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furnish thoso elements of reasoning from which Charles island are 5 summits ranging from each one may work out his own conclusions; 4,000 to 4,500 feet high. The N. shores of while we are told that the main object of their Spitzbergen and North-East Land are more manifestations is to furnish actual demonstration level, and here and on several of the smaller of the immortality of the soul and of some of islands some soil is found, in which a few very the conditions and laws of the post mortem ex- diminutive plants spring up and mature in a istence.-Spiritualism has also made consider- month or 6 weeks of the short summer. Imable progress in Europe, especially in England mense glaciers abound, and the islands are and France. In England, it is stated, many of almost covered with perpetual snow. The the nobility as well as of the intelligent middle mean temperature of the 3 warmest months is classes are believers in it, and hold communica- 34.5°. For 4 months of the year the sun does tions with their departed friends through me- not rise, but the long night is relieved by a diums in their own families. Several books and faint twilight, and the occasional brilliant light pamphlets have been published on the subject of the aurora borealis; the moon and stars also in that country, and a seini-monthly periodical shine here with great brightness. The islands is issued in London devoted to its facts and phi- are frequented by great multitudes of sea fowl, losophy. In France its believers are still more as well as by polar bears, foxes, and reindeer. numerous. Several able journals devoted to Marble and coal of a good quality are found. the subject are published in Paris, and read The neighboring seas abound with whales, throughout France, Switzerland, and Belgium. seals, and walruses, which are taken in large Germany, Spain, Italy, Russia, and in short numbers by the vessels that visit this inhosnearly every nation of Europe, appears to have pitable region; and Russian whalers have lived its devotees of spiritualism, in greater or small- for years on the islands. These islands are er numbers. Travellers in the north of Africa supposed to have been first discovered by Wiltell us that it has made considerable progress loughby in 1553 ; but their discovery is generin the Barbary states; and reports from China ally dated from the visit of Barentz, the Dutch represent it as having very distinctly appeared navigator, in 1596, in his search for a N. E. at several localities within that empire, and es- passage to the Pacific, who named the principecially at the city of Shanghai, about the time pal island Spitzbergen (pointed mountains) of its first advent in America.–For specimens from its numerous sharp peaks. Their soverof the better kind of spirit communications, eignty is claimed by Russia. A Swedish scienconsidered as literary productions, see “Spir- tific expedition under Prof. Torell explored itualism,” by the Hon. John W. Edmonds and Spitzbergen in the summer of 1861, whose reG. T. Dexter, M.D. (2 vols. 8vo., New York, port is expected to form an important addition 1854–5); “ The Ilealing of the Nations,” by to the previous knowledge of that region. Charles Linton, with introduction and appendix SPLEEN (Gr. otAnv), the largest of the vasby N. P. Tallmadge, late U. S. senator and gov- cular or ductless glands, whose probable funcernor of Wisconsin (8vo., New York, 1855); tional office is subsidiary to the process of “Scenes in the Spirit World, or Life in the sanguification. It is situated in the left hypoSpheres,” by Hudson Tuttle, medium (12mo., chondriac region, below the diaphragm, above New York, 1855). Among books produced in the descending colon, between the cartilages the ordinary_manner, the following may be of the false ribs and the cardiac extremity of consulted: “Experimental Investigations of the the stomach, to which it is united by short vesSpirit Manifestations,” by Prof. Robert Hare sels. It is in health from 3 to 4.5 inches long (8vo., New York, 1856); "A Discussion of the and 2} thick, of an elongated flattened form, Facts and Philosophy of Ancient and Modern and about 7 oz. in weight; on the inner surface Spiritualism,” by S. B. Brittan and B. W. Rich- is a longitudinal groove in which are situated mond, M.D.; “Modern Spiritualism, its Facts the blood vessels, posteriorly resting on the and Fanaticisms," &c., by E. W. Capron (8vo., vertebral column; below it is in relation with Boston, 1855). With the exception of these and the left kidney and capsule, and with the pana few other books, the best portion of the litera- creas behind.
