Page images

gers, constant in their friendships, but given the promontory opposite Samos, and the other to dissimulation, indolent, bigoted, licentious, from Rassova on the Danube to Kustendji on and deficient in tender emotions. They are the Black sea. Several others have been proalmost universally fatalists. The Osmanli is jected. The Danube with its navigable tributoo indolent to engage willingly in severe labor. taries forms the great channel of commerce for He is exempted from the capitation tax which the northern provinces of European Turkey.the other races are compelled to pay; he Education has been hitherto very greatly neg. sometimes condescends to engage in trade, lected, but there is now a deep interest taken though no match for the sharp Greek or thé in intellectual culture, since it is the only avwily Armenian, but, unless in a very abject con- enue to many kinds of employment. In 1847 dition, avoids agricultural or mechanical pur- the system of public instruction was entirely resuits. The Toorkomans and Koords are shep- modelled. There are now elementary schools herds and herdsmen, often migratory, but for reading, writing, arithmetic, and religious sometimes occupying villages and cultivating instruction; middle schools, in which Arabic the soil. They are more industrious than the composition and Mohammedan religious histoOsmanlis. The Slavic races, the Roumans, and ry are taught; and colleges for higher branches

, the Albanians are the principal agriculturists such as medicine, agriculture, and naval and in European, and the Armenians, Syrians, and military science. The instruction in these is Druses, with some of the Osmanlis, in Asiatic gratuitous, and parents are required to send Turkey.--Agriculture is in a low state, and the their children to school on attaining the age implements and culture are of the rudest de- of 6 years. Wealthy Osmanlis often send their scription, the former being almost universally of children to Paris to be educated. The Chris. the same form as those in use 3,000 years ago. tian (Greek, Roman Catholic, and Armenian) Notwithstanding this imperfect cultivation, the sects have some schools of their own, but there crops of grain, rice, cotton, tobacco, &c., ow- is very little thorough education in the empire. ing to the fertility of the soil, are very large, There are now 4 newspapers in the Turkish yielding from 25 to 100 fold return. The olive language, 2 in Greek, 2 in French, and one each is largely cultivated for food and for oil, and in English, Armenian, Bulgarian, Arabic, and the grape, fig, date, orange, and citron yield Hebrew, beside several Rouman and Servian abundant and profitable returns. The manu- newspapers published in the tributary provfactures of the Turkish_empire are compara- inces. The state religion is the Mohammedan, tively few and simple. Wax, raisins, dried figs, but Christian, Jewish, and other sects are recfig paste, olive oil, silks, red cloth, goat-skin ognized, and permitted to conduct their wormorocco of excellent quality, saddlery, swords ship in their own way. Previous to 1856 a of superior workmanship, firearms, copper and Mohammedan who became a Christian or Jew, tin utensils, shawls, carpets, dye stuffs, em- if of Turkish birth, was liable to be put to broidery, essential oils, attar of roses, brandy death ; but by a hatti-sherif or decree of that from prunes, &c., are the principal. Its com- year the sultan abolished this penalty, and gave merce is extensive and on the increase. The all persons of whatever birth equal rights and exports are principally raw materials, silk, cot- justice, and liberty to embrace whatever religion ton, tobacco, wheat, maize, wool, goats' hair, they chose. This hatti-sherif, or hatti-humameerschaum clay, wax, honey, and sponges; yum as it is sometimes called, has been strictly drugs and dye stuffs, opium, madder, gall nuts, enforced in those pashalics under the immegum arabic, valonia, and various gum resins; diate government of the sultan, but in the refigs, currants, raisins, wines, olive oil, &c., with moter provinces and among the more bigoted some carpets and red cloths. The imports are Mohammedans it has remained virtually a dead manufactured goods of all kinds, glass, pottery, letter.—The government of Turkey is a pure arms, paper, cutlery, steel, amber, &c. The despotism, or absolute monarchy. The emperor

value of the entire imports of the empire can- has the titles of sultan, padishah, grand seign• not be ascertained, but in 1860 there were im- ior, khan, and hunkiar.' Though professedly ab

ported into the 3 ports of Constantinople, Smyr. solute, his power is practically very much lim; na, and Trebizond foreign goods to the value ited by the sheik ul-Islam,

who is at the head of $75,502,317. The exports are much less of the combined religious and judicial order of Of this trade Great Britain has the largest the nation called the chain of the ulema, comshare, exporting to Turkey in 1858 about $50,- posed of the ministers of religion and justice

