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escape radially, but tangentially, and in such of about 190 horse power each, for the same course as to strike the buckets almost perpen- company; the mean maximum effective power dicularly, thus very greatly increasing its action of two of these, carefully tested, was .88 of upon the wheel.

Callon's turbine, the flow the power of the water expended—a remarkinto the wheel is regulated by a series of slid- able advance upon all previous results; and ing shutters, portions or the whole of which these turbines have continued to perform satcan be let down to cover the opening to the isfactorily. The chief features of difference wheel. In Fontaine's improved form, shown of these wheels from the original one of Fourin the London exhibition, 1851, the wheel has neyron may be briefly summed up as follows: its floats curving horizontally, and the water The flume conducting the water to the turbine descends nearly vertically upon these, but di- is in form of an inverted truncated cone, the rected against them, its horizontal component water introduced above on one side of the axis of pressure taking effect; this form has some of the turbine and cone, and by a gradual curve, peculiar advantages. The turbines of Jonval so that the water descends with almost no loss and some others are also well known; and the of power, save from friction, acquiring an inname is sometimes given to Thomson's ex- creasing velocity and a spiral movement in the ternally fed wheel, and to others differing direction of the revolution of the wheel; the from the more usual forms. Fourneyron's tur- guides are accordingly a little inclined backbine, under good conditions, utilized a larger ward, so that the water shall meet their edges percentage of the force of water than the best only. One of the most important parts of the ordinary water wheels, namely, from 75 to 80 invention is the addition without and around per cent.; the performance of Fontaine's and the wheel of two broad stationary disks, the of Jonval's is about the same. Among obvious space between which at their inner periphery advantages of turbine wheels are these: 1, they is very little greater than that between the occupy little space; 2, the action on the wheel crowns of the wheel at the part next to them, is uniform and uninterrupted; 3, the wheel but which curve outward and apart, so that turning, usually, completely within water, and the space at their exterior periphery is twice the pressure outward on the floats being the as great; the total diameter of these disks besame in all directions, there is no strain or in- ing about twice that of the wheel. When the creased friction in a particular direction upon regulating gate is raised to full height, the the axis ; 4, turning with great speed, it may section through which the water passes in ese directly carry the millstone in flouring mills; caping from the wheel is thus gradually en5, being submerged, its performance is un- larged, in a ratio from 1 to 4; hence the action interrupted by ice, and is little affected by of the water should fall within the same disfloods or by drought so long as the wheel is tance from 1 to is, providing the disks be covered ; 6, it utilizes a larger percentage of wholly submerged. This arrangement is called the power than ordinary wheels; and 7, its the diffuser; its effect is to diminish the presefficiency does not decrease in the same ra- sure against the water escaping from the outer tio with the velocity, when the height or edge of the wheel, and thus to increase the volume of water is reduced: thus, a wheel at power in the same ratio as by a certain increase Sainte-Blaise, diameter 22 inches, under a fall in the available fall. Its principle is thus siinof 350 feet, gave 40 horse power, equal to fofilar to that of diverging conical tubes for delisthe whole power of the water; while another ery of liquids. (See HYDRO-MECHANICS.) Its theat Gisors, with a fall of 31 feet, gave $, with oretical advantage is a gain of .05 power; but, one of 2 feet, y, and of 1 foot, j, of the whole probably owing to irregular movements of the power.-In the United States, water wheels water, the gain practically is about .03 of the of the ordinary forms were almost exclusively power. Mr. Boyden also, by means of a pein use, and among the large manufacturing es- culiar box with bearings of soft or babbitt tablishments in New England entirely so, until metal, suspends the wheel from the top of the the year 1844, the breast wheel being regarded vertical shaft, instead of running it on a step as the most efficient practicable. In 1843 Mr. at the bottom; while by grooves and mortives Ellwood Morris communicated to the “Journal the buckets are so firmly fixed between the of the Franklin Institute,” in which several crowns of the wheel, as to allow them to be articles in relation to the French reaction much thinner, and to secure a freer passage for 'wheels had previously appeared, a translation the water. In a turbine of this pattern, made of Morin's “Experiments on Turbines,” with in 1851 for the Tremont mills, the guides are an account of some experiments also on two 33 in number; the buckets 44; the least height turbines constructed from his own designs; between the crowns,.8743 ft.; greatest height, the useful effect of one of these was 75. In .9368 ft. ; total diameter of the wheel, 8.333 1844 Mr. Uriah A. Boyden, a hydraulic engi- ft.; diameter between inner edges of wheel, neer, of Massachusetts, produced for the Ap- 6.75 ft.; diameter of the lower part of the pleton company's cotton mills in Lowell a tur- disk, 6.729 ft.; diameter of the wrought iron bine involving several improvements, and of turned shaft in different parts, 7 to 8 inches. which the efficiency was .78 of the power. In Upon this turbine a series of extremely careful 1846 he had constructed upon his designs, em- experiments was made, the various data being bracing further improvements, three turbines noted by several observers at the same time,