It is soft, spongy, and dusky ture of spiritualism is to be found in the various red; the external surface is covered with the periodical publications devoted to that subject. peritoneum; beneath this is a coat of white
SPITZBERGEN, a group of 4 principal and fibrous tissue with some elastic fibres, from the several smaller islands in the Arctic ocean, the inner surface of which extends through the northernmost land yet discovered, between lat. entire organ a network of fibrous bands and 76° 30' and 80° 30' N. and long. 9° and 22° E., threads, the trabecular tissue. The splenic arand about midway between Greenland on the tery comes from the cæliac axis, the trunks not W. and Nova Zembla on the E.; area, about anastomosing, but subdividing like the branches 22,000 sq. m. The large islands are Spitzber- of a tree, to which the Malpighian corpuscles gen, North-East Land, South-East Land, and are attached as fruits on short peduncles, endCharles. On the E. of Spitzbergen proper is a ing generally in capillaries with very thin walls, peninsula called New Friesland or East Spitz- passing in every direction through the organ bergen. The island is very mountainous, some and into the interior of the corpuscles; but of the peaks rising to the height of 3,000 or in man, according to Mr. Gray, the capillaries 4,000 feet above the level of the sea. On frequently disappear, and the blood passes from
arteries to reins through lacunæ or mere chan- the eyes; it is subject to inflammation, genernels in the pulp tissue. The veins are branched ally from external injury, with pain, tenderness like the arteries, have no valves, and the prin- on pressure, and fever, requiring antiphlogistic cipal stem is one of the trunks of the vena treatment. The spleen was by the ancients portæ; the nerves form the splenic plexus, and supposed to be the source of black bile, which proceed from the solar plexus; the lymphatics predisposed to and produced the melancholy are few and superficial. The parenchyma temperament; and the terms spleen” and consists of a homogeneous mass of colorless“ splenetic” are to this day employed to de. nucleated corpuscles and cells imbedded in a scribe the ill-natured, fretful, and desponding granular plasma, in various stages of rapid de- state of mind commonly called “the blues ; Felopment and change; this is in the greatest it is hardly necessary to say that there is no quantity toward the end of the digestive pro- connection between the spleen and the above cess, when a large amount of fresh alimentary temperament. material is introduced into the circulation. SPOHR, LUDWIG, a German composer, born The splenic corpuscles, or Malpighian bodies in Brunswick, April 5, 1784, died there, Oct. 22, of the spleen, are whitish spherical bodies, va- 1859. In early youth he devoted much attenrying in diameter from to } of a line, largest tion to the study of the violin, his skill in perand most numerous in healthy and well fed forming on which, when practically tested at individuals and animals. There are colored the congress of Vienna in 1814, was declared cells in the spleen pulp, chiefly red blood cor- superior to that of any of his rivals. Subsepuscles in various stages of degeneration, and quently he gave concerts for several years in a few pigment cells. It is proportionately the various parts of Europe, and in 1822 establargest and most active in early and vigorous lished himself in Cassel as chapelmaster of manhood; it is found in all classes of verte- the elector, in whose service he remained unbrates, and of various shapes and sizes. The til near the close of his life. He produced a great amount of blood sent to the spleen, its great number of orehestral symphonies, conminute distribution, and the contents of the certos, quartets, and other instrumental works, glandular vesicles, show that cell growth pro- and cantatas, songs, ballads, and other vocal ceeds rapidly in its substance; their products, pieces, which are popular throughout Gerhowever, are returned in an altered state to many; but his reputation rests chiefly on his the blood, passing through the liver before en- operas, "The Mountain Spirit,” “The Alchetering the vena cava. It is probably a store- mist,” “The Crusaders," "Jessonda,” “Faust," house of albuminous nutritive material for the “Zemira and Azor,” and “ Pietro of Abano;" formative operations, which may be drawn and on his oratorios, " The Last Judgment," upon as the system requires it, and with the “ The Crucifixion,” and “The Fall of Babyabsorbent glands probably assists in supplying lon,” which are among the finest works of the germs of the blood corpuscles. It is also their class produced since the time of Hangenerally