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with culmen arched, and upper mandible over- tively recent period, the earlier naturalists hanging the lower; the cere is elongated into supposed it to be a native of Africa and the a loose, pendulous, round,, fleshy caruncle; East Indies, and its common name is said to head and upper neck bare, with only a few have arisen from the belief that it originated in scattered hairs, and carunculated; base of Turkey; it was carried to England in the early lower mandible sometimes wattled; a tuft of part of the 16th century by William Strickland, long, black bristles on the breast, largest in the the lieutenant to Sebastian Cabot in the voymales; wing short and rounded, the 1st 4 quills ages of discovery which he performed under graduated, and the 5th and 6th the longest; the patronage of Henry VII. Since that time tail broad and rounded, pendent during repose, it has been acclimated in most parts of the but capable of being raised and extended like a world, and wherever known its flesh is highly fan; tarsi robust, longer than middle toe, cov- esteemed; though the domestic bird has, conered in front with broad, divided scales, and trary to the usual rule, degenerated in size, flaarmed with a short obtuse spur; anterior toes vor, and beauty, it is everywhere regarded both united at base by a membrane, the inner the by civilized and savage nations as the most shortest, the posterior moderate and elevated; delicious of the poultry tribe; Christmas in claws short and slightly curved. All the spe- Europe and Thanksgiving day in the northern cies in the wild state are indigenous to North and middle United States would be bereft America. The common wild turkey (M. gallo- of one of their most pleasant associations by pavo, Linn.) is about 3} feet long and 5 in ex- the absence of a turkey at the family dintent of wings, weighing from 15 to 20 lbs., and ner; 300 years ago, the turkey formed the sometimes more; the naked skin of the head usual Christmas fare of the English farmer's and neck is livid blue, and the excrescences table; even the barbaric feasts of the South purplish red; the general color is copper bronze, sea islanders in honor of distinguished strangers with green and metallic reflections, each feath- are often rendered semi-civilized by the preser with a velvet-black margin ; quills brown, ence of this bird. The flesh of the wild turkey closely barred with white; tail feathers chest- is more pheasant-like than that of the domesnut, narrowly barred with black, and the tip ticated varieties. The old males keep by themwith a very wide subterminal black bąr; the selves, as do the females and young, the former female is smaller and less brilliant, without being apt to destroy the eggs in order to prospurs, often without bristles on the breast, and long the honeymoon; they are polygamous, with a smaller fleshy process above the base of the males in the breeding season, in March, the bill. It has a crop and gizzard, and an in- strutting before the females, with tail spread testine 4 times the length of the body; the cår- and elevated, wings drooping, feathers ruffled, tilaginous tissue of the stomach is less hard head and neck drawn back, emitting a puffing than in that of the common fowl. The full sound; the males also utter singular notes, plumage is attained at the 3d year; the females resembling the word "gobble" several times usually weigh about 9 lbs. They fly in flocks of repeated, whence the name gobbler often apmany hundreds, frequenting woods by day, plied to them; they fight desperately for the feeding on acorns, all kinds of grain, buds, ber- possession of the females. The nest is a slight ries, fruits, nuts, grass, insects, and even young hollow in the ground filled with withered frogs; they make considerable journeys in search leaves, in a dry and sheltered situation, and of food, flying and swimming across rivers of a usually contains, when full, 10 to 15 eggs; mile in width; though able to reach with ease after this time the males conceal themselves in the tops of the highest trees, their flight is order to recover their condition; the females heavy, and would prevent their passage across alone incubate, carefully concealing the nest, any considerable expanse of ocean; they are so approaching it with great caution and always strong as not to be easily held when slightly in a different way, covering the eggs with dry wounded; they perch at night on trees. Quit- leaves when going in search of food, and braveting the woods in September, they come into ly defending them against crows and other depthe more open and cultivated districts, when redators; sometimes 3 or 4 females lay in one they are killed in great numbers; they were nest, one remaining to guard it while the others formerly abundant in the middle, southern, and seek for food; after the young are hatched the western states, but are now rare except in males are attentive to them; the young run as thinly settled regions, and have never been soon as hatched, but are very tender and easily found west of the Rocky mountains. Benjamin killed by cold and wet; the female calls her Franklin thought the wild turkey should have young by a well known cluck. They run very been the emblem of the United States

