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insect feeds, are also natives of Texas; the fish, a delicious fish often weighing 50 lbs.; the agave and numerous species of cacti are yellow, blue, and white codfish; sheepshead, abundant W. of the Nueces. The fruit trees mullet, founders, perch, pike, suckers, and sea

The peach, of superior size trout are also abundant. The crawfish, crabs, and flavor, the nectarine, the quince, fig, plum, oysters, clams, mussels, shrimps, and hard and orange, melon, lime, mulberry, and crab ap- soft shelled turtles are found all along the ple are found in most parts of the state; and coasts. Great attention is paid to the raising of the vine yields luscious grapes, and some atten- horses, cattle, sheep, and swine, and the camel tion is given to the manufacture of wine. Many has been introduced with some success.-Among kinds of berries also are found in the river ba- the objects of interest to the tourist are the pass sins and forests. The vanilla and cayenne pep- of the Guadalupe mountains in the N. W. part per are grown in large quantities. The flowers of the state, where the traveller finds himself of Texas are of great beauty and grow in won- wandering for hours in an apparently interderful profusion. Mimosas, wax plants, cardi- minable labyrinth of mountain spurs and deep nal flowers, trumpet flowers, lilies of number- gorges, with lofty walls of terraced limestone less varieties, geraniums, asters, dahlias, and almost shutting out his view of the sky, and many other flowers cultivated at the north, dark, precipitous ravines, whose bottom is conhere grow wild. The upland variety of cotton cealed by the shadows of the walls which bound matures and yields abundantly in all parts of it. The Castle mountain pass and the Waco the state below lat. 31° N., and the sea island mountain pass are hardly inferior to this in yields as fine a quality and larger crops than in grandeur. "In the N. of Texas the Red river South Carolina and Georgia, on the islands of cuts its way through solid rock in a canon or the coast. In Texas the cotton crop, on ac- gorge 800 feet in depth. On one of the count of the temperate character of the climate, branches of the Colorado river there is a fall can be cultivated to great advantage by small of 120 feet perpendicular, the sheet of water farmers who perform their own labor, and in being 100 feet in width. Numerous fossils of Western Texas (that portion of the state W. of gigantic extinct animals have been found in the Trinity) large quantities are thus produced different parts of the state, some of them of without slave labor. Sugar is made from the larger size than have been discovered elsesugar cano chiefly in the vicinity of the Brazos where. In Houston co. there are numerous river, of quality fully equal to the best Louis- silicified trees, most of them nearly perpendiciana, and also from the sorghum. Indian corn ular or inclining to the N., but some lying upon is cultivated in every settled county in the state. the ground.-In 1850 Texas had 12,198 farms, Wheat is raised in all the interior, northern, comprising 643,976 acres of improved and 10,and western counties, and yields an average of 852,363 acres of unimproved lands, the whole over 15 bushels to the acre. In 1858 there value of which was estimated at $16,550,008. were 632,225 acres planted with cotton, about The value of farming implements and machine225,000 acres with wheat, 16,000 either with ry was $2,151,704. In 1858 the farming lands sugar cane or sorghum, and about 1,250,000 under cultivation amounted to 47,937,537 acres, with Indian corn. Hay is also a considerable valued at $73,677,316. The live stock in 1850 crop; and the grasses of the state suitable for consisted of '76,760 horses, 12,463 asses and grazing or curing are numerous and of superior mules, 217,811 milch cows, 51,285 working quality. The wild animals of Texas are the oxen, 661,018 other cattle, 100,530 sheep, and buffalo, which still roams in considerable num- 692,022 swine; the value of live stock was bers in the N. W.; the wild horse, or mustang, $10,412,927, and of animals slaughtered $1,of which immense herds are found on the west- 116,137. The products of animals were: 2,344,ern prairie, lands; deer, pumas, jaguars, oce- 900 lbs. of butter, 95,299 of cheese, and 131,917 lots, wild cats, black bears, wolves, foxes, some of wool. The crops of 1849 were: wheat, peccaries, raccoons, opossums, rabbits, hares, 41,729 bushels; rye, 3,108; oats, 199,017; Insquirrels of several species, prairie dogs, and in dian corn, 6,028,876; potatoes, 1,426,803; barthe mountains of the N. W. the antelope, the ley, 4,706 ; hay, 8,354 tons; peas and beans, bighorn, and the moose. Of birds there is the 179,350 bushels; beeswax and honey, 380,825 greatest possible variety, including the prairie lbs.; flax, 1,048 lbs.; cane sugar, 7,351 hhds.; hen and other grouse, the wild goose, the wild molasses, 441,918 galls.; cotton, 58,072 bales; turkey, numerous species of the duck tribe, rice, 82,203 lbs.; tobacco, 66,897 lbs. Value woodcock, pigeons, turtle doves, snipe, plover, of produce of market