believed to serve as an organ for the del. His symphony entitled “The Consecrarelief of the portal circulation, preventing un- tion of Tones” is also a great favorite in the due accumulation of blood in the liver by the concert room. Forty years before his death he ease with which its vessels are distended. Ob- discontinued performing on the violin, but left struction of the circulation in the liver affects to violin players an admirable treatise on the the spleen directly; when the alimentary canal subject, entitled “The Violin School.” During is distended with food, were it not for the the latter years of his life he composed little. spleen the portal system would be gorged with SPOLETO, formerly a delegation of the Pablood; the general internal venous congestion pal States, now belonging to the kingdom of which results from the cold stage of intermit- Italy, bordering on the Neapolitan territory; tent fever, it is well known, causes a perma- area, 1,130 sq. m.; pop. in 1853, 134,939. It nent enlargement of the spleen. Its presence is drained by the rivers Tronto, Tiber, Nera, is not essential to life, at least in the adult; it Corno, and Velino. The valley of Spoleto is has often been removed in animals, and in & very fertile, and produces large quantities of few instances in man, without apparent ill con- maize, wine, olives, melons, and silk. Under sequences, its functions probably being perform- the new organization Spoleto is a district of ed by the other ductless or even the lymphatic redaced size in the province of Umbria; pop. glands. (See GLAND.) Almost every one has 70,011.-SPOLETO (anc. Spoletium or Spoletum), experienced a sharp pain or stitch under the the capital, is situated on the side of a mounribs of the left side, after violent or long con- tain overlooking the Tessino, about 75 m. N. tinued running and active exercise ; this is from Rome; pop. about 7,000. It is defended caused by distention of the spleen by the blood by a strong castle, which is separated from the obstructed in its passage through the liver; a city by a very deep and narrow ravine crossed similar pain is felt in the cold stage of fever by a single bridge of great height. The city and ague. It is sometimes greatly enlarged, as has a fine cathedral of marble, in the style of in the last mentioned disease and in typhoid the early renaissance. Among its numerous fever, and it is engorged and softened in scur- ruins are those of an ancient theatre, of a temvy; in its chronic diseases, the face is apt to ple of Concord, and a palace of Theodoric. assume a dull ashy white color, seen also in There is also an old aqueduct attributed to the
Romans, and a triumphal arch called the "gate are kept up principally by the action of minute of Hannibal.” The town has considerable trade vibratile cilia, assisted, according to Dutrochet, in grain, wine, raisins, leather, and horses. by the act of endosmosis. Sponges are propaUnder the Romans Spoletium was a flourish- gated sometimes by ciliated gemmules, yellowing town of the province of Umbria. Hanni- ish and oval, arising from the organic mucus, bal was repulsed under its walls. After the and carried out of the substance by the curfall of the western empire it fell into the power rents; they are mostly formed in the spring, of the Goths, was taken from them by Narses, and, after swimming freely about for some subsequently became the capital of a Lombard time, become fixed and grow. They also produchy, and in the 13th century was annexed duce internal, unciliated, oviform bodies, reto the Papal dominions. It was sacked by sembling winter ova, which, when thrown out, Frederic Barbarossa, and again destroyed by swell, burst, and give issue to the locomotive the Perugians in 1324. Napoleon I. made it germs within; they are said also to grow by the capital of the department of Trasimène. division, or growth of detached portions of the It has suffered much from earthquakes. parent body; they are believed to be nourish
SPONDEE (Gr. orovòn, a libation), a poeti- ed by minute algæ drawn within their pores. cal foot of 2 long syllables. Verses exclusively Some live in shallow, others in very deep waspondaic have a slow movement, and consequent ter; scarce and small'in cold latitudes, they insolemnity; such were sung by the Greeks on crease in size and number toward the tropics, sacrificial occasions, and when a libation was being most abundant in the Australian seas. offered, and hence the name. The spondee is The sponges of commerce are procured chietly used in any part of the English heroic line, but in the Mediterranean and the Bahama islands; with the best effect in the first and last places. they are obtained mostly by diving, to which