, being a fast, and when pursued trust more to their legs truly indigenous and national bird ; in his time than to their wings for escape; they are generthe log cabin of the pioneer was surrounded by ally shot from their roosts at night, or enthese birds, saluting each other in early morn- trapped in a pen or enclosure into which they ing from the tops of the forest trees, as the cot- are enticed by grain; their feathers are emtage of the European farmer is by chanticleer. ployed by the Indians in ornamental work; Although exclusively an inhabitant of North their greatest enemies are lynxes and owls, and America in its wild state, and introduced do- other carnivorous mammals and birds.—The mesticated into the old world at a compara- Honduras or ocellated turkey (M. ocellata,

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Cuv.), from Central America, is a much hand-lating food to make them lay, and the young somer bird; the plumage is fine metallic green, are easily killed by exposure to wet and expassing to coppery, each of the tail feathers tremes of heat and cold; they thrive best on with 4 series of bluish green eye-like spots high, dry, and sandy soil, and when grasshopwith copper-colored margin, and surrounded pers are plentiful can pick up their own living; by a black ring; tail coverts tipped with white; in temperate climates they generally lay twice there are only 14 tail feathers instead of 18, as a year, 15 eggs or less, white with small spots in the preceding species. The Mexican turkey of reddish yellow. One male will suffice for (M. Mexicana, Gould) resembles the domestic 12 to 15 females, the latter being prolific for turkey more than does the M. gallopavo, in the about 5 years, though those of 2 or 3 are the white bars of the tail coverts and tail, but differs best hatchers; incubation lasts 27 or 28 days, equally in the color and greater hairiness of and they are such close sitters that food must the head and throat; it is of about the same be placed within their reach ; when they are size, the feathers of the sides of the body be- raised on a large scale they are made to hatch hind, the upper and under tail coverts, tipped in darkened places, and so that the turkey with light brownish yellow or even whitish, pouts, or young turkeys, shall all come out toand the rump with a greenish gloss; this is the gether; the young require warmth, shade, huaxolotl of the Mexicans.-All the turkeys proper food, and pure water, and must be prohave the feathers broad, distinct, and scale-like. tected against rain and the hot sun; they are According to J. Gould, the M. gallopavo is a liable at all ages to many diseases, for the treatnative of Mexico and the original of our do- ment of which special works in abundance can mestic species, the common wild turkey being be consulted. another nearly allied species, which he calls TURKEY (Turk. Osmanli Vilayeti), or The M. fera; the habits in all are the same, and all OTTOMAN EMPIRE, an empire comprising large are timid and stupid birds. According to Major tracts of contiguous territory in Europe, Asia, Le Conte, the domestic differs in many points and Africa. This territory may properly be of structure and habits from the wild turkey, divided into the immediate and mediate posthe former having an enormous dewlap from sessions of the sultan, the former being under the base of the lower mandible to the caruncles pashas or governors appointed directly by the on the lower part of the neck; the color of the Sublime Porte (as the government is called), naked skin is of a fleshy tint, becoming in the and the latter acknowledging his suzerainty male fiery red in the breeding season from tur- and paying tribute, but governed by their own gidity of the caruncles, and is less hairy; the officers, whose selection however, to be valid, tail and its coverts are always edged with must be approved by the sultan. Among the whitish; the wild turkey has never been so mediate possessions may be reckoned Wallachia, domesticated as to breed in captivity, notwith- Moldavia, Servia, and Montenegro in Europe, standing the many efforts to accomplish it; it a considerable portion of Arabia in Asia, and will, however, cross with the domestic bird, Egypt, Nubia, Kordofan, Tunis, Tripoli, and the progeny being hardier and more prolific, Fezzan in Africa. The immediate possessions whether the wild parent be the father or the of the Turkish empire are bounded by Austria, mother; the color of the cooked flesh in the Servia, the Danubian principalities, Russia in wild bird is much darker. The hypothesis is Europe, the Black sea, the Russian Transcausuggested in vol. ix. of the Pacific railroad re- casian provinces, Persia, the Persian gult, Arsports that there are 4 species of turkey : 1, the bia, the Mediterranean, the Archipelago, Greece, M. ocellata (Cuv.), from Central America; 2, the Ionian sea, the Adriatic, and Montenegro. the M. Americana (Bartr.), the common wild The area of the empire is variously estimated. turkey; 3, the M. Mexicana (Gould), of Mexi- Dr. A. Petermann (1858) gives it as follows: co and the table lands of the Rocky mountains; Turkey in Europe, 203,484 sq. m.; Turkey in and 4, the M. galloparo (Linn.), the domestic Asia, 668,992; Turkey in Africa, 955,357; toturkey, perhaps derived from a species indige- tal, 1,827,734. Johnston, in the new edition of nous to the West Indies, transported as tame his “Physical Atlas” (1861): Turkey in Europe, to Mexico and other parts of America, and 197,625 sq. m.; Turkey in Asia, 508,800; Turtaken to Europe in the early part of the 16th key in Africa, 626,000; total, 1,332,425. The century, the wild originals having been exter- political divisions of the country are so arbiminated by the natives, as were the dodo and trary and so constantly changing, that it is alsolitaire in the islands of the Pacific; this most impossible to give any satisfactory statewould account for the fact that no wild species ment in regard to them. The territory is closely resembles the domesticated turkey, divided into eyalets or pashalics, the chief This requires no description; they are found magistrate of which bears the title of rali or of almost every shade of color, the gray or governor-general; the eyalets into sandjaks or gray and white varieties being most esteemed; livas (provinces), which are governed by kaithe white breeds grow to a large size, and have makams or lieutenant-governors; the sandjaks a pure and tender meat, but the black and into cazas or districts; and the cazas into nabrown mixed are the hardiest. Turkeys are hiyrë, composed of villages and hamlets. Acnot generally regarded as so profitable for the cording to the “Gotha Almanac” for 1862, the small farmer as hens; they require more stimu- political divisions of the empire are as follows:

