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long, of a grayish brown color above, with ir- During his stay with the Indians he became regular series of whitish spots and grayish very popular among them by his frequent exwhite below; ugly as it is, some people eat it. hibitions of courage and independence, and This was well known to the ancients, and Aris- was adopted into the tribe. In 1754 he joined totle correctly describes the gall bladder as the rangers under Major Rogers in the war larger than in most other fishes; it is also call- against the French and Indians, in 1756 was ed callionymus by the old authors, and is pro- made a lieutenant, and in 1757 à captain, disTerbially referred to by dramatic writers as the tinguishing himself by his bravery and coolness emblem of an angry man; the bile was formerly in several severe engagements. He rendered supposed to possess great medicinal virtues in efficient services in bringing off the troops after defective vision and hearing, and in arresting the ill-fated expedition to Ticonderoga under fungous growths. On the coast of South Car- Lord Howe in 1758, and was actively employed olina has been found the U. anoplos (Cuv.), in the subsequent campaign of Gen. Amherst; about 2 inches long, greenish above with mi- and in 1760, the war being virtually closed, he nute black dots, and silvery below; the cheeks retired from the service, and was not again are unarmed. These fishes live on the bottom conspicuous until the outbreak of the revoluin deep water, burying all but the head in the tion. In 1775, on receipt of the intelligence sand or mud, and there lying in wait for prey; of the beginning of hostilities, he hastened to they are voracious, and like other ground fish Boston after directing the volunteers in his some have sensitive barbels about the mouth; neighborhood to rendezvous at Medford. Of though the gills are widely open, they live a those who followed him two regiments were long time out of water; some have a slender formed, of one of which he was elected colonel, fleshy filament in front of the tongue, which can and at its head he thrice repulsed the veteran be protruded, probably to attract fishes within forces of the British army at Bunker hill. He reach of their jaws, like the cutaneous append- afterward remained with his regiment at Winages on the head of the goose fish (lophius). ter hill until the British evacuated Boston in

STARK. I. A N. E. co. of Ohio, drained March, 1776. He was in the expedition against by the Tuscarawas river and its branches; Canada, and remonstrated against Gen. Schuyarea, 570 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 42,976. The ler's retreat to Ticonderoga. In December he surface is undulating, and the soil a rich, sandy marched with his regiment under Gen. Gates loam. Coal and limestone are abundant. to reënforce Gen. Washington. He led the Swine are largely exported, and it produces van in the attack upon Trenton, and was in more wheat and butter than any other county the battle at Princeton. In 1777, the time of in the state. The productions in 1850 were his regiment having expired, he returned to 590,594 bushels of wheat, 578,171 of Indian New Hampshire and raised a new one; but becorn, 414,434 of oats, 41,746 tons of hay, 275,- ing as he thought unjustly neglected by con664 lbs. of wool, and 1,211,021 lbs. of butter. gress in the list of promotions, he retired from There were newspaper offices, 98 churches, its service. He however received a vote of and 13,290 pupils attending public schools. It thanks from the New Hampshire legislature, is intersected by the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and in a short time was placed in the indeand Chicago, and the Cleveland and Pittsburg pendent command of the troops raised by New railroads, and the Ohio canal. Capital, Canton. Hampshire to oppose the British advance from II. A N. W. co. of Ind., drained by the Yellow Canada. Acting upon the authority of the and Kankakee rivers; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. state and his own judgment, he firmly refused in 1950, 557; in 1860, 2,195. The surface is to obey the orders of Gen. Lincoln to march level and in many places marshy, with several to the west of the Hudson, leaving Burgoyne's small lakes, and the soil is fertile. The pro- rear unmolested; and on Aug. 16, 1777, he dictions in 1850 were 3,153 bushels of wheat, fought the battle of Bennington, killing over 11,170 of Indian corn, and 698 tons of hay. 200 of the enemy and taking 600 prisoners Capital, Knox. III. A N. W. co. of Il., inter- and 1,000 stand of arms. For this brilliant acsected by the Spoon river; area, 290 sq. m.; tion congress passed a vote of thanks to him pop. in 1860, 0,004. The surface is partly and created him a brigadier-general, notwithprairie and the soil fertile. The productions in standing they had just previously passed a 1850 were 54,327 bushels of wheat, 312,475 of vote of censure for his disobedience of the orIndian corn, 50,703 of oats, and 5,630 tons of ders of Gen. Lincoln. He joined Gen. Gates at bay. Capital, Toulon.