gardens, $12,354; of orand rice birds; cranes, swans, pelicans, king- chard products, $12,505. In 1858 the number fishers, and water turkeys; the bald-headed and of horses was 238,203, valued at $11,583,247; Mexican eagles, vultures, hawks, owls, and other of cattle, 2,220,433, valued at $13,259,537. In rapacious birds; the blackbird, starling, blue 1860 the number of sheep, estimated from the jay, paroquet, oriole, cardinal, mocking bird, returns of over 100 counties, was over 350,000. whippoorwill, woodpecker, redstart, martin, The cotton exported directly to foreign ports robin, swallow, and wren. There are many in the year ending July 1, 1860, was 125,641 varieties of fish peculiar to the Texan coast bales, valued at $5,744,981, and the whole crop and rivers, beside the species common to the was estimated at 400,000 bales. The wheat crop gulf states. The most numerous are the red of 1859 was estimated at 3,750,000 bushels; the

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corn crop was about 25,000,000 bushels; the rado road extends from Harrisburg (which is
sugar crop was not estimated. The statistics connected with Galveston by steamer) to Co.
of the manufactures of the state in 1850 were: lumbus, & distance of 175 m.; the Houston
value of home-made manufactures, $266,984; Tap and Brazoria road, from Houston to Co-
manufacturing establishments, 309; capital, lumbia on the Brazos, 50 m., and perhaps to
$539,290; raw material used, $394,642; hands Wharton on the Colorado, a further distance
employed, 1,042 male and 24 female; annual of about 40 m.; the Houston and Texas cen-
wages, $322,368; annual product, $1,165,538. tral, from Houston to Navasota, and probably
Among the manufactories noted are a woollen to Booneville, 70 or 100 m.; the Washington
mill, employing $8,000 capital, using 30,000 lbs. co road, from Hempstead to Brenham, 25 m.;
of wool valued at $10,000, and producing $15,000 the Texas and New Orleans road, from Orange
worth of goods; 2 iron founderies, employing on the Sabine river to Houston, 106 m.; and
$16,000 capital; and 2 salt factories, with $3,475 there is a short line from Shreveport, La., to
capital. The state, in reference to its inhabit- Marshall, Texas, intended as the commence-
ants as well as its pursuits, has two great di- ment of the southern Pacific road.—Texas has
visions. Eastern Texas, including that portion an institution for the deaf and dumb at Austin,
of the state lying E. of the Trinity river, is founded in 1857, and endowed with 100,000
inhabited principally by emigrants from the acres of state land; the number of pupils in
southern states; the landholders have mostly 1860 was 30, and the current expenses $9,000
large plantations, hold the greater part of the per annum. There is an institute for the
slaves of the state, and cultivate by slave la- blind in the same city, which was incorporated
bor cotton, rice, sugar, wheat, and Indian corn. in 1856, and which is also endowed with 100,-
Western Texas, lying W. of the Trinity, is 000 acres of land ; in 1859 it had 10 pupils,
occupied mostly by emigrants from Germany, and the current expenses were $6,500 per an-
France, and other European countries, and the num. Near Austin there is a lunatic asylum in
northern states; the farms are smaller, and course of erection, intended to accommodate
cotton, sorghum, sugar and molasses, wheat, when completed 250 patients. An appropria-
Indian corn, &c., are the principal crops, which tion of 100,000 acres of land has also been made
are almost entirely cultivated by the farmers for an orphan asylum. The state penitentiary
and their families, very little slave labor being is at Huntsville, Walker co. It is on the silent
employed.—The state has great facilities for or Auburn plan, and the labor of the prison-
both internal and foreign commerce. Her ers is let to contractors. In Sept. 1860, the
largo rivers, though somewhat obstructed by number of prisoners was 200, of whom 160
sand bars, are yet navigable far into the inte- were employed in the prison factory, manufac-
rior; and the railroad lines in operation and in turing osnaburgs and coarse woollen goods; 8
course of construction will greatly increase the in the cabinet and clothing shops; and 32 were
facilities for bringing products to market. The sick, invalids, or in the floating force. The
direct exports from Texan ports to foreign cost of raw material in the factory was $76,-
count in the year ending July 1, 1860, were 187, and the value of the manufactured goods
$6,784,934, of which $5,839,757 worth was cot- $124,598.—The school fund of the state on
ton. The direct imports for the same year Sept. 1, 1860, amounted to $2,531,520.64, and
were $2,436,408. The value of imports from the amount distributed to counties was $112,-
Mexico in 1859, for 11 months, was $3,865,312. 595.31. Beside this, each county has 17,712
The enrolled and licensed tonnage of the state acres of land set apart for school purposes, and
the same year was 7,668 tons, of which 1,006 from the proceeds of this may materially in-
tons were built that year. The arrivals of crease the annual appropriation to its schools.
