited by starch have led chemists been conveyed from the compost heap and to the opinion that the microscopic granules barn yard. The foliage is however very tran- are made up of a thin integument, which is insient, perishing in early summer, so that its soluble in cold water and contains the same presence is not very detrimental to grass. substance within, but in a soluble condition. There are many species of the ornithogalum When starch is ground in a mortar it is renwhich bear the same trivial name.
dered partially soluble in cold water, and the. STARBOARD, the right hand side of a ves- same effect is produced by roasting it slightly. sel to a person standing in the stern and look- (See DEXTRINE.) But without this preparation ing toward the bow; opposed to larboard. starch may remain in water unchanged until
STARCH (also called amylaceous matter, the temperature is raised to a little more than and fecula), à proximate vegetable principlé 140° The granules then absorb water and existing in almost all plants. It has also been swell, and the mixture suddenly assumes a detected in animal tissues, in the brain, and in viscous pasty condition, in which state it is some other organs when these are in a diseased applied by laundresses to stiffening linen. A condition; but being recently found always cold solution of soda or potash containing two present in dust wherever collected, it is not per cent. or more of alkali will also cause the improbable that the slight quantities observed granules to swell and form a tenacious paste; in these matters may have been derived from but if much water be then added, a small porthis source. Its composition is represented by tion of the starch only remains in solution, the the formula C12 H,0 Ojo, and differs from that of rest subsiding. The presence of starch is recgrape sugar only by the latter containing the ognized by the blue color it acquires on the adelements of 4 atoms of water in addition. By dition of free iodine to its solution, the intenartificially producing this combination with sity of the color increasing with the proportion water, starch is wholly converted into this of iodine employed, till with a large excess of sugar. In the animal system its elements read- this it is blackish blue. At a temperature of ily enter into new combinations, and by its de- 200° the solution becomes colorless, and on oxidation it is supposed that the fats and fixed cooling recovers its former shade. Boiling for oils are produced that are found in both the some time destroys the color altogether, the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Its specific starch first forming dextrine and then sugar. action is regarded as promoting animal heat and The presence of sulphuric acid hastens this respiration. That it must play an important change. Starch is insoluble in alcohol and part in the animal as well as in the vegetable ether. In its commercial form it is agglutieconomy, is evident from the fact that it is the nated in columnar masses, which are easily rechief ingredient in most vegetable substances duced to powder. It is without smell or taste, employed for food. In the farinaceous grains, and when pressed in the fingers emits a pecuas rice, barley, and maize, it exists in great pu- liar sound and feels as if elastic. Its specific rity. In wheat it is associated with gluten; in gravity is about 1.5. Its properties as an alibeans, peas, and other leguminous seeds, and ment differ somewhat with the sources that also in oats, with saccharine matter; in pota- furnish it; thus, wheat starch is considered the toes, rye, and Windsor beans, with viscous most nutritious, probably from the presence of mucilage; in the emulsive seeds, that afford some gluten; arrowroot starch is the most dioil by expression, as the nuts, linseed, and co- gestible and the most free from gluten; starch coa, with fixed oil and mucilage. In some from potatoes and rice is regarded as the roots, as those of different species of arum and poorest aliment, neither nutritious nor digestof the manihot utilissima (see Cassava), it is ible.—There are but few historical notices of accompanied by a poisonous juice, which how- starch. Pliny speaks of it as being made in ever does not interfere with its easy separation the island of Chios, and the best from summer and conversion into simple articles of food, as wheat.. Nothing more is known of its history arrowroot, cassava bread, &c. From wheat until the time of Queen Elizabeth, when it was flour, the raspings of potatoes, and similar sub- in use for stiffening the enormous ruff's of that stances, starch is readily obtained by kneading period. It must have been rather an inferior article, as in the occasional allusions to it that feet, or nearly 6 acres. For grinding the corn have been preserved it is spoken of as of yellow there are 15 pairs of buhrstones, and 6 pairs or greenish color. In the last century the man- of large, heavy iron rollers. The river furufacture attained considerable importance in nishes the power to drive the machinery, and England; and starch was applied to numerous a steam engine of 150 horse power is provided uses in the arts, in medicine, and for purposes to make up any deficiency in very dry seasons. of the toilet. It was employed with smalt and The vats employed in purifying the starch have the stone blue or indigo color to stiffen and a capacity of 2,200,000 gallons, and the length clear linen, as still practised by laundresses; of gutters for conveying and distributing the in printing with colors it was used in strong starch waters is over 3 miles. A similar facgum water to make them work more freely tory, almost or quite equal to this in capacity, and prevent their cracking; and the perfum- commenced operations at Glen Cove, on Long ers employed it in making their hair powders. island, in 1858. This also uses Indian corn, In the reigns of Anne and George I., II., and which is more cheaply transported from the III., the use of any other material as a sub- western states than the starch from it would stitute for starch in any of its applications was be. The product for each bushel is about 23 most strictly prohibited under severe penalties, lbs., and the boxes of the starch, on account of and the manufacture was subject to extraor- their bulk and the extra care they require, make dinary restrictions and taxes, most of which more expensive freight