Bemus's heights, but the term of his militia STARK, Jonn, an officer in the American having expired, he was obliged to return to revolution, born at Londonderry, N. H., Aug. New Hampshire and recruit a new force, with 28. 1728, died at Manchester, N. H., May 8, which he cut off Burgoyne's retreat from Sara1892. In 1752 he went with 3 friends on a toga, and thus compelled him to surrender. In bunting expedition to Baker's river in the N. 1778 he was placed in command of the northpart of the state remote from the settlements, ern department; in 1779 and 1780 he served and while separated from his companions was in Rhode Island and New Jersey, and at West captured by the St. Francis Indians, and re- Point, where he was a member of the court maided with them several months until ran- martial which condemned André; and in 1781 sored by the Massachusetts commissioners. he again had command of the northern department, with his head-quarters at Saratoga. At m.; pop. in 1860, 2,406, of whom 6 were slaves. the close of the war he retired to private life, It is well adapted to grazing and to the cultivaand was not again connected with public af- tion of cotton, corn, and sugar cane. Large fairs. With the exception of Sumter, he was droves of wild horses are found on the prairies. the last surviving general of the revolution at Capital, Rio Grande City. the time of his death.See “Life of John STARVATION. See ABSTINENCE. Stark," by Edward Everett, in Sparks's“ Amer- STASSART, GODWIN JOSEPH Argustin, baican Biography," 2d series, vol. i.

ron, a Belgian statesman and author, born in STARLING, or STARE, the common name Mechlin, Sept. 2, 1780, died in Brussels, Oct. of the conirostral birds of the family sturnidæ, 16, 1854. He completed his education in Paris, and sub-family sturninæ, of which the genus and was appointed successively intendant in sturnus (Linn.) is the type; the family also in- the Tyrol (1805), successor of Bignon in Berlin cludes the straight-billed birds like the grakles, (1808), and prefect of the department of the oxpecker, red-winged blackbird, and satin bow- Bouches de la Meuse (1811). He took part as er bird, described in separate articles. In stur- an officer of artillery in the defence of Paris nus the bill is long, straight, and sharp, with (1814), offered his services to the emperor of flattened culmen and tip; wings long and point- Austria after the first restoration, attached himed, with 1st quill spurious and 2d and 3d nearly self again to Napoleon as envoy to Austria and equal; tail short and nearly even; tarsi strong master of requests during the Hundred Days, and broadly scaled; toes long, including the and on the second restoration retired to Namur hind one, the outer united at the base; claws and devoted himself to literary studies. He long, curved, and sharp. In habits the starlings represented Namur in the second chamber at resemble the smaller species of the crow family, the Hague from 1821 to 1830, and supported and the food consists of worms, snails, insects, the opposition. After the Belgian revolution seeds, and fruits; they are docile in captivity, of 1830, he was appointed governor of the provand may be taught to repeat a few words and inces of Namur and Brabant, was president of to whistle short tunes. They are confined to the senate from 1831 to 1838, was sent as envoy the old world, migrating in large flocks, prefer- extraordinary to the court of Turin in 1840, and ring swampy places; the flight is rapid and lived in retirement from 1841. His writings, even, accompanied toward evening by singular including Idylles (1800), Penseés de Circé(1814), circular evolutions; the note is a shrill whistle, Fables (1818), and treatises on agriculture and with an occasional chatter or imitation of the archæology, were collected by Dupont-Delcry of other birds and of animals; the nest is porte (Paris, 1855). made of dried grass, in holes of trees or old STATEN ISLAND. See RICHMOND Co., buildings, and the eggs are 4 to 6. The best N. Y. known species is the common starling (S. vul- STATICS. See MECHANICS. garis, Linn.), about 8 inches long, of a black STATISTICS, the science which has for its color, with purple and greenish retlections, and office the collection and arrangement of facts spotted with buff; the female is much less bril- relative to the physical, social, political, finanliant, and the young males are brownish gray. cial, intellectual, and moral condition and reThis well known, handsome, and sprightly bird sources of a state or nation. Some departments is found from N. Europe to S. Africa, and in of statistical knowledge are of very ancient E. Asia, occurring in as large flocks as the al- origin. No nation has made any considerable lied grakles (quiscalus) in North America; in advance toward civilization, which has not at England it often migrates south in October, re- stated periods taken a census more or less comturning in March ; it is frequently kept in cages; plete of its inhabitants. That such statistical the flesh is disagreeable; the eggs are pale blue. records were kept by the Jews, the Greeks,