American and foreign vessels at the several The school fund consists of the sum of $2,000,-
ports of entry from foreign countries in 1859 000 of the 5 per cent. U. S. bonds set apart for
were 76, tonnage 32,812, and the clearances the purpose, to which is added annually of
for foreign countries were 108, tonnage 48,763. the state tax. The number of children of school
The internal and coasting commerce very great- age (6 to 18) in 1860 was 104,447, and the amount
ly surpasses this, and the great bulk of the distributed $1 to each. There is also a univer-
exports from the state are sent to New Orleans sity fund, which in 1860 amounted to $111,000,
and New York, to both which ports large sea- the interest of which is at present accumulat-
going steamers usually ply weekly or oftener. ing. There are numerous academies and female
There is but one canal in Texas, extending seminaries in the state, and 3 colleges, viz. :
from West bay to the Brazos river; but there Aranama college (Presbyterian), at Goliad in
have been improvements of the rivers and har- Goliad co., founded in 1852, and which in
bors completed at a cost of nearly $370,000. 1860 had 3 professors, 75 students, and 1,800
On Jan. 1, 1861, there were 2,667 m. of railroad volumes in its library; Austin college (also
projected and in progress in the state, of which Presbyterian), at Huntsville, Walker co., which
294.50 were completed, at a cost of $9,200,000. in 1858 had 5 professors and over 100 stu-
Since that time several roads have been com- dents, exclusive of those in the law depart-
pleted or extended. The amount in operation ment; and Baylor university, at Independence,
in the autumn of 1861 was nearly or quite Washington co., founded in 1845, and having 5
450 m. The Buffalo Bayou, Brazos, and Colo- professors and about 150 students in 1858.

There is also a military institute of consider- culate as money; and no corporate body is to able reputation at Rutterville, Fayette co., es- be created, renewed, or extended, with banking tablished in 1856. The total number of church- or discounting privileges. The state cannot be es reported in 1850 was 328, of which 70 were part owner of the stock or property belonging Baptist, 5 Christian, 5 Episcopal, 7 Free, 173 to any corporation. The provisions of the conMethodist, 47 Presbyterian, 13 Roman Catho- stitution relating to slaves prohibit their being lic, 2 Union, and 6 of minor sects. The total brought into the state as merchandise, direct value of church property in that year was that they shall have jury trial in all cases above $206,930, and the whole number of sittings the grade of petit larceny, and that personal was 64,155. In 1850 there were 34 newspapers injuries to or maiming of a slave, or depriving published in Texas, printing annually 1,296,924 him of life, shall be punished in the same way copies; of these 5 were tri-weekly and 29 week- and to the same extent as if white persons, exly. In 1860 there were 34 newspapers published cept in cases of insurrection of such slave; they in the state, of which 3 were daily and weekly, also authorize the legislature to pass laws pro1 tri-weekly and weekly, 79 weekly, and 1 tecting the slave, and punishing the owner who monthly.-The constitution, adopted in 1845, maltreats him by taking him away and selling has the following among other provisions: him for the owner's benefit. The state was in Every free male person (Indians, Africans, and 1860 entirely free from debt. In 1851 it redescendants of Africans excepted), 21 years of ceived the $10,000,000 U. S. bonds to be paid age, who is a citizen of the United States, or by the U. 8. government in consideration of who was at the adoption of the constitution her cession of territory and reduction of boun8 citizen of Texas, and has resided in the state daries; and from the income and part of the one year, and in the district, county, city, or principal of this, after settling her indebtment, town where he proposes to vote 6 months, is with a small tax ( of 1 per cent.) on real estate & qualified elector. Representatives must have and a capitation tax of 50 cts., the state expenses been resident citizens for 2 years, and have re- were defrayed up to that time. The total taxsided in the district they represent one year able property in 1858 was $193,636,818, includprior to their election, and must be at least 21 ing 47,937,537 acres of land, valued at $73,years of age. Senators must have been resi- 677,316; 43,690 town lots, $12,861,990; 134,201 dent citizens for 3 years, must have resided slaves, $71,912,496; 238,203 horses, $11,583,in the district they represent one year, and have 247; 2,220,433 cattle, $13,259,537; and misattained the age of 30 years. The members cellaneous property, $6,347,298. In 1859 the of the house are elected for 2 years, and must total taxable property was $224,353,266, the not be fewer than 45 nor more than 90; of the increase being in the value of slaves, $12,774,senate, elected for 4 years, not fewer than 19 