than the raw material. continued in force until 1833. About the close Potato starch factories are more numerous, but of the century its production was a subject of not so extensive. In the town of Stowe, Vt., no little interest. In 1796 the society of arts there are 5 of them, each one of which conawarded a prize medal to a Mrs. Gibbs of Port- sumes from 16,000 to 20,000 bushels of potaland for her discovery of the arum maculatum toes yearly, and produces about 8 lbs. of starch as a fruitful source of it, and the starch thus to the bushel. The production in starch of obtained was afterward sold as the Portland the several materials employed in the manuarrowroot. The same year Lord William Mur- facture is va given by different authorray discovered a method of extracting it from ities, probably by reason of the influence on horse chestnuts. The great development of the the same plant of difference of soil and climate, cotton manufacture created a new demand for and its condition as regards maturity, and posstarch, and the calico print works consumed it sibly also of the more or less complete separain enormous quantities. In 1859 a single es- tion of the starch from other accompanying tablishment of this kind in Manchester used substances; and some perhaps give results of 6,000 cwt.-Starch is manufactured in different the factories, and others of the laboratories; countries from those vegetable products that and some of the grains, and others of their yield it most cheaply: in England from wheat, four. Thus in wheat the proportion of starch barley, and rice; on the continent from potatoes is rated from 35 to 77 per cent., or as an averand leguminous seeds; and in France from the age at 60; rice contains from 75 to 87 per horse chestnut also, which has been collected cent.; Indian corn, 64.5 to 80; barley, 60° to of late years for the factory at Nanterre at 68; rye, 60 to 65.5; oats, 37 to 65; buckprices equal to those for which potatoes are wheat, 44 to 52; peas and beans, 37 to 66; sometimes sold there. In the United States horse chestnut, 25; potatoes and arrowroot, Indian corn and potatoes are most commonly 20. Wheat is treated by two processes. The used for starch. The application of the former old method is to expose the flour mixed with to this use was patented by James Colman in water and the spent waters of previous opera1841, and was successfully practised by Thomas tions to fermentation for several weeks. The Kingsford of Oswego, N. Y., in 1842. In 1849 gluten undergoes putrefaction, emitting a most he had a large factory at that place, which noisome odor. The sugar and a portion of the is still in successful operation under the direc- starch are converted into alcohol, and a part tion of Messrs. T. Kingsford and son, having of this into lactic and acetic acids, which disup to the end of the year 1860 made nearly solve the gluten that has escaped putrefaction. 30,000 tons of starch. Its annual production Thorough washing and draining remove the for 5 years was as follows: 1856, 6,328,453 soluble matters, and the starch left behind is lbs.; 1857, 8,018,778 lbs. ; 1858, 8,686,516 lbs.; next dried in blocks about 6 inches square; 1859, 6,747,586 lbs.; 1860, 8,500,000 lbs.; far as the water escapes from them, the masses exceeding that of any other starch factory in break up into the columnar fragments peculiar the world for the same time. The total con- to starch. The other method, introduced by sumption of raw material in the 12 years from M. Emile Martin of Vervins, France, consists Jan. 1, 1849, was 2,476,000 bushels of Indian in kneading the flour into dough with water, corn and 164,448 bushels of wheat, beside some and then washing on a sieve of No. 120 wire damaged flour. The boxes for packing the in a stream of water as long as the water passes starch have required 15,000,000 feet of bass- through milky. The starch in suspension and wood, supplied chiefly by the farmers in the the sugary portion in solution are caught beneighborhood. The building has a front of low the sieve, and the gluten nearly all re510 feet, and extends back over the Oswego mains behind in a sticky mass. river 250 feet. Its flooring covers 250,600 through is left to ferment 24 hours in an oven
at 68° F., and a little leaven is added, or the quid is drawn off, and the rice after being well skimmings of a former operation, to hasten the washed is drained, and is then ground into process. The portion of gluten carried through flour. A fresh quantity of lye is added to it, with the starch is thus separated and removed and it is again digested for 24 hours, with freby skimming. The starch is then treated like quent stirring. It is now left for 70 hours, in that otherwise obtained. The product by this which time the dissolved gluten rises and is all method is about 50 per cent. of the weight found in a turbid, yellowish stratum at the top. of the flour, while by the other process it is This portion is carefully drawn off, leaving the only from 35 to 40 per cent. Nearly the fibrous portion of the grain at the bottom interwhole of the gluten also is saved in a con- mixed and covered with starch. The deposit is dition suitable for food, either by mixing it then stirred up and washed with abundance of with flour and making of it macaroni and cold water, and the mixture being left to repose, similar pastes, or, as recommended by M. Ro- the fibrous portion is deposited with rery little bine, with boiled potatoes, and thus making starch, and the remainder is drawn off by a sia cheap and nutritious bread, by adding to the phon through a fine sieve into a cistern. Further potatoes a nutritive element in which they washings of the deposit are added to this, and are deficient. Potato starch is made from the water is finally removed, and the starch is rasped or grated potatoes, by a process similar dried in the usual way. The gluten is recorto that just described. This variety does not ered by neutralizing its solution with the exact assume the columnar form in drying, and is quantity of sulphuric acid required for this, also peculiar in retaining a large amount of when it is set free and falls in flakes to the moisture, generally 20 per cent., or when sat- bottom. These are collected, washed, and urated 23 per cent. It is largely consumed ground into flour, when the substance is prefor a variety of farinaceous preparations sold pared for culinary purposes.