and accurately compared by marking the time and sprinkled with white pearl-like specks; at brief intervals. The experiments embrace under surface smooth and white; it is found the quantity of water discharged, the velocity in the Mediterranean, as are several other speof the wheel, the percentage of power_(maxi- cies still less esteemed.-The American or mum, in this case, :79) utilized, &c.—For fur- spotted turbot (R. maculatus, Girard; pleurother details and rules respecting the construc- nectes, De Kay), called also New York plaice tion and proportioning of turbines, as well as and watery flounder, is from 12 to 18 inches for a full account of the experiments referred long, and 6 to 8 wide, though sometimes atto, and the results, and of others in relation to taining a weight of 20 lbs.; it is smooth, on centre-vent wheels and the flow of water over the left side reddish gray with large circular 'weirs, see “Lowell Hydraulic Experiments" or oblong darker blotches surrounded by a (Boston, 1855).

lighter margin, and with numerous white spots, TURBOT, á marine, soft-rayed fish of the especially on the fins; the lower surface white flatfish family, and genus rhombus (Cuv.), char- and spotless; iris silvery; gape wide, with a acterized by minute sharp teeth on the jaws single row of separate, large, sharp teeth, and and pharynx, the dorsal fin commencing on & protuberance on the chin; ends of dorsal the head in front of the eyes, and like the anal rays free; body elongated; it resembles the extending to the tail, and with the eyes on the brill more than any other European species. left side. The European turbot (R. maximus, It occurs along the coast of the New England Cuv.), the finest of the family, sometimes and middle states, and is sometimes taken by measures 6 feet in width, and weighs over 200 mackerel fishers near the shore; it is considlbs.; the left side is brown and covered with ered a delicate article of food. small tubercles, and the right side or lower TURENNE, HENRI DE LA TOUR D'AUVERGNE, surface smooth and white; without the tail the vicomte de, a French marshal, born in Sedan, body is nearly round; mouth large, opening Sept. 11, 1611, killed near Sulzbach, Bavaria, obliquely upward; eyes in a vertical line, one July 26, 1675.' He was the second son of Henri over the other; gill openings large; pectorals de Bouillon, prince of Sedan, by Elizabeth of small. It keeps on sandy grounds, and is a Nassau, daughter of William I. of Orange, and great wanderer, usually in companies, living was sent when a boy to Holland, where he near the bottom, and feeding on small fish, learned the art of war under his uncle Maurice. crustaceans, and mollusks; though voracious, In 1630, visiting the court of France in the init is particular in its choice of food, and will terest of his brother Frédéric de Bouillon, he bite at none but fresh bait; the spawning sea- was induced by Cardinal Richelieu to enter son is about August, after which it soon recov- the service of France, received the command of ers its good condition. Its flesh is white, fat, an infantry regiment, distinguished himself in Aaky, and delicate, and has been highly es- Lorraine under Marshal de La Force, became teemed from remote antiquity; it is disputed major-general in 1634, and served under La whether this or the next species was the rhom- Valette in Germany, where in 1635 he relieved bus of the ancient Romans; the French call it Mentz, then besieged by the imperialists. In water or sea pheasant on account of its fine 1637, with an auxiliary corps, he joined the flavor. Though not uncommon on the coasts Swedish army under Duke Bernard of Weimar, of Great Britain, most of the turbot sold in the and during this campaign captured several English markets are caught by Dutch fisher- towns, including the stronghold of Brisach. men on the long line of sandy banks between In 1639 he was made lieutenant-general and England and Holland; the value sent to Lon- ordered to Italy, where, under the count d'Hardon market from this source alone is annual- court, he defeated the united Austrians and ly not far from $500,000. The fishery begins Spaniards at Casale, and forced Turin to surren. about the end of March and closes by the mid- der in 1640. In 1642 he had the chief comdle of August, and is prosecuted both by lines mand of the French army in Roussillon, and and trawl nets; the hooks are baited with conquered that province from Spain. After smelts or other small and bright fishes; each the death of Richelieu and Louis XIII. he was Dutch boat brings from 100 to 150 fish, usually made marshal of France, and placed in comweighing each 5 to 10 lbs. In the time of mand of the French army in Germany. He Pennant there was a famous fishery of turbot crossed the Rhine, worsted the Bavarians at Scarborough; to each boat were 3 men, under Mercy, acted in concert with the prince and each man with 3 lines, and each line with of Condé .in the 3 days' battle at Freiburg 280 hooks; the 9 lines were fastened together (1644), was defeated by Mercy at Mergentheim, and extended at full length across the current, May 5, 1645, but gained a victory over him in and allowed to remain ont 6 hours; a great conjunction with Condé at Auersheim, near many fish were caught in this way.—The brill, Nördlingen, 3 months later, and, joining the pearl