Capitals.

Religion.

European
Turkey.

Asiatic Tur

key.

Total

Silistria

....

....

TURKEY IN EUROPE (15 eyalets, 43 sandjaks, and 876 cazas). ants of European and Asiatic Turkey were Eyalets or pashalics.

estimated as follows by Dr. Kolb in 1860 : Adrianople (Thrace)...

Adrianople.
Bilistria (vastern Bulgaria).
Moldavia*

Jassy.

Mussulmans.
Bucharest

17,200,000

4,550,000 12,650,000 Wallachia

Widin.

Greeks and Armenians. 10.000.000 300,000 10,300,000 Widin (western Bulgaria).

Nissa.
Roman Catholics..

640,000 Nissa..

640,000

United Greeks and Ar-
Uskup (eastern Albania)...

Uskup.
menians.

100,000 100,000 Servia*

Belgrade.
The fortress of Belgrade...

Syrians and other mi.
nor sects

20,000 20,000 Bosnia (including Turkish Croatia and the

Maronites.

140.000 140,000 Herzegovina)

Bosna Serai,
Jews

70,000 80,000 150,000 Roumelia (western Albania, Montenegro,* and northern Macedonia)

Monastir.
Janina.

Total.
Janina (Epirus).

15,260,000 | 13,290,000 | 28,550,000 Salonica (southern Macedonia and Thessaly). Salonica.

Beside these, there are the gypsies, the Druses, Jezair (the islands of the archipelago)... Rhodes. Candia or Crete..

Candia. the Yezidis, the Metawalis, the Nestorians, and

several other sects, numbering in all about TURKEY IN ASIA (22 eyalets, 78 sandjaks, and 858 cazas).

3,000,000.-Turkey in Europe has a coast line Eyalets.