SPONGE, the familiar name of the family of persons are trained from childhood in the spongiadæ or porifera, a division of animals of Greek islands; the adhesion is generally firm the so called class protozoa. It has long been to the bottom, and the growth slow; the a disputed point whether sponges are animals lime is removed by soaking in dilute muriatic or vegetables; in the Principles of Zoology,
,” acid, and they are then bleached and beaten by Agassiz and Gould (1848), they are said for market. To bleach sponges, the finest and to belong to the vegetable kingdom; the most softest are selected, washed several times in recent authorities, as Johnston and Bower- water, and immersed in very dilute hydrobank, decide in favor of their animal nature. chloric acid to dissolve out the calcareous matWhatever may be the decision of this question, ters; having been again washed, they are the common sponge (spongia, Linn.) may be placed in another bath of dilute hydrochloric taken as the type. These consist of a soft gelat- acid to which 6 per cent. of hyposulphite of inous mass, porous and elastic, supported on a soda dissolved in a little warm water has been fibro-corneous skeleton which anastomoses in added; the sponge is left in this bath 24 hours, all directions, and without silicious or calcareous or until it is bleached as white as spicula; they have no organs nor vessels, are Smyrna is the chief place for the export of capable of absorbing great quantities of fluid fine sponges. The coarse sponges used for which is given out again on pressure, insensible horses and carriages, &c., are obtained chiefly to all kinds of irritation, and incapable of con- from the Bahamas; when taken from the water traction or locomotion. The apparently homo- they have a sickish, disagreeable odor, which geneous jelly which fills the pores of the living soon becomes putrefactive and disgusting, like sponge and covers its surface, is seen under the decomposing animal rather than vegetable microscope to be filled with numerous transpa- matter; they are first buried in dry sand, and rent spherical granules. There is a gradual when decomposition has ceased are exposed passage from the soft sponges of commerce to in wire cages to the action of the tide for puthose of stiff and compact texture, with the rification. According to Dr. Bowerbank, there fibres loaded with silicious spicula, crumbling are 24 genera of sponges on the shores of easily when dry, and useless in the arts; others Great Britain. While spongia is the type of are rather of a felted character, usually grayish the corneous sponges, thethy8 (Cuv.) and Granwhite, and loaded with variously shaped spicula tia (Flem.) are types of the silicious and calcaof carbonate of lime. Sponges vary much in reous sponges respectively. (See Protozoa.) form, and are fixed by a kind of root at the SPONSOR. See GODFATHERS AND GODbase, or incrust other bodies, growing mostly MOTHERS. in groups; most are marine, but spongilla SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION. See (Lam.) grows in fresh water; they often pos- COMBUSTION, SPONTANEOUS. sess brilliant colors. Rounded orifices of large SPONTINI, GASPARO, an Italian composer, size, or oscula, are scattered over the surface born in Jesi, in the Papal States, Nov. 17, of most sponges, which lead into sinuous ca- 1778, died in Majolati, near Jesi, Jan. 14, 1851. nals permeating the substance in every direc- He studied under Padre Martini at Bologna, tion; water is continually absorbed by the and at 13 became a pupil of the conservatory pores of the sponge, penetrating and filling La Pieta at Naples. At 17 he composed his every part, and, having supplied air and food, first opera, I puntigli delle donne, which met is driven out through the oscula; the currents with a decided success; and 9 years later he
repaired to Paris, where were produced at the gated, 2} by 14 inches, white, sprinkled all over French opera his 3 most celebrated works, La with bright rufous spots, forming a ring near Vestale (1807), Fernand Cortès (1809), and the large end; they breed and are commonly Olympie (1819). The first of these enjoyed seen in flocks. The flesh is oily and poor eatthe greatest reputation, and among the French ing; the beautiful feathers of the wing are Spontini was in his prime ranked as the equal made into fans in Florida, those from a single of Rossini. Subsequently he was for a long bird being worth at St. Augustine from $1 to time director of the opera at Berlin; but in the $1.50. The European spoonbill (P. leucorodia, latter part of his life, passed partly in Italy and Linn.) is about the same size, of a white color, partly in Paris, he composed little.