820; land, $9,477,542; cattle, $2,739,421 ; nor more than 33. The present numbers are horses, $2,617,502; town lots, $1,388,984; 66 and 21. Clergymen are not eligible to the money lent, $513,047; and miscellaneous proplegislature nor to state offices, nor persons hold- erty, $1,208,812. The total tax of 1859 was ing lucrative office under the U.S. government, $309,726.60, and the average value of land per nor collectors of taxes until they have obtained acre was $1.88. On Aug. 31, 1860, the funds a discharge for the amount of their collections. in the state treasury were: revenue of state, The sessions of the legislature are biennial. $127,934.02; university land sales, $19,973.55; The judiciary of the state comprises a supreme school fund, $2,531,620.64; sinking fund on court, having only appellate jurisdiction, consist- railroad bonds, $28,920; special deposits, $41,ing of one chief justice and two associates, each 743.77; total, $2,750,091.98.-The first Euhaving a salary of $3,000; and 20 district courts, ropean visitors to the shores of Texas were a each presided over by a single judge residing colony of French emigrants led by the sieur de in his own district, having original jurisdic- La Salle, who, designing to found a settlement tion, and receiving a salary of $2,250. Both the in the delta of the Mississippi, sailed past it supreme and district judges are elected by the nnawares, landed in Matagorda bay, erected legislature on the nomination of the governor, Fort St. Louis on the Lavaca, and after a for the term of 6 years. The governor is elect- series of misfortunes was murdered near the ed by the people for 2 years, but cannot hold Neches river by his own men in 1687. In 1689 the office more than 4 years in any period of 6 Capt. De Leon, a Spanish officer, was despatchyears; his salary is $3,000 and a furnished ed to the Lavaca to scour the country and hunt house. The secretary of state is appointed by out the French. He arrived there on April 22, the governor for 2 years; the attorney-general, found the garrison scattered, and returned the treasurer, comptroller, and commissioners of next year with 110 men and some friars, and land office and claims are elected by the people established on the site of Fort St. Louis the biennially. The state engineer is elected by a mission of San Francisco. In 1691 a Spanish joint vote of the two branches of the legisla- governor of the region was appointed, and solture; his salary is $3,000, and that of the other diers sent to enforce his authority; but in 1693 state officers from $1,800 to $2,000. The legis- the hostility of the Indians, the failure of the lature is prohibited from granting either lotter- crops, and the death of their cattle discouraged ies or divorces. No individual may issue bills, the colonists, and the settlement was abandonchecks, promissory notes, or other paper to cir- ed. The Spaniards had settlements at El Paso

VOL. XV.-26

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and at San Juan Bautista, both on the right Grande. At one time the U. S. authorities bank of the Rio Grande, but none within the drove the Spaniards across the Sabine, and for present bounds of Texas. In 1714 the French some time the troops of the two nations ocagain attempted to effect a settlement within cupied the opposite banks of that river, and a its limits, and Crozat, to whom Louis XIV. had collision seemed inevitable; this was finally granted the whole of Louisiana, sent Huche- averted, in Oct. 1806, by the prudence and reau St. Denis upon an expedition thither. He discretion of Gen. Herrera, the Spanish compenetrated from the Sabine to the Rio Grande, mander, who entered into an agreement with and visited the Spanish mission of San Juan, Gen. Wilkinson establishing the territory bewhere he was taken prisoner by the governor of tween the Sabine and Arroyo Honda as a neuCoahuila ; but having subsequently married the tral ground, and retiring W. of that line. The daughter of the commandant of that mission, illicit trade with Mexico carried on through he introduced Spanish missionaries into Texas, Texas was so lucrative as to engage numerous who established a mission on the bay of San adventurers in it, some of whom were captured Bernard, another west of the Sabine and near and treated with great cruelty by the Spanish the coast (the famous mission of Dolores), and authorities; and as the relations of Spain with a third on the right bank of the San Pedro, her American colonies were becoming very near San Antonio, subsequently removed east- unsatisfactory, there were frequent attempts ward, and known afterward as the Alamo. Two made to throw off the Spanish yoke both by other missions were established soon after, one Mexico and the settlers in Texas, inany of whom near Nacogdoches, the other not far from San belonged to this class of adventurers. From Augustine. The name of “the New Philip 1806 a series of revolutionary efforts compines” was now given to the country, and in