Capitals.

of upward of 1,300 m., of which about 200 are Kastamuni (Paphlagonia)...

Kastamuni. washed by the Adriatic, 100 by the Ionian sea, Khudavendigiar (Bithynia)...

Broussa. 600 by the Ægwan, and 400 by the Black sea. Aydin (Lydia)...

Smyrna Caramania (Phrygia and Pamphylia). Konieh.

The harbors on the Adriatic are poor, but many Adana (Cilicia)..

Adana.

of the others are excellent. The coast line of Bozok (western Cappadocia)..

Yuzgat. Bivas (eastern Cappadocia)

Sivas.

Asiatic Turkey has not been accurately measTrebizond (Pontus and Colchis).

Trebizond. ured, but it cannot fall short of 3,000 m., emErzroum (Armenia)..

Erzroum,

bracing the Mediterranean (including the archiVan (Assyria)..

Van. Koordistan

Diarbekir. pelago or Ægæan sea) from the Dardanelles to Kharpoot (Sophene and Commagene) Kharpoot. the boundary of Egypt, the Black sea from the Aleppo (Syria)

Aleppo. Saida (Phænicia and Palestine).

Beyrout.

Bosporus to St. Nicolai, and the sea of Marmora Lebanon..

Deir-el-Kamr. from the Dardanelles to Constantinople. AfEsh-Sham (Damascns)...

Damascus.

rican Turkey has a coast line on the MediterraSchehrzor (Mesopotamia)..

Schehrzor. Bagdad (Babylonia).

Bagdad. nean from Cape Rosa to El Arish, and along the Mecca

Mecca.

whole western side of the Red sea from Suez to Habesh (Arabia and Ethiopia).

Jiddah.

Medina. Hareini-Nebevi....

Cape Bab-el-Mandeb. Arabia, which also may Yemen

Mocha.

be reckoned as partly belonging to the empire, TURKEY IN AFRICA (8 eyalets).

has the E. shore of the Red sea and the Persian

gulf for its sea borders. This vast extent of Eyalets.

Capitals.

coast embraces many of the best harbors in the Egypt..

Cairo.

world. It is indented by numerous gulfs and Tripoli

Tripoli. Tunis.

Tunis.

bays, of which the principal are the gulfs of (For African Turkey, see Egypt, NUBIA, TRIP. Santo, Enos, Saros, and Boorghas in Europe;

Drin, Avlona, Arta, Salonica, Cassandra, Monte OLI, Tunis, &c.) The largest cities of European Adramyti, Smyrna, Scala Nova, Cos, Makri, Turkey are Constantinople, Adrianople, Salon- Adalia, Scanderoon, and the Persian gulf in ica, Bucharest, and Sophia, all of them having Asia; and the gulfs of Sidra, Cabes, and Suez over

50,000, and two over 100,000 inhabitants; in Africa. There are but few lakes in Eurobeside which there are 22 towns having a population between 20,000 and 50,000, and 18 be pean Turkey, but in Turkey in Asia there are tween 10,000 and 20,000. Asiatic' Turkey has many of considerable size; the largest and best two cities, Smyrna and Damascus, with a popu- lionte, Maniyas, Egerdir, Tuz, and Kerely in

known are Lake Van in Armenia; Isnik, Abullation above 100,000; Scutari, Broussa, Afioom, Asia Minor; Bahr-el-Merdj near Damascus; Aleppo, Kutaieh, Bagdad, and Bassorah have and Bahr-el-Huleh, the lake of Tiberias, and each over 50,000; 17 other towns have be- the Dead sea in Palestine. Most of these are tween 20,000 and 50,000, and 27 between salt, and have no outlet. The rivers of Turkey 10,000 and 20,000. There has been no complete census of the Turkish empire since 1846, flowing respectively into the Adriatic and lo

in Europe may be classed under 3 heads : those and its population is variously stated. Petermann estimated it in 1858 as follows: nian seas, into the Ægæan, and into the Black