with reddish yellow patch on breast, pale yelSPOONBILL, the common name of the low naked space around eyes and throat, and Fading birds of the family plataleide, char- & yellowish white, long occipital crest; it is acterized by a much depressed bill, very broad, rare in England, but common in Holland and and dilated at the end in the shape of a round- the southern portions of the continent and all ed spoon. In the genus platalea (Linn.) the over Africa. This curious genus has affinities bill is long, straight, thin, slightly bent down- with the cormorants and pelicans in the dilataward at the tip, the mandibles in close oppo- ble and bare gular membrane, with the curlews sition and the edges not lamellar; nostrils and herons in the alimentary canal, and with the basal and in the lateral groove; wings long, sandpipers in the shape of the sternum; the 21 quill the longest; tail short; legs longer trachea divides before entering the chest.—The than in the typical waders, tibia bare for near- shoveller duck (spatula slypeata, Boie) is also ly one half; tarsi not much longer than middle called spoonbill. toe, covered with small hexagonal scales; toes SPORADES (Gr., the scattered), the lesser Febbed at the base, the outer longer than the islands of the Grecian archipelago surrounding inner, the middle not pectinated, and the hind the group of the Cyclades, divided into the one only partly resting on the ground; claws northern, western, and eastern Sporades. The short and obtuse. There are about a half northern group includes the islands of Skidozen species, found in all quarters of the atho (anc. Sciathus), Skopelo (Scopelos), Skyro globe, migrating to warm climates at the ap- (Scyros), and Kilidromi (Halonesus); these lie proach of winter; they frequent marshy inlets off the N. E. coast of Negropont or Eubea, of the sea, and the borders of lakes and rivers, and belong to the kingdom of Greece. The wading about in search of fish fry, worms, western group, which also belongs to Greece, frogs, and aquatic insects; they can swim, lies off the E. coast of Argolis, and includes and even dive, if necessary for escape; the Hydra (Hydrea), Spezzia (Tiparenus), Poros nest is made either on trees or among rushes (Sphæria), Ægina, and Koluri (Salamis). The in swampy places, and composed of coarse eastern group belongs to Turkey, and lies off stieks; the eggs are 2 to 4, whitish. The the S. W. coast of Anatolia; it includes Psara roseate spoonbill (P. ajaja, Linn.) is about 30 or Ipsara (Psyra), Scio (Chios), Samos, Nicaria inches long, and 41 feet in alar extent; the (Icarus or Icaria), Patmos, Lero (Leros), Kabill is 7 inches, and covered with a soft skin; lymna (Calymna), Stankó (Cos), Stampalia the head is of moderate size, bare, the skin (Astypalæa), Anaphe, Skarpanto (Carpathus), Fellowish green; the neck long and slender, and Kaso (Casus). The Sporades of the anand the body compact and muscular. Thé cients included only the eastern group, and this prevailing color is rosy red, paler in front, and with the exception of the northernmost islands. nearly white on the neck; lesser wing coverts, SPOTSWOOD, Joun, a Scottish prelate, born upper and lower tail coverts, and lower part in Edinburghshire in 1565, died in London, of throat, bright carmine; tail feathers ochrey Nov. 26, 1639. He was graduated at the uniFellow; the young have the head feathered, versity of Glasgow at the age of 16, and at 20 the carmine tint wanting, and the tail rosy. was appointed to succeed his father in Calder It is found in the southern Atlantic and gulf kirk. At first strenuous in his opposition to states, and is so abundant in the breeding sea- episcopacy, even drawing up, or at least reson at Indian river, Florida, that one person vising, according to Calderwood, in 1597, the has been known to kill 60 in a day; it does defence for refusing to subscribe the bond deDot go above North Carolina, nor far from the manded of the clergy by the king, it was not sea; being very sensitive to cold, it is most long before he began to side with the court abundant in the gulf states. They are essen- party, and to favor a moderate episcopacy. In tially nocturnal, though they often feed by day 1603 he was one of 5 clergymen selected by when the tide suits; they are fond of the com- James I. to accompany him to London for his pany of herons; they fly with the neck and coronation, and while there was appointed to legs extended, and rise rapidly to a great succeed Beatoun as archbishop of Glasgow. beight; they alight easily on trees, and can He used henceforward his best exertions for Falk on the large branches. The_breeding the establishment of episcopacy in Scotland, time in the Florida keys begins in February, and, though not given to violent measures, inthe young being out of the nest by April i; curred much odium among the great body of the nest is usually in the top of a mangrove, the Scottish people. In 1609 he was appointed coarsely made; the eggs are commonly 3, elon- an extraordinary lord of session, but until 1610