, or smooth turbot (R. vulgaris, Cuv.) is a Swedish general Wrangel, conquered the Basmaller and less delicate species, with smooth varians at Lavingen and Zusmarshausen, and scales, from the same localities and caught in forced the elector to sign an armistice, in March, the same manner; the under jaw is the longer, 1647. He then repaired to Flanders, and by and the upper eye a little behind the lower; it taking several places aided in bringing about is reddish sandy brown, varied with darker, the peace of Westphalia (1648). On his return

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to France, his love for the duchess de Longue, preparations for the battle which was to take ville and his brother's example connected him place on the morrow, he was struck in the with the Fronde. At the head of Spanish body by a stray ball, and his death caused his army which was sent to support the rebels, he army to fall back beyond the Rhine. His rewas defeated near Réthel by Marshal Duplessis- mains were taken to St. Denis, and interred Praslin, and driven out of France (1650). After amid the royal tombs. When these were brotrying unsuccessfully to bring about a recon- ken open during the revolution, his corpse was ciliation between France and Spain, he solicited found in a perfect state of preservation and and obtained a pardon from the French govern- taken to a collection of antiquities, where it ment, returned to his country, and henceforth remained until 1801, when Bonaparte had it proved the most loyal supporter of the king, transferred to the church of the Invalides.. while Condé was the leader of the Frondeurs. Turenne was originally a Protestant, but beHe defeated the troops of his illustrious oppo- came a Catholic in 1668 through the instruction nent at Bléneau, near the Loire, in April, 1652, and influence of Bossuet. His life was written followed him up to Paris, inflicted upon him á by Sandras, Raguenet, and Ramsay. He left most severe loss in July in the faubourg St. Mémoires on his campaigns from 1643 to 1658, Antoine, and thus secured the triumph of the found in Ramsay's biography, and Lettres et royal cause at home. The Spaniards having Mémoires (2 vols. fol., Paris, 1782). invaded the north of France under the leaders TURGENEFF, IVAN SERGEIEVITCH, a Russian ship of Condé, he marched against them, worst- novelist, born in Orel, Nov. 9, 1818. He was ed them at Arras in 1654, gained the decisive educated at Moscow and at St. Petersburg, and victory of the “Dunes," June 14, 1658, took in 1838 went to Berlin to finish his studies. possession of Dunkirk, and by these and other On his return to Russia he obtained a situation successes hastened the peace of the Pyrénées, in the department of the interior, and made Nov. 7, 1659. He had been previously made himself known by several national songs, which minister of state, and now received the title of became very popular; but in consequence of marshal-general of the camps and armies of the sentiments expressed in one of them he was France. In 1667, war being declared against disgraced and sent into exile, and from 1847 to Spain under pretence of vindicating the hered- 1850 he lived in Germany and France. He has itary rights of Maria Theresa, the wife of Louis written poems entitled "Panascha" (1843) and XIV., Turenne entered Flanders at the head “ Conversation" (1844); " Memoirs, or Journal of the French army, accompanied by the of a Sportsman” (2 vols., 1852), twice translatking himself, and in less than three months ed into French ; Scènes de la vie Russe (2 vols. achieved the conquest of that province; and 18mo., Paris, 1858); and Une nichée des gentilsseveral of the cities he had taken were secured hommes (1859), beside various comedies, poems, to France by the treaty of Aix la Chapelle, and articles contributed to the Russian reviews. May 2, 1668. In the war against Holland TURGENEFF, NICOLAI, a Russian author, (1672) he commanded one of the armies that born in 1790. He was educated at Göttinmarched into that country; and when the gen, was attached as Russian commissioner to European powers came to its rescue, he entered Baron Stein's provisional administration of Germany, advanced to the Elbe, and forced the the reconquered German provinces, was made elector of Brandenburg to a separate peace at state councillor, and, being placed at the head Vossem in 1673; then, in a campaign which of the department of the interior and of ecois considered a masterpiece of strategy, he pro- nomic affairs, devoted himself with ardor to tected Alsace from invasion, crossed the Rhine the promotion of schemes for the emancipaat Philippsburg, routed the enemy at Sinz- tion of the serfs. In 1819 he joined the heim and Ladenburg (1674), and drove them “Society of Public Good,” founded by Truback to the Main, and, under orders from betzkoi and Muravieff, and was in consequence Louvois, devastated the Palatinate, laying 30 involved in the conspiracy of 1825 and contowns in ashes. In the following winter, with demned to death. He fled to France, and ar army of scarcely 22,000 men, he nearly de- has since resided in Paris. In 1847 and 1848 stroyed 60,000 Austrians and Brandenburgers he published La Russie et les Russes, divided under Beurnonville, gaining victories at Mul- into three parts, viz.: Mémoires d'un procerit, house, Colmar, and Türkheim (Jan. 5, 1675). Tableau politique et social de la Russie, and De He now wished to retire from active service; l'avenir de la Russie (3 vols. 8vo.). He has rebut he was the only French general who could cently published a pamphlet entitled La Russie successfully oppose the celebrated Montecu- en présence de la crise Européenne, and also culi, and yielding to the king's entreaties, he “The Last Word on the Emancipation of the continued in command, and during 4 months Serfs in Russia” (1860). the maneuvres and strategic operations of the TURGOT, ANNE ROBERT JACQUES, baron de two opposing generals were subjects of general l'Aulne, a French philosopher and statesman, admiration. Finally Turenne forced his rival born in Paris, May 10, 1727, died March 20, into a position near Sulzbach where he was 1781. He was educated for the church, and in constrained to fight at a disadvantage; the 1749 became prior of the Sorbonne. In the same French commander consequently had a new year he published a "Letter upon Paper Money;" victory in prospect, when, surveying the last and abandoning the clerical profession in 1762,

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he studied law, and in 1758 became counsellor Po is crossed by 3 bridges and the Dora-Susina in the parliament and master of requests. Qualis by 2, one of the latter being a magnificent fying himself for administrative functions by structure of a single arch with a span of 150 special attention to natural philosophy, agri- feet. Turin is of oblong form, about 14 m. culture, manufactures, and commerce, he ex- long and } m. broad, and is defended by a very pounded his views upon the last three sub- strong citadel on the W. The old town has jects in several papers which appeared in the narrow, crooked streets, and ill-built houses. Encyclopédie or in pamphlet form. The most In the new town the streets are broad and remarkable among the latter is the Concili- cross each other at right angles; and the houses ateur, ou lettre d'un ecclésiastique d un ma- are generally 4 or 5 stories in height, and many gistrat sur la tolérance civile (1754). In 1761 of them decorated with sculptures and other he was appointed intendant of Limousin, and ornaments. The approach to Turin from the introduced many important reforms in the ad- W. is by a fine avenue, one of the longest in ministration of that province; free transport Europe; and there are 13 public squares, the was allowed to corn and breadstuffs, taxes most important of which are the Piazza del were alleviated, roads and highways improved, Castello, the Piazza di San Carlo, the Piazza and workhouses and charitable institutions esa di San Giovanni, and the Piazza dell' Erbe. tablished. In 1766 appeared his Réflexions sur The first of these squares lies near the centre la formation et la distribution des richesses, of the town, is almost surrounded by lofty his chief work on political economy. He also palaces, and derives its name from having in its published valuable papers on loans and on centre the old palace of the dukes of Savoy, mines, beside his Lettres sur la liberté du com- considered one of the finest in Turin; the modmerce des grains. On the accession of Louis ern palace, at the N. side of the square, is an XVI. he was called to the navy department; extensive building, contains a fine collection of and one month later, Aug. 24, 1774, he was paintings, and has large gardens attached. The appointed comptroller-general of finances, and theatre, which was built from designs by Alundertook to introduce reforms on a large scale. fieri, stands on the E. side. The Piazza di San In a letter to the king which was then pub- Carlo is almost entirely surrounded by arcades, lished, he gave a synopsis of his intended policy; and contains a statue of Emanuel Philibert, duke he desired to improve the financial condition of Savoy, by Marochetti. The buildings of of the kingdom by wise economy and integrity; Turin are mostly of brick. The city is not rich he insisted upon the freedom of labor at home in ancient edifices, but many of the modern and of trade abroad, and aimed at substitut- public buildings are very magnificent. The ing for taxes on a multitude of articles a single duomo or cathedral of St. John the Baptist, tax on land. Encouraged by Louis XVI., he built in the 16th century, is small, and princiwent to work with tact, prudence, and ener- pally remarkable for the beautiful arabesques in gy; but these reforms were obnoxious to cour- the pilasters which adorn the front. The intiers and many others. In 1775, troubles hav- terior has recently been richly decorated with ing arisen on account of the high price of frescoes, and contains some fine paintings. breadstuffs, he was charged with having caused Near it is the chapel of Santo Sudario, a small scarcity by his regulations respecting the grain round building, considered a masterpiece of trade. In Jan. 1776, he caused an edict to be Guarini. The other churches most worthy of issued, abolishing compulsory labor for the state, notice are San Filippo Neri, the largest and internal duties on breadstuffs, the privileges of one of the finest in the town; San Domenico, trading corporations, &c.; but this only increas- which contains a fine Virgin and child by ed the number of his enemies; the privileged Guercino; San Tommaso, of little architectuclasses affected by it, the nobles, the clergy, ral merit, but possessed of some fine paintand the chief tradesmen, were so loud in their ings; Santa Cristiana, with a fine façade by complaints that the king was afraid to support Juvara; Corpus Domini, highly ornamented in his minister any longer. Turgot was conse- the interior with marble, gilding, and other quently dismissed in May, and retired to private decorations; and La Gran Madre di Dio, built life, devoting his leisure to science, literature, in imitation of the Pantheon at Rome, to comand philosophy. He was an honorary member memorate the restoration of the royal family of the academy of inscriptions. His Euores in 1814. A Protestant church in the Lombard complètes, published by Dupont de Nemours style was erected in 1853. There are in all 110 (9 vols. 8vo., Paris, 1808-'11), were reprinted churches and chapels; and there were formerly under the supervision of Eugène Daire (2 vols. many monasteries and nunneries, but they have 8vo., 1844). His biography was written by been suppressed with the exception of those Condorcet (London, 1796).