This process apby the druggists as delicate food for invalids, plied to wheat results in the saving of all the under numerous high-sounding names. (See gluten for food.—The principal use of starch ADULTERATION.)—The corn used for starch is has already been noticed. It has at present the white flint kind. Received at the factory, a very limited application in medicine; it is it is hoisted to the top of the building, win- used externally as an absorbent of irritating nowed to remove foreign substances, and then secretions; it may also be given as an antidote transferred to vats, where it is long soaked be- to iodine taken in poisonous quantities. Those fore grinding. It is run through troughs with varieties described under ARROW ROOT, Cassava, water to the mills, and when ground the mixed and Sago, form a mild nutritious diet for the meal and water is conveyed in a similar man- sick. Starch is sometimes adulterated with ner to the tubs in which the separation of the carbonate and sulphate of lime, and is purstarch is effected. The gluten fluid that flows posely charged with water, sometimes to the from these has a musty and disagreeable odor extent of 12 per cent.—The importations of and appearance in the troughs, and the sub- starch into the United States in 1860 amounted stance lacks when concentrated the consistency only to $1,400, the largest quantities coming of wheat gluten, not “rising" like it in fer- from Scotland, China, and England.—The submentation by the expansive action of the car- ject of starch is treated by Dumas in Chimie bonic acid gas generated in this process. Its appliquée, vol. vi., and by Parnell in " Applied only value is for feeding horses, cattle, and Chemistry;" and the manufacture from the swine. The starch fluid is conveyed through potato is described by M. Payen in Précis de troughs to great vats in the basement of the chimie industrielle (Paris, 1851). building, where the water is partially removed, STARGAZER, a spiny-rayed percoid fish of and then it flows into smaller wooden vessels the family trachinida or weevers, and genus from which a portion of the surplus water uranoscopus (Linn.), so called from the position drains away through a cloth laid in the bottom of the eyes, which look directly upward. The of each. The mass of starch, then tolerably body is elongated, covered with smooth cycloid solid, is placed upon shelves made of loose scales; head depressed, large and wide, bony bricks, when more moisture escapes by absorp- and rough, with the gape ascending or vertition and evaporation. Kiln drying finishes the cally cleft, the upper jaw the shorter, and the process, and the starch is obtained in prismatic teeth small and crowded on the jaws, palate, forms ready to be put up in papers or boxes and vomer; branchiostegal rays 6; dorsals 2, for the market.—Rice is treated by a process of which the 1st is small and spinous, the 2d patented in 1840 by Mr. Orlando Jones, which and the anal long ; ventrals in front of the large is also quite as applicable to the other grains, pectorals and on the throat; anus very far forand by the use of which the offensive odors ward; air bladder absent. In some of the from the putrefactive fermentation are avoided. family the dorsal and opercular spines are capaThe rice is macerated in a weak alkaline so- ble of inflicting painful wounds; they have the lution, a gallon of water to every 2 lbs. of power of raising the eyeballs from and retractrice, and about 200 grains of caustic soda oring them within their sockets. There are more potash to the gallon. Of this strength the so- than a dozen species of the genus, mostly East lution takes up the gluten, leaving the starch. Indian, of which the best known is the U. scaAfter standing about 24 hours, the alkaline li- ber (Linn.) of the Mediterranean, about a foot