- The American starling (sturnella Ludovici- and the Romans, there is abundant evidence. ana, Swains.) has been described under MEADOW In later times, the first writer on statistics was LAP.K. In the genus pastor (Temm.) the bill is the Venetian doge Tommaso Mocenigo, who shorter and more curved ; it contains about a in 1421 collected the materials for a memoir dozen species in the old world, with the habits on the situation of different empires, their of the preceding genus, also the one of seeking monetary systems, finances, public debts, &c. insects on the backs of cattle. The rosy starling In 1467 Francisco Sansovino published a sta(P. roseus, Temm.) is about 8 inches long, with tistical work entitled Del governo e amministhe head, neck, quills, and tail black with violet trazione di diversi regni e republiche (4t0., gloss, and the rest of the plumage delicate rose. Venice, 1467), which was translated into sevcolored; the head is crested, and the bill and eral languages and often reprinted. During legs yellowish. It is found in S. E. Europe, the next century Ventura, Paruta, and Giovanni and in the warm parts of Asia and Africa; in Botero, all Italians, wrote on the subject. Bosome places it is held in great veneration for tero's Relazioni universali (Rome, 1592) was the enormous quantity of noxious insects, espe- translated into most of the languages of Eucially locusts, which its flocks devour.

rope. Pierre Davity, a French writer, pubSTARR, a S. co. of Texas, bounded S. W. by lished in 1621-2 a valuable work on the gethe Rio Grande, which separates it from the ography, government, finances, religion, and Mexican state of Tamaulipas; area, 4,420 sq. customs of the principal countries of the world.

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Hans de Laet in 1624 commenced the publica- burg, 1829), and Statistique générale, méthotion in Holland by the Elzevirs of his “ Re- dique et complète de la France (4 vols. 8vo., publics," a series of statistical works, and was Paris, 1842–6); Maurice Block, Statistique de followed during the 17th century by Conring, la France (2 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1860); J. R. Bose, Beckmann, and Gastel in Germany, by McCulloch, the author of many statistical De Luca and Everard Otto in Holland, and by works in English of great value; John McOldenburg in Switzerland, whose Thesaurus Gregor, “Commercial Statistics” (5 vols. 8vo., Rerumpublicarum (4 vols. 8vo., Geneva, 1675) London, 1848–50), and other works; the Rev. was an excellent compilation of statistical mat- John Clay, author of several works on prison ters. In 1749 Gottfried Achenwall delivered lec- statistics; Léon Faucher, author of numerous tures on statistics in the university of Götting- statistical contributions to the Journal des en, and gave the name (Ger. Staat, state) to the économistes ; W. Newmarch, editor of the science. Conring, it is stated, had lectured on “ Journal of the Statistical Society;" and in the subject nearly a century before; but Ach- the United States, T. Pitkin, A. Seybert, J. S. enwall systematized it, and prepared a treatise Fisher, J. D. B. De Bow, Freeman Hunt, Dr. J. for the use of the students of the university Thomas, Dr. J. Chickering, T. P. Kettell, J. S. (Staatsverfassung der Europäischen Reiche im Homans, J. O. G. Kennedy, Dr. J. G. Cogswell, Grundrisse), which passed through 7 editions and Dr. Edward Jarvis.