The first class are usually small, rising European Turkey, 15,500,000; Asiatic, 16,

near the coast range of mountains; the Na050,000; African, 5,050,000; total, 36,600,000: renta, Drin, and Voyutza are the principal. Keith Johnston in his “ Physical Atlas” of

The second class are larger, the Salembria, 1861 : European Turkey, 15,500,000; Asiatic, Vardar, Karasu, Struma, and Maritza being 16,050,000 ; African, 8,695,000; total, 40,245, the most important. In the last class, those 000. Others still estimate the population of flowing into the Black sea, are the Danube and European Turkey at 16,440,000. The adherents to different religions among the inhabit- many of its most important tributaries, espe

cially the Pruth, Sereth, Jalomitza, Aluta, Is* Partially independent.

ker, Shyl, Morava, and Save. The rivers of Asi

sea.

sea.

atic Turkey may be arranged in 5 classes: those 10,000 feet, and thence at a lower elevation flowing into the Black sea, the Mediterranean, through Palestine to the Sinaitic peninsula, the Red sea, and the Persian gulf, and the

Jor- where it terminates on the shore of the Red dan with its tributaries, flowing into the Dead sea.-The surface of European Turkey is un

The principal rivers flowing into the dulating, and sometimes mountainous, but with Black sea are the Tchoruk, Yeshil-Irmak, Kizil- a large proportion of arable land of moderate Irmak, and Sakaria. Those discharging into elevation. A considerable part of Asiatic Turthe Mediterranean are mostly small, though key consists of elevated plateaus, many of them some of them are connected with important scantily watered, while in other regions once events in ancient history; the most important very fertile, but consisting of steep and preare the Koduz, Mendere, Syhoon, Jyhoon, cipitous hills and narrow valleys, the sands of Nahr-el-Asi or Orontes, Kasimieh or Leontes, the desert have covered the soil and rendered Mukutta or Kishon, and Assuf or Kanah. The the country barren. The plains are generally streams falling into the Red sea on its E. side desert from want of irrigation; and though the are all small and unworthy of notice; but among slopes of the mountains afford fine pasturage, those flowing into the Persian gulf are the Eu- the frequent raids of Bedouins and Koords phrates and Tigris with their numerous tributa- materially diminish the amount of production. ries. The greater part of the islands of the Gre- That part of European Turkey bounded by the cian archipelago, and those of the sea of Mar- Balkan, Mt. Pindus, and the basin of the Mamora, as well as the larger islands of Crete or ritza, together with the N. part of the DobrodCandia, Rhodes, and Cyprus, belong to the ja, and a tract S. of the gulf of Boorghas, is Turkish empire.-There are 3 principal moun- covered with primitive rocks; secondary strata tain ranges in European Turkey, which form occur in the western provinces, and N. of the the great watersheds between the different ba- Balkan from the Morava to the Black sea; sins of the country; they are: 1. The Illyrico- the tertiary formations predominate througti, Hellenic or western range, comprising the Di- out the basin of the Save and Maritza, and naric Alps, a continuation of the Julian Alps, in the S. W. of Albania. There are several which separate the Adriatic coast from the small tracts of the upper palæozoic N. W. of basin of the Save, and having its culminating Constantinople, in the Balkan, and on the point in Mount Dinara, 7,458 feet high, and Danube near Orsova. The geology of Asiatic the Pindic chain, connected on the Ñ. with Turkey has been but imperfectly explored, the preceding, separating western Albania and but so far as known it corresponds to that Epirus from Macedonia and Thessaly, uniting of European Turkey, with perhaps less of the with the Olympian chain on the S., and form- tertiary formations. The soil of European ing the watershed between the Ionian and Turkey is for the most part very fertile, yieldÆgwan seas; Mt. Ida in Candia seems to be ing large returns to the husbandman; but in a continuation of this chain. Its principal sum- past times the oppressive system of farming mits are Mts. Olympus, Metzovo, Ida, Ossa, the taxes did much to prevent agricultural imOthrys, and Pelion. 2. The Balkan or Mt. provement, and the soil is tilled in the most Hæmus range, branching off from the preceding primitive method. In Asiatic Turkey there is range N. E. of Albania, dividing Macedonia and a deficiency of moisture, and many tracts once Thrace from Bulgaria, and terminating in Cape yielding most bountiful crops are now, from Emineh on the Black sea. It consists of two main want of irrigation, reduced to the condition of branches: the Balkan proper, which has 3 prin- sandy deserts. This is particularly the case cipal summits, the Great Balkan, the Emineh with considerable districts of Palestine and Dagh, and the Tchan Dagh; and the Despoto other portions of Syria.—Turkey in Europe is Dagh chain in the W. of Thrace, whose chief subject to violent climatic changes. Owing to summits are the Relo Dagh and Mt. Athos, or the elevation of considerable portions and to Monte Santo. 3. The south-eastern Carpathi- the cold N. E. winds from the interior of Rusans, forming the watershed between the Theiss sia, the winter is in many parts excessively and the lower Danube. This range lies main- cold, the thermometer descending in the plains ly in Austria. The principal passes of these of Wallachia and Moldavia to 15° below zero; ranges are Trajan's gate and the Shumla pass and at the mouth of the Danube the winter in the Balkan; the Vulcan, Red Tower, Ro- temperature is the same as in the interior of man, Bodza, Oitoz, and Gyimes passes in the Iceland. Around Constantinople the temperaCarpathians, between Wallachia and Moldavia ture of winter and spring is very variable, snow and Transylvania. The mountain system of and hard frost alternating with mild weather