that are actually engaged in works of charity. TURIN (It. Torino; anc. Augusta Taurino- Other buildings which deserve notice are the pum), a city of Piedmont, capital of the king- Palazzo degli Archivi Reali or register office, an dom of Italy and of a province of its name, extensive edifice by Juvara; the custom house, situated in an extensive plain enclosed on all town house, and court house. The senate holds sides except the N. E. by the Alps, at the junc- its meetings in the ancient ducal palace, and tion of the Dora-Susina with the Po, 79 m. W. the chamber of deputies in the Carignan palace, S. W. from Milan; pop. in 1858, 179,635. The formerly the residence of the royal princes.


The university of Turin was founded in 1412, Meiningen, Jan. 8, 1774, died near Berlin, July and is a magnificent building, with a quadran- 31, 1846. He was educated at Jena, and after gle surrounded by arcades in which are a nuin- completing his legal studies was appointed by ber of ancient sculptures and inscriptions. It the prince of Mecklenburg in 1794 chancery has a library of 112,000 volumes and 2,000 auditor, and in 1796 chamberlain and chancery MSS., originally formed by the dukes of Savoy; councillor. In 1800 the supervision of the school a valuable collection of pictures and medals, an system of Mecklenburg was added to his other excellent Egyptian museum, museums of anat- duties. In 1804 he visited Pestalozzi at Münomy and natural history, and a good botanic chen-Buchsee, and on his return to Mecklengarden. It has faculties of theology, law, med- burg collected a company of boys, whom he icine, surgery, and arts, with 84 professors, taught two hours a day, instructing the teachand in 1858-'9 was attended by 1,376 students. ers also in Pestalozzi's method. In 1805 be The royal academy of sciences was founded in was appointed justice and consistory councillor 1783, and consists of 40 members; it has valu. by the duke of Oldenburg, and there renewed able collections in mineralogy, zoology, and his teaching, to the dissatisfaction of the duke. antiquities. There are also an episcopal semi- Resigning his place, he gave himself up wholly nary, a royal military academy, two colleges, to the business of teaching, visiting Pestalozzi numerous elementary schools, and institutions again, and for a time becoming a teacher in his for the deaf, dumb, and blind. The most im- school at Yverdun, and subsequently establishportant charitable foundations are the Retiro ing a school of his own at the castle of Vevay, delle Rosine, where 400 girls are maintained on the lake of Geneva. In 1814 he disposed chiefly by their own industry; the general hos- of this, and in 1815 was appointed royal and pital; the charity hospital, which accommo- school councillor by the Prussian government, dates 1,500 inmates; the Reale Albergo di first at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and afterward Virtù, an industrial school; the Regio Mani- at Potsdam. Here he labored zealously to conico or lunatic asylum; the Spidale di San introduce Pestalozzi's method into Prussia