menced, beginning with the projected more1715 the marquis de Aguayo was made gover- ment of Aaron Burr, and embracing the expedinor-general of the colony. For 20 years the tions of Magee, a former lieutenant of the U.S. Spaniards held sole sway over this colony, and army; of Col. Kemper, his successor; of Bermultiplied their settlements. In 1735 St. Denis, nardo Gutierrez; of Col. Ellis P. Bean, who had who had acquired great influence over the suffered a protracted and cruel imprisonment Texas Indians, aided in removing a French set- from the Spanish authorities; of Gen. J. A. Totlement on the Red river into Texas; the Span- ledo, a Cuban republican ; of Col. Perry, an iards protested, but owing to quarrels among American officer of considerable ability; of themselves did not drive them out, and finally Auzy, who styled himself governor of Texas; conceded that they had a right to the region and of Xavier Mina, a Spanish refugee, who they were occupying. Texas did not prosper aided in the capture of Galveston island in 1816. under its Spanish rulers, and in 1744 its Eu- In these expeditions there were several severe ropean population did not exceed 1,500. In battles fought between the invaders and the 1758 the Indians attacked the mission of San Spanish authorities; on two occasions in 1813, Saba, and killed all its inhabitants. This caused the invaders defeated the Spanish forces, and the decline of the missions in Texas, as the caused them a loss of more than 1,000 killed slaughter was never avenged. In 1763 the fend and wounded. These defeats were terribly between France and Spain was finally settled by avenged in the same year, when, of a force of the cession of Louisiana by the former power to 2,500 Americans and Mexicans, all were slain the latter; and up to the establishment of peace but about 100, a considerable number being between the United States and Great Britain butchered in cold blood, and nearly 700 of the in 1783, there were no events of interest con- peaceable inhabitants of San Antonio murdered. nected with its history. By treaty with Great In 1817 Mina won several victories in conflicts Britain before the war of the American revolu- with the Spanish troops, but was finally detion, Spain had conceded the free navigation of feated, taken prisoner, and shot on Nov. 11 of the Mississippi, and the right to make New Or- that year. Col. Perry attempted to return by leans a place of deposit for goods in transitu. land to the United States; but having with a These privileges she was disposed to withhold force of only 50 men demanded the surrender from the United States, which had succeeded of La Bahia, a Spanish garrison, he was atto the British title, from fear that they would tacked in the rear by a troop of 200 royalist lead to aggressions upon her territories along cavalry, and, all his men having fallen, blew the gulf coast. For a long time war seemed out his own brains with his pistol. After the imminent, but was finally averted by the diffi- close of the war of 1812 Lafitte, the pirate of culties of Spain at home. In 1803, Spain hav- the gulf, made Galveston island his head-quaring re-ceded Louisiana to France, that power ters, and established a town there named Camceded it to the United States; and as there had peachy. He also claimed to be acting under been no well defined boundary between Louisi- authority of the Mexican republic, and it is ana and the old Spanish possessions W. of it, à said actually received such authority from Col. controversy at once ensued between Spain and Bean, one of the revolutionary leaders. He the United States on the tion of bounda- remained here till 1821, when, a nåval force ries, Spain claiming a region E. of the Sabine, baving been despatched by the U. S. gov. and the United States urging that they were ernment to break up the settlement, he abanentitled to the country W. as far as the Rio doned Texas for ever. In 1819 the long con

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troversy between the United States and Spain nulled Edwards's grant and expelled him from in regard to the Texan boundary was termi- the state. A band of American criminals, funated by the cession of Florida to the United gitives from justice who had settled in that vi. States and the establishment of the Sabine as cinity, organized themselves into a company the boundary line, with a guaranty to Spain of of "regulators” to harass the colonists who had her possessions W. of that river. This treaty taken up lands under Edwards and drive them occasioned much dissatisfaction on the part from the farms they had improved. Thus opof the western and south-western states. Mr. pressed, Edwards and his colonists attempted Clay and other prominent men opposed it. An- unsuccessfully to effect a revolution; and in other revolutionary expedition was organized Jan. 1827, they were compelled to retreat into at Natchez the same year, under the command the United States. A somewhat more liberal of Dr. James Long, a Tennesseean, which