— Within a few years in the next 50 years. Walch and Reinhard past, societies for the collection of statistics have also published text books on the subject, soon been established in most of the countries of after, for their respective universities. A stu- Christendom. The statistical society of London dent of Achenwall, Professor Schlözer, devel- was founded in 1834, and has since 1837 publishoped the science more fully than his teacher, ed a quarterly journal. The Parisian society but died before his great work, “Theory of commenced in 1842 the publication of a monthly Statistics" (Göttingen, 1804), was completed. periodical, the Journal des économistes, which In England, the first statistical work of note has a deservedly high reputation. In the Uniwas by Smollett, who published “The Present ted States there is a genealogical and statistical State of all Nations” (8 vols. 8vo., London, society at Boston, which published for some 1768). Gatterer (Göttingen, 1773), Niemann years a quarterly “Register;" a geographical (Altona, 1807), and Leopold Krug (Berlin, and statistical society at New York, which is1807) have written able works on the science. sues a quarterly “ Bulletin;" and several periLaden (Göttingen, 1812 and 1817) has been one odicals devoted in part to special statistics, such of its most vehement assailants. Among the as the "American Journal of Science and Arts," statistical writers of the present century, those the "American Journal of Education,” the who occupy the first rank are Melchior Gioja, “Merchants’. Magazine,” the “Bankers Magathe anthor of Nuovo prospetto delle scienze zine," “ De Bow's Commercial Review," the economiche (6 vols. 4to., Milan, 1815–'19) and “Mining Magazine,” and the “United States Filosofia della statistica (2 vols. 4to.); Hassel, Insurance Gazette and Magazine.” The BritLehrbuch der Statistik der Europäischen Staaten ish association for the advancement of science (4 vols., Weimar, 1812–18), and several other has had a statistical section since 1833; the geographical and statistical works; Stein, American association has a similar section; and Vanuel de géographie et de statistique (3 vols. the encouragement of the collectors of statis8ro., Leipsic, 1833); Schubert, professor at tical matters is one of the avowed means by Königsberg, Staatenkunde von Europa (6 vols., which the Smithsonian institution proposes to Königsberg, 1835–45); Meusel, Literatur der diffuse knowledge among men. butistik (2 vols., Leipsic, 1806–7); Malchus, STATIUS, CÆCILIUS. See CÆCILIUS Statius. Statistik der Staatskunde (Stuttgart, 1826); STATIUS, PUBLIUS PAPINIUS, a Roman poet Schnabel, a Bohemian writer, Statistique géné- of the time of Domitian, whose birth has been rale des états Européens (2 vols. 8vo., Prague, placed in A. D. 61, and death in A. D. 96, 1629); Herbin and Peuchet, Statistique de la though there is only uncertain evidence for France (7 vols., Paris, 1803); Adriano Balbi, either statement. His father was a preceptor various comparative statistical works on Por- of Domitian, by whom the son was patronized. tugal, France, Russia, the British empire, &c. In the Alban contests he 3 times gained the (Paris, 1822–9); Berghaus, author of Allge- victory. Juvenal is the only ancient author Meine Länder- und Völkerkunde, of Staaten- who mentions him (Satire vii. 82). It has kunde, and numerous other works, and editor been stated, but without good evidence, that of Annalen der Erd-, Völker- und Staaten- he was a Christian, and that the emperor kunde (1830–243), Geographisches Jahrbuch, stabbed him with a stilus in a moment of and other periodicals; Becker, author of nu- anger. His extant works are : Silvarum Libri merous works on Austrian statistics; Die- V., a collection of 32 poems on passing events, terici, chiefly on the statistics of Prussia and divided into 5 books; Thebaidos Libri XII., the Zollverein; Charles Dupin, Forces pro- an epic poem, founded upon the legendary acductitaa et commerciales de la France (2 vols. count of the expedition of the Seven against 4to., Paris, 1832), and other works; J. H. Thebes, of which the 1st book was translated Schnitzler, Essai d'une statistique générale de into English by Pope ; and Achilleidos Libri Tempire de Russie (Strasbourg and St. Peters- II., an epic poem never finished. There are no