, 000,000 worth, and receiving from that country and has the right of objecting to any decree of about $39,000,000. In 1847 the imports from the sultan. The first executive officer of the Great Britain at Constantinople and Smyrna government is the grand vizier, who is the alone exceeded $47,000,000. The exports from vicegerent of the

sovereign, and is usually called Turkey to the United States in 1860 were sadri azam (great president). The other officers $1,041,959, and the imports about $420,000. composing the cabinet or divan are the presiWith the exception of a few of the great thor. dents of the

supreme council of state (the ak; oughfares, there are really no roads worthy of kiami adlié) and the grand council of internal the name throughout the empire. Two rail affairs (the tanzimat); the seraskier, who is ways have recently been constructed (1862), commander-in-chief and minister of war, the one from Smyrna to Aidin, to be completed to capudan pasha, or high admiral; the malliye

[ocr errors]

naziri, or minister of finance; the kharidshizhié sailors, are fit for effective service.—The Turknaziri (formerly reis effendi), the minister for ish empire in Europe dates only from the overforeign affairs; the marif naziri, or minister of throw of the Byzantine empire in the 15th public instruction; the zarbhani mushiri, master century; but the Osmanlis had already become of the mint; the tidjaret naziri, or minister of a formidable power, and the masters of the commerce; the daava naziri, or minister of jus- greater part of Asiatic Turkey, in the early years tice; the efkaf naziri, administrator of mosque of the 14th century. (See Turks.) In 1299 property and charitable trusts; and the zabtizhié Othman or Osman (from whom are derived the mushiri, or minister of police. The governors- names Ottoman and Osmanli) invaded Bithynia, general (valis) of the eyalets or pashalics re- and occupied the territory of Nicæa. In 1326 ceive a salary of $3,000 per month, and the his son Orchan took Prusa (Broussa), the capkaimakams or governors of sandjaks less sums ital of Bithynia, and subsequently penetrated according to their rank. The fixed revenues into Thrace. His son Murad or Amurath I. of the pashalics are not now farmed out as for- subdued the whole of Thrace, in 1362 estabmerly, but are collected through defterdars or lished from his young captives the military receivers-general in each pashalic, in the same band known as janizaries, and subsequently way as in other civilized countries. The vari- conquered the Bulgarians, Servians, Bosnians, able imposts are farmed, but the power of the and Albanians, and fell on the battle field of farmers to oppress those from whom the im- Kossovo in 1389. He was succeeded by his post is to be collected is much restricted. The son Bajazet or Bayazid, surnamed Nderim (the mushirs and kaimakams are appointed by the lightning), who completed the conquest of tanzimat on the nomination of the sultan, and Asia Minor, of a portion of Thrace which had are removable at the sultan's pleasure. They revolted, and of Macedonia and Thessaly, overno longer possess the power of life and death. ran central Greece, and conquered in the The Koran being the supreme authority in law great battle of Nicopolis, but was defeated as well as religion, the law officers, who must and taken prisoner by Tamerlane in 1402. In all be Osmanlis, form a part of the chain of 1422 the sons of Bajazet, who had contended the ulema, and receive the same training as with each