pen- course was pursued by the Mexican authorities etrated as far as Nacogdoches and established after this event, and the colonies prospered, a provisional government there, and the leader though occasionally harassed by the Indians, went to Galveston island to secure the coöpera- whose forays injured their trade with Mexico. tion of Lafitte; but while absent his force was In 1830 Bustamente, who had seized the dicrouted and cut to pieces by the royalist troops, tatorship of Mexico, issued a decree forbidding and Long himself escaped with difficulty across the people of the United States to enter Texas the Sabine. In a second expedition he took as colonists, and suspending all colony conpossession of La Bahia without difficulty; but, tracts which interfered with this prohibition. though Mexico had become independent under From this time forward the jealousy of the the presidency of Iturbide, he and his followers Mexican government against the emigrants were taken prisoners and sent to Mexico, where from the United States became every month after a brief imprisonment he was set at liberty, more manifest, and reckless and unprincipled but almost immediately assassinated, in 1822. adventurers, like Bean, Gaines, and Bradburn, Texas at this time was almost wholly deserted, who had long before become obnoxious to the the settlement at Galveston entirely aban- government under which they were born and doned, and the few inhabitants at other points to good citizens everywhere, united with the reduced to poverty by the civil war which had Mexican government, or rather went beyond so long existed. In 1820 Moses Austin, a na- it, in acts of oppression and outrage upon the tive of Connecticut, but at that time a resident peaceable colonists. The Indians also were of Missouri, received from the Spanish authori- constantly becoming more and more ferocious ties of Mexico a grant of lands in Texas for and troublesome, and in several instances which he had petitioned a year previous; he pitched battles were fought with them. In died, however, before he was able to avail 1832 the Texans, sustaining the pronunciahimself of it. His son, Stephen F. Austin, re- miento of Vera Cruz in favor of the constitution, ceived a confirmation of the grant in April, and in opposition to the rule of Bustamente, 1823, haring already in the beginning of 1822 were attacked by a force sent by Bradburn conducted a considerable number of colonists to enforce the authority of that despot; but to the site he had selected in the vicinity of in the battle which followed the Mexicans the present county of Austin, and more soon were defeated with heavy loss. In 1833 the followed. The grants of land to colonists were American settlers in the state, now numbering very liberal, 177 acres at least being given to over 20,000, held a convention and determined each farmer, and a larger quantity if he had a to separate themselves from Coahuila, which farnily, and to each stock raiser 4,428 acres; was exclusively Mexican in its population, and the emigrants for the first 6 years were to be accordingly prepared a state constitution and free from taxes, tithes, duties, &c. The found- an address to the general government, of which er of the colony, for each 200 families he in- Santa Anna was now the head, requesting adtroduced, was to receive 66,774 acres of land, mission in the capacity of a separate state into but was limited to 3 times this amount how- the republic. This movement was one in which erer many families he might colonize. The the best men of Texas were all united. Col. colony increased rapidly, and Austin obtained S. F. Austin was one of the commissioners, and permission to bring in 500 more families (his the only one who went to Mexico to present first grant was for 300). Others also followed the request of the memorialists. He was unin the establishment of colonies in the same vi- successful, and was detained in Mexico till Sept., cinity. The Mexican constitution, adopted in 1835, but in 1834 succeeded in procuring the 1824, united Coahuila, hitherto a separate prov- revocation of the decree of Bustamente proince, with Texas in a single state, and the con- hibiting the admission of colonists from the gress of the united state placed a Mexican as United States, and several other favorable concommandant of the department of Texas. The cessions. Meantime the Mexican inhabitants injustice of this commandant toward the Amer- of Texas and Coahuila had quarrelled, and each ican citizens, especially those attached to the had set up a revolutionary government; but colony of Haydon Edwards, adjacent to that of the Anglo-American residents remained quiet. Austin, created difficulty; and an appeal being Santa Anna sought to amuse Austin and the made to the governor of the state, who was also Texans with promises of allowing them a state a Vexican, he without trial or examination an- government till he could occupy the state with

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