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good editions of Statius, the best being that was a rationalist, but he gradually inclined to found in Lemaire's series of Latin classics (4 supernaturalism. His works are very numervols. 8vo., Paris, 1825–'30). Five books of ous, and extend over nearly every department the “Thebaid” have been translated into Eng- of theology; but those on church history are lish by Thomas Stephens (8vo., London, 1648), the most valued. Among them are: Kirchliche and the entire poem by W. L. Lewis (2 vols. Geographie und Statistik (2 vols., Tübingen, 8vo., Oxford, 1767 and 1773). The " Achil- 1804), the first scientific work on this subject; leid” has been translated by Howard (8vo., and Geschichte der theologischen Wissenschaften London, 1660).

(2 vols., Göttingen, 1810-'11). He was also STATUARY. See SCULPTURE.

the editor of several theological journals. STATUTE OF FRAUDS. See FRAUDS, STAUGHTON, William, D.D., an American STATUTE OF.

clergyman, born in Coventry, Warwickshire, STATUTES OF LIMITATION. See LIMITA- England, Jan. 4, 1770, died in Washington, TION, STATUTES OF.

D. O., Dec. 12, 1829. At the age of 17 he STAUDENMAIER, Franz Anton, a Ger- published a small volume of Juvenile Poems," man theologian and philosopher, born at Danz- and soon afterward entered the Bristol Baptist dorf, Würtemberg, Sept. 11, 1800, died in Frei- seminary to prepare for the ministry. He emiburg, Baden, Jan. 19, 1856. He studied at the grated to South Carolina in 1793, and preached university of Tübingen, and was ordained a for nearly 17 months at Georgetown, S. O. In Roman Catholic priest in 1827. In 1828 he 1795 he removed to New York, and in 1797 was appointed tutor in the theological semi- took charge of an academy at Bordentown, N. nary at Tübingen, in 1830 ordinary professor of J., and was ordained. Toward the close of theology in the newly created theological fac- 1798 he removed to Burlington, N. J., and in ulty of the university of Giessen, in 1837 ordi- 1805 became pastor of the first Baptist church nary professor in the university of Freiburg, of Philadelphia, which increased so much unand in 1843 also a canon of the cathedral der his ministry that its house of worship was church of that city. In 1851 he was elected a several times enlarged, and three new churches member of the first chamber of the legislature were formed from it. With the last of these, of Baden. His first work was a “History of the Sansom street church, Dr. Staughton identhe Election of Bishops” (Geschichte der Bi- tified himself, and continued there till 1823, schofswahlen, Tübingen, 1830), with particular preaching from 3 to 4 times every Sunday to reference to the rights claimed by Christian audiences of several thousands, and 2 or 3 princes. His Encyklopädie der theologischen times during the week, and at the same time Wissenschaften (Mentz, 1834; 2d ed., 1840) is instructing 15 or 20 young men in theology, the only German work of the kind in Catholic lecturing on botany, chemistry, and sacred and literature. Ilis work on the “Spirit of Chris- profane history in two female seminaries, edittianity” (Der Geist des Christenthums, Mentz, ing wholly or in part two religious periodicals, 1835; 5th ed., 1855) has had a very extensive and presiding or assisting at the meetings of circulation, and has been translated into sever- numerous benevolent societies. In the autumn al foreign languages. The most important of of 1823 he became president of Columbian colhis works is that on Systematic Theology” lege at Washington, D. O., which position he (Die christliche Dogmatik, 4 vols., 1844–62; not resigned in 1827, in consequence of the embarcomplete), in which he attempts to harmonize rassments of the college, which he had made the results of modern philosophy with the doc- extraordinary efforts to remove. He then retrines of the Catholic church. His other prin- turned to Philadelphia, and was soon afterward cipal works are: Scotus Erigena und die Wis- chosen president of the Baptist college and senschaft seiner Zeit (vol. i., Frankfort, 1840; theological institution at Georgetown, Ky., but not completed); Die Philosophie des Christen- died on his way thither. He published little thums (vol. i., Mentz, 1840; not completed); beside his numerous contributions to religious Darstellung und Kritik des Hegel'schen Systems periodicals in prose and poetry, and 5 or 6 ser(Mentz, 1844); and Der Protestantismus in mons and orations. seinem Wesen und seiner Entwickelung (Frei- STAUNTON, a river in the S. part of Virburg, 1846). Staudenmaier has also been a ginia, rising in Montgomery co., among the contributor to journals of Catholic theology, Alleghany mountains, flowing E. and S. E. and to the Protestant “Journal for Philosophy through a pass in the Blue ridge, and with and Speculative Theology," edited by Fichte. Dan river forming the Roanoke at Clarksville,

STÄUDLIN, KARL FRIEDRICII, á German Mecklenburg co. It is 200 m. long, and in the theologian, born in Stuttgart, July 25, 1761, first 20 m. of its course has a fall of 1,000 feet. died in Göttingen, July 5, 1826. He studied STAUNTON, a town and the capital of Autheology and philosophy at the university of gusta co., Va., situated on a small tributary of Tübingen, from 1786 to 1790 made several lit- the Shenandoah river, 120 m. W. N. W. from erary journeys through Germany, Switzerland, Richmond; pop. in 1850, 2,500; in 1860, France, and England, and was appointed in 14,124. It is the oldest town in the valley of 1790 professor of theology at the university of Virginia, having been incorporated in 1749, Göttingen, where in 1803 he was also made and is the seat of the western lunatic asylum consistorial councillor. In his earlier years he and of the Virginia institution for the deaf and

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dumb and the blind. It has 2 weekly news- approved of the theses of Luther against the papers, 10 or 12 churches, several banks and papal indulgences, though he did not publicly banking houses, 2 academies, and 2 seminaries. declare himself in favor of them. In 1518 he It is surrounded by a populous and rich agri- was with Luther at an assembly of his order at cultural region, and has an important local Heidelberg, and in the same year demanded at trade. There are mills, founderies, and manu- Augsburg that Luther should not be condemnfactories of various kinds. The Virginia cen- ed unheard and untried. Soon after, however, tral railroad passes through it, and it is the fearing an adverse issue of the controversy, he proposed terminus of the Manassas Gap rail- withdrew to Saltzburg, where he became court road, partially completed.