was obliged to remain subject to the ordinary demic led to a radical and bitter division in the church courts. In 1610 he and two other medical profession. One party used stimulants Scottish bishops received episcopal ordination very freely, avoiding bloodletting, and using at the hands of English bishops, and soon after from the commencement cinchona, brandy, he was appointed head of one of the courts of opium, the tinctures of cinnamon, peppermint, high commission for trying offences against the lavender, &c., and these not so much with refchurch. He became primate of all Scotland erence to the quantities given as the effects in 1615, and the two courts of high commission produced. Cathartics and emetics were used were consolidated under his presidency. Un- by this class of practitioners sparingly if at all, der instructions from James I., though it is and cold water and other diluents sternly proalleged contrary to his own wishes, he intro- hibited. In the use of this treatment they duced the forms, services, appurtenances, and asserted that they were more successful than substantially the liturgy of the English church. their opponents, and though the recoveries In 1633 he placed the crown on the head of which took place were slow, they deemed Charles I. as king of Scotland. He was ap- them sure. The physicians who discarded this pointed in 1635 lord high chancellor of Scot- mode of treatment argued that the disease was land. In consequence of the indignation aroused at first a congestion, and that bleeding, either by the imposition of a book of canons and a general or local, was necessary to relieve this, new liturgy on the people, by order of the and if practised would be followed by less king, Spotswood in 1637 retired to Newcastle, prostration and a more speedy recovery. This and finally to London. He wrote a “History view gained prevalence after the appearance of the Church of Scotland, from the Year 203 of the local inflammations in connection with to the Close of the Reign of James VI.” (fol., the fever. The antiphlogistic physicians, as London, 1655), and one or two smaller works. they were called, generally preferred local
SPOTTED FEVER (typhus petechialis, ty- bleeding by leeches or cups to general; they phus syncopalis, or typhus gravior), an epic administered calomel and mild catharties and demic fever which prevailed in New England, emetics, and after a time sustained the strength New York, and Pennsylvania from 1807 to by the use of vegetable and mineral tonics. 1815. Medical writers now generally consider The mortality under either mode of treatment it as a form of malignant typhus, taking on, as was very great, and neither had much cause epidemics of typhus are apt to do, certain pecu- to boast over the other. For many years subliar characteristics, and possibly modified some- sequently the community as well as the phywhat by the treatment adopted by some of the sicians, especially in New England, were dileading physicians. It is said to have appeared vided into two hostile parties, the stimulants first in Medfield, Mass., in March, 1806, and a and the antiphlogistics; and the controversy year later in the Connecticut valley and along has hardly yet completely ceased.—The most the Hoosic and Green mountain ranges; it dis- noteworthy works on the epidemic were Miappeared usually during the summer, but re- ner and Tully's “Essays on Fevers and other curred for several years, with annually increas- Subjects" (1823); Miner, “Typhus Syncopalis" ing violence, from January to April. It was (1825); North and Strong on “Spotted Femost prevalent and fatal in 1812 and 1813. ver;" report of a committee of the MassachuIts last appearance was at Berwick, Me., in setts medical society in its “Transactions," 1815. The name spotted fever is inappropriate, vol. ii.; Gallup on the “Epidemics of Verif intended to indicate a fever distinct from mont;" and Hale on the "Spotted Fever in the severe or malignant typhus, for the pres- Gardiner.” ence of both a red rash and of purple spots in SPOTTSYLVANIA, an E. co. of Va., boundthat disease is one of its most marked symp- ed N. E. by the Rappahannock and S. E. by the toms; but the specific differences between this North Anna river, and drained by the Mattaepidemic and ordinary typhus were said to be pony; area, 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 16,076, the time of year when it was most prevalent, of whom 7,786 were slaves. The surface is spring instead of autumn; its avoidance of hilly and the soil fertile. Granite and freelarge towns, prevailing rather in thinly settled stone are abundant. The productions in 1850 districts; its attacking more generally healthy were 102,953 bushels of wheat, 265,753 of Inand robust adults, rather than the weak, the dian corn, 47,437 of oats, 1,279 tons of hay, young, or aged, and those of broken constitu- and 52,056 lbs. of butter. There were 3 newstions; and its stubborn resistance to the ordi- paper offices, 20 churches, and 761 pupils atnary modes of treatment. It was very fatal, tending schools. The Richmond and Frederespecially in the scattered population of vil icsburg railroad and the Rappahannock canal lages, in which many heads of families were intersect the county. The value of real estate taken. In the latter part of its course it was in 1856 was $3,661,265, showing an increase very generally combined with local inflamma- of 23 per cent. since 1850. Capital, Spottsyltions, particularly of the lungs or throat, but vania Court House. the symptoms of prostration which led to the SPRAGUE, CHARLES, an American poet, name “sinking typhus,” often applied to it, born in Boston, Oct. 25, 1791. At the age of were even more strongly marked than in its 13 he entered a mercantile house as clerk, and earlier history.-The treatment of this epi- subsequently was taken into partnership by his