, Luigi, which receives many inmates and gives and with great success. He also introduced relief to a great number of out-door patients; the culture of the mulberry and the raising of and the Compagnia di San Paolo, established silkworms, and invented machines for reeling for a great number of objects, including educa- silk from the cocoons. In 1833 he resigned his tion, marriage portions, and the relief of secret post (the king granting him his full salary as a poverty.—The manufactures of Turin include pension), to superintend the institutions he had Iinen, woollen, cotton, and silk goods, leather, founded. These were, a swimming school at paper, glass, china, hardware, carriages, arms, Potsdam; an association for the improvement musical and other instruments; and there are of silk-growing; a fund for school teachers

' numerous distilleries, dye works, and different widows, to which he devoted the profits of kinds of mills. The wealth of the city is prin- some of his works; & society at Potsdam cipally derived from its trade in silk; beside for the support of poor young men devoted to which the commerce includes different manu- the arts and sciences; three orphan houses factured articles, wine, liqueurs, grain, and fruit. one for boys and another for girls, orphans of Turin is connected by railway with Genoa, government officers and teachers of the high; Alessandria, Novara, Cuneo, Pinerolo, and er grades who were left destitute, and a third Susa. Italian is the language used in official for the orphan children of artisans and teachtransactions, and both it and French are spoken ers and officers of lower grades; and a soup by the upper classes; but the people generally distribution institution, for the old, sick, feeble, speak a Piedmontese dialect.—Turin is suppos- poor, and lying-in women. To these institued to have been founded by a tribe called Tau- tions he gave not only the profits of his pubrini or Taurisci, of Transalpine origin. Hanni- lished works, and the receipts from the sale of bal subdued the surrounding country, but after his gallery of paintings, but the greater part of he retired from Italy the Romans reoccupied his property and the

proceeds of his autobiog, it and made Turin a colony under the name of raphy, which he directed should be published Colonia Julia, which was afterward changed to after his death for their benefit. Von Türk's Augusta Taurinorum in honor of Augustus. works are : "Letters from München-Buchsee" Turin was sacked by the Goths, and afterward (Leipsic, 1808), an account of Pestalozzi's methby the Lombards; and it subsequently passed od; Die sinnlichen Wahrnehmungen ("Percep into the hands of Charlemagne, who conferred tion by the Senses,” 1810); “Guide to Instrucit in feudal tenure on its bishops, several of tion in Arithmetic” (Frankfort, 1817), which whom ruled it tyrannically. It was afterward is a valuable text book for teachers, and has governed by the marquises of Susa, and passed passed through many editions ; several essays by marriage with the heiress of that family to on rearing silkworms and the growth of the the counts of Savoy. In 1281 it became the mulberry; and his antobiography. capital of the states of the house of Savoy, TURKEY (meleagris, Linn.), a well known which with some slight interruptions it has gallinaceous bird, the type of the family meledever since remained.

grinæ, which contains also the Guinea fowl TÜRK, KARL CHRISTIAN WILHELM VON, a (numida). The bill is moderate and strong, German educator and philanthropist, born in shorter than the head, compressed on the sides,

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