preacher, and in 1522 abbot of a Benedictine STAUNTON, SIR GEORGE LEONARD, an Eng. convent. Whether, as some assert, he was lish diplomatist, born in Galway, Ireland, April shortly before his death bishop of Chiemsee, is 19, 1737, died in London, Jan. 14, 1801. "Ho doubtful. He is the author of two works, De stadied medicine and became a contributor Amore Dei and De Fide Christiana, in which to literary periodicals, and an intimate ac- a mystic tendency prevails. quaintance of Dr. Johnson. He afterward STEALING. See LARCENY. held official position and practised medicine in STEAM, the name applied generically to the the West Indies for several years. In 1774 he vapor or non-permanent gas given off by any was attorney-general of Grenada, and when liquid, in consequence of the volatility of such that island was taken by the French in 1779, liquid and the influence of heat upon it; and he and Lord Macartney, the governor, were more especially when the vaporization takes made prisoners, but were soon released and re- place at temperatures at or above the boiling turned to England. In 1781 he went as confi- point of the substance so affected. In the redential secretary of Lord Macartney to Madras.cent progress of mechanical art and science, He made an advantageous treaty with Tippoo however, this term has come to designate in a Saltan in 1784, for which he was raised to a specific sense the vapor of water, as applied or baronetcy and received an annuity of £500 applicable to the performance of work, or to from the East India company. He was a other mechanical or economic purposes. In member of Lord Macartney's embassy to connection with this subject see BOILING Point, China in 1792, of which he published an ac- EVAPORATION, Heat, and PNEUMATICS. In popcoant (2 vols. 4to., 1797).—Sir George Thomas, ular language, the visible mist forming when a an English author, son of the preceding, vapor is discharged into the air, as a little way born in Salisbury, May 26, 1781, died in Lon- from the spout of a boiling kettle, or in a dense don, Aug. 10, 1859. He accompanied his fa- cloud above an engine “blowing off” steam, is ther to China in 1792, entered the university also called steam. This visible mist is, howof Cambridge on his return to England, and in ever, really of the nature of cloud; being prob1799 went to Canton as secretary of the East ably a collection in immense numbers of minute India company's factory there, of which he af- vesicles formed of water condensed from the terward became president. In 1816 he was vapor, and also enclosing vapor or air, and sttached to Lord Amherst's embassy to China, which, disseminated in the atmosphere, conand from 1818 to 1852, with a few intermis- stitute an opaque and visible mass, in the same sions, was a member of parliament. His prin- way as do the fine globules of a transparent oil cipal works are: “ The Penal Code of the when the latter is beaten up and mingled through Chinese Empire" (4to., London, 1810); “Nar- water. Steam, properly so called, is perfectly rative of the Chinese Embassy to the Tar- transparent and colorless, as are the greater tar Khan Tourgouth during the Years 1812- number of gases of all sorts; and hence it is al'15" (1821); and “Miscellaneous Notices rela- ways wholly invisible. Whenever a confined tire to China and the British Commercial In- body or other volume of steam seems to become tercourse with that Country” (1822). A trea- visible, the truth is that a portion of the vapor tise on vaccination written by him in Chinese is condensed into water in fine drops, or in a was the means of introducing its practice in haze or cloud; and though there may also be some parts of the empire. He edited the steam occupying the space through which this is - History of the Great and Mighty Kingdom diffused, it is the water or cloud only that is seen. of China," translated from the Spanish of Men- The engineer and the general reader have thus doza by Parke in 1588 (Hakluyt society, Lon- alike to bear in mind that, in dealing with don, 1833).

steam (proper), they have to do with a gaseous STAUPITZ, JOHANN von, the friend and body which eludes the sight as completely as patron of Lather, born at Meissen, died in 1524. the purest atmospheric air. Perfect steam is, He entered in early life the Augustinian order, moreover, in no way moist, but is dry, as are obtained from the pope in 1501 general privileges the permanent gases; the moisture sometimes for the newly established university at Witten- showing upon a solid surface it touches, or that berg, and in 1508 by his influence caused Luther, has been plunged into it, being due to conden

member of his order, to be called to one of sation. With such slight exceptions as are the professorships. Luther gratefully acknowl- hereafter to be noted, steam has in a complete edges that in his spiritual struggles he found in degree those properties of fluidity, mobility, Staapitz a kind adviser and guide. Staupitz elasticity, and equality of pressure in every

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