other for the government, which they the ministers of religion; they rise through 10 had wrested from Tamerlane's successors, had degrees, from that of imam to that of grand all deceased, and Amurath II., the grandson mufti. The receipts of the imperial treasury, of Bajazet, succeeded to an undivided empire, for the year ending Oct. 1861, were $57,220,- which he greatly increased by the recapture 000, and the government expenditure for the of Adrianople, and the reduction of Roumelia, same period $67,045,000. The public debt, Servia, Albania, and the whole of Greece north Sept. 13, 1861, was of two classes: the home of the isthmus. For a time Scanderbeg, the debt, amounting to $92,292,000, and the foreign Albanian chief, and Hunyady, the waywode of debt, of $165,762,000. The interest on this Transylvania, were successful in checking his debt absorbs 16 per cent. of the annual revenue. conquests; but the severe defeat of Ladislas, The army of the empire is divided into the king of Hungary and Poland, at Varna (1444), nisam or permanent force, and the redif or re- effectually destroyed the hopes of the Chrisserve. The effective or permanent force is nom- tian world. Amurath II. was succeeded in 1451 inally 180,000 men, but really does not exceed by Mohammed II., who in 1453 took Constan120,000, divided into 6 army corps (ordus), each tinople, and established the Osmanli throne on under the command of a mushir or field marshal, the ruins of the palace of the Roman emperors. who must be a ferik pasha, or of equal rank He next attempted the siege of Belgrade, but with the governor of an eyalet. These corps was repulsed with heavy loss by Hunyady, and, are severally composed of 2 divisions, having turning his attention to Greece, reduced the each 3 regiments of infantry, 2 of cavalry, and whole Morea to subjection; he subsequently 1 of artillery. The reserve is also composed reduced Trebizond, and in 1466, having driven of 6 corps, each commanded by a marshal of Scanderbeg into Lissa, then belonging to the the rank of a liva pasha, or governor of a liva or Venetians, reigned supreme over all the eastsandjak. The number of men enrolled in the ern provinces of the Roman empire in Europe, reserve is variously stated at from 126,000 to and the whole of Asia Minor. His grandson 300,000. Beside these there are 4 detached Selim I. (1512–20), the son of Bajazet II., was divisions: the army of Candia, of 1,000 men; victorious over the Persians, and reduced Koorthe army of Tripoli, 5,000; that of Tunis, 5,000; distan, Syria, Egypt, and a part of Arabia. His and the central division of artillery, comprising son, Solyman the Magnificent (1520-'66), made about 30,000. Bosnia and Albania, in case of conquests on every side, successively reducing invasion, are bound to furnish each 30,000 men, Belgrade and the island of Rhodes, Hungary, Servia 40,000, and Egypt 18,000, making in all Armenia, Irak, Tunis and Algiers, Croatia, Ye118,000 levies from these states. The navy con- men, Shirvan, Georgia, and Transylvania. Molsists nominally of 8 ships of the line, 12 frigates, davia was made tributary. Selim II., his son, 4 corvettes, 8 brigs, 9 schooners, and 23 steam- conquered Cyprus, but lost the great naval baters. Of these, 18 steamers, 2 ships of the line, 5 tle of Lepanto (1571). From that time a weakfrigates, 6 corvettes, and 5 brigs, carrying in aller race of princes succeeded to the throne, and 1,218 cannon, and having 34,000 marines and the janizaries gained a degree of power which