, Asiatic Turkey is composed of the two near- and a change of 30° in a single night is not ly parallel ranges, Taurus and Anti-Taurus, uncommon. Albania, which is sheltered from which form the connecting link between the the N. E. winds by mountains, has a more uniBalkan and the mountain systems of Syria, form climate, but is subject to earthquakes. Caucasia, and Persia; and the Lebanon range, In summer the rocky districts of the interior proceeding southward from Taurus in the and the valleys of the W. which look seaward province of Marash, and extending parallel are insupportably hot. At Constantinople the with the coast of Syria to Mt. Hermon in mean temperature of the year is 56.3°, of the the north of Palestine, a summit rising above winter 40.3°, and of the summer 71.2o. The

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average fall of rain for the year over the entire cat, 22 species of bat, squirrel, beaver, hedgepeninsula does not exceed 32 inches. The climate hog, mole, mouse, rat, several species of hare, of Asiatic Turkey varies little from that of the the fallow deer, the roe, antelope, charnois, and European portion of the empire. It is cold wild ox. The lion, formerly an inhabitant of and humid in the mountainous regions in the Mt. Olympus, is extirpated. Of birds 259 spowinter months, but in the sheltered valleys and cies have been counted, of which 31 are birds plains it is warm and delightful. The summer of prey, 100 songsters, 12 gallinaceous birds, 15 heats are excessive, especially in the valleys. climbers, 64 waders, and 37 swimmers. Game The valley of the Jordan and the tract watered is plentiful, especially in the mountains. Fish by the Euphrates and Tigris are intolerably are numerous, embracing all the known species hot and dry in summer. Little or no rain falls of the Mediterranean; tunny, coral, and sponge from April to the middle of September, but the fisheries are extensively prosecuted; trout and night dews are heavy. The peaks of Mt. Ara- other fish abound in the rivers, and the colrat and of the higher summits of the Lebanon lection of leeches from the marshes is an imand Taurus ranges are covered with perpetual portant trade. In Asiatic Turkey, the lion is snow. The mean annual temperature at Jeru. still found E. of the Euphrates; the striped salem is 62.6°, that of summer 73.8°, and that hyæna, lynx, panther, buffalo, wild boar, and of winter 49.6°:-In European Turkey no coal wild ass occur in Mesopotamia; the bear, wolf, has been found, but iron of the best quality is wild hog, and jackal in Asia Minor; while the abundant. Argentiferous lead ore exists in leopard, hedgehog, jerboa, hare, mole, and wolf considerable quantities; copper, sulphur, salt, are found throughout Syria, and the Syrian alum, and a little gold are found. In Asiatic bear on Mt. Lebanon. The camel, dromedary, Turkey, there are copper, lead, alum, silver, horse of the best breeds, ass, ox, sheep, and rock salt, and mineral waters in Armenia; in goat are the principal domestic animals. Of Asia Minor, all these and considerable quanti- the two last there are several peculiar varieties. ties of nitre; in Syria, iron, coal, and limestone, The Angora goat, celebrated for the fineness and west of the Jordan indurated chalk.—Thé of its hair, and the broad-tailed sheep are spechief botanical characteristic of both European cially noticeable. The birds, fishes, and repand Asiatic Turkey is the predominance of the tiles differ little from those of Turkey in Eulabiatæ, caryophyllacem, ericacea or heaths, of rope.-Perhaps no country in the world is inthe evergreens belonging to the coniferæ, and habited by so great a variety of races as the of the amentaceous trees common to the south Turkish empire. The Turks are divided into of Europe. In the basin of the Danube the two races: the Osmanlis, or Turks proper, the pine, beech, oak, lime, and ash are the princi- ruling race, whose numbers are estimated at pal forest trees, and the apple, pear, cherry, about 3,000,000 in European and 10,500,000 in and apricot the most common fruit trees. In Asiatic Turkey; and the Toorkomans, who are the provinces S. of the Balkan these trees are principally found in northern Mesopotamia and only found on the slopes of the mountains, adjoining districts, and do not probably exceed while on the lower lands the palm, maple, 100,000. The Greeks are about equally dialmond, sycamore, walnut, chestnut, and carob vided between the European and Asiatic divitrees, and the box, myrtle, laurel, and other sions, and number in all somewhat more than evergreens, are found; in Bosnia and Croatia 2,000,000. The Armenians are about 500,000 there are large forests of fir and pine; the ma- in European and 2,000,000 in Asiatic Turkey. ritime plains of Albania are favorable to the The Slavic races, under which term are pringrowth of the olive, orange, citron, and vine, cipally included the Bulgarians, Servians, Bosas well as to the peach, plum, and numerous nians, Herzegovinians, and Montenegrins, num. other fruit trees; and the plain of Adrianople, ber about 6,000,000, and are all in European as well as most of the region S. of the Balkan, Turkey. The Roumans or Wallachs, a Dacoabounds in roses, from which the attar is largely Roman race, inhabiting chiefly the Danubian distilled. Of agricultural products, maize is principalities, number about 4,000,000. Beside cultivated in the south, rice, cotton, rye, and these there are upward of 1,000,000 Arnauts barley in the central provinces, and wheat, bar- or Albanians proper in the province called after ley, and millet in the north. Though producing them; not far from 1,000,000 Arabs in Asiatic forest trees of the same families with those of Turkey, and about 4,000,000 in the African European Turkey, the predominant trees of Turkish possessions ; about 240,000 Syrians, Asiatic Turkey are of different genera. The ce- all in Asiatic Turkey; about 200,000 Jews, dar, cypress, and evergreen oak crown the lower 90,000 Franks or western Christians, 1,000,000 summits and thrive on the slopes of Lebanon or more Koords, 220,000 gypsies, 30,000 to and Taurus; the sycamore and mulberry occu- 50,000 Druses, about the same number of Tarpy the lower hills, and the olive, fig, citron, tars, and large numbers of Circassians and other orange, pomegranate, and vine flourish luxuri- Caucasians, and in Africa, Copts, Nubians, antly in the lowlands. Mesopotamia abounds in Berbers, &c. The Osmanlis are in general a rodates, and in wheat, barley, rice, maize, tobac- bust, well formed race, with a grave and comco, hemp, flax, and cotton.—The wild animals manding countenance. They are intelligent of European Turkey are the wild boar, bear, and capable of readily acquiring knowledge, badger, marten, wolf, wild dog, fox, civet, wild generally courteous and hospitable to stran

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