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

made them for the most part the actual rulers strengthening of the empire, and the suppresof the country. (For the reigns of the most sion of most of the chronic difficulties and reimportant sultans of this period, see AMURATH volts which had so long impaired the efficiency III. and IV., MOHAMMED IV., ACHMET III., of its government. The revolutions of 1848 Mahmoud I., and Abdul Hamer.) Frequent did not disturb Turkey, except in the princiwars with Poland, Austria, Persia, Venice, and palities of Wallachia and Moldavia, which were Russia were waged, mostly under the lead of tributaries rather than provinces. The soltan the grand viziers, and but rarely with success. introduced numerous reforms; among others, Montecuculi

, Sobieski, Louis of Baden, and the decree known as the hatti-sherif already Prince Eugene destroyed the Turkish power on referred to, first promulgated in 1839, and conthe Danube; and at the peace of Carlowitz in firmed at the close of the Crimean war in 1856. 1699 Mustapha II. surrendered almost all the The claims of the czar Nicholas to a protectorHungarian provinces to Austria, Azof to Peter ate over the Christian subjects of the sultan, led the Great of Russia, Podolia and Ukraine to to a declaration of war against Russia in Oct. Poland, and the Morea and Dalmatia to Venice. 1853, in which England, France, and Sardinia During almost the whole of the 18th century subsequently joined. (See CRIMEA.) As a reTurkey was at war, with brief intervals of peace sult of this war, in the early part of which the or truce, with Russia, and much of the time Turkish forces under Omer Pasha distinguished with Austria also. Though occasionally suc- themselves, the access to the mouth of the cessful, this protracted warfare was on the whole Danube and the territory around it were ceded exceedingly disastrous to Turkey, causing ber to Turkey, and Russia was forbidden to mainthe loss of the Crimea and all her possessions N. tain any considerable fleet in the Black sea, or of the Black sea, and of the exclusive navigation to attempt the exercise of authority over the of that sea and the straits connected with it. subjects of the Porte. The Crimean war was In other quarters, too, losses were suffered. followed, as it was preceded, by considerable The reign of Selim III. (1789 to 1807), though troubles with the small semi-independent state characterized by enlightened reforms and great of Montenegro. In June, 1858, fanatic Moability, was one in which disaster still followed hammedans at Jiddah massacred the British the empire. By the peace of Jassy (1792) the and French consuls ; the town was bombarded Dniester was made the frontier between Rus- by a British man-of-war, and subsequently a sia and Turkey. Several of the pashas aspired part of the criminals were discovered and exeto independence, and the conquest of Egypt by cuted. In Sept. 1859, a conspiracy was disBonaparte led to a war with France, which end- covered, having for its purpose the assassinaed in considerable concessions to that power; tion of the sultan and his principal ministers and wars with Russia and England and the re- and the restoration of the ancient customs; bellion of the janizaries made the condition of the principal movers in it were arrested and Turkey more perilous than ever before. Selim condemned to perpetual imprisonment in a forwas deposed in 1807, at the instance of the jani- tress. In June, 1860, a war broke out between zaries and the grand mufti, in consequence of the Druses and Maronites in Syria, and many the reforms he had introduced. The one year's thousands of both races were massacred. The reign of Mustapha IV., who restored the an- interposition of France and England led to the cient régime, was followed in 1808 by the vigor- adoption of rigorous measures for its suppresous administration of Mahmoud II. Introdu- sion, which was accomplished in the autumn cing more radical reforms than any of his pre- of the same year. On June 25, 1861, Abdul decessors, concluding peace with England in Medjid died, and was succeeded by his brother 1809 and Russia in 1812, not without consider- Abdul Aziz, who has commenced a decided reable sacrifice of territory, and ridding himself trenchment of the expenses of the governby a terrible slaughter of the janizaries, he was ment, and gives promise of being a more effiin a position to rule successfully and with ad- cient ruler than his predecessor. This new vantage to his empire; but the revolution of reign, however, is already troubled by a rethe Greeks and the insurrection of Mehemet newed conflict with Montenegro, which on the Ali in Egypt involved him in new and still part of the Turks is carried on, with varying greater difficulties. Greece achieved her inde success, under the command of Omer Pasha. pendence an almost fatal cost to Turkey. TURKEY BUZZARD, the popular name of The revolted pasha of Egypt had also substan- one of the common American vultures, cathar. tially attained to an independent position, when tes aura (Illig.). It is about 2 feet long and in 1840 the great powers of Europe, with the 6 in extent of wings; the bill, as in the other exception of France, deeming the adherence of species of the genus (which includes the black Egypt to Turkey necessary to the maintenance vulture or carrion crow and the great Califorof the balance of power in Europe, reduced him nia vulture), is long and comparatively slender, to the condition of a tributary. On the death with an arched, strong tip; a large soft cere. I of Mahmoud in 1839, his son Abdul Medjid, then of the length of the bill

, in which the pervious but 16 years of age, ascended the throne. In nostrils are placed; wings long and pointed, July, 1841, the great powers of Europe guaran- the 3d and 4th quills nearly equal and longest; teed the integrity of the Turkish empire, the tail moderate and nearly even; tarsi short, result of which was the consolidation and plumed below the knee, and with sinall scales;

toes weak, united by a small membrane, hind Turanian family, of which the chief common one short and weak, and claws strong; head characteristics have been pointed out under and neck naked, no fleshy crest, and the plu- TURANIAN RACE AND LANGUAGES. They conmage black. All the vultures which have the stitute together a well marked group of nearly nostrils perforated belong to the new world; related idioms; even the Yakoot—the ono this genus is one of the sub-family sarcoramphi- which differs most from the rest, and is supnæ or condors. The color is brownish black, posed to have severed itself from the main stem with a purplish lustre, darkest on the back and before the division of the latter into its other upper part of tail, and some pale edgings; bill branches—is so distinctly a Turkish language yellowish; head and neck bright red, with a that its relationship is apparent upon the most few scattered hair-like feathers and wrinkled superficial examination, and it has been assertskin; plumage commencing on the neek with & ed, although doubtless without good reason, that circular ruff of prominent feathers. It is found a Yakoot from the Lena could make himself all over North America, except the arctic re- passably understood at Constantinople. The gions, going on the Pacific coast as far N. as Tartar dialects are for the most part known only the British possessions, but on the Atlantic by scanty vocabularies and the descriptions of rarely seen N. of New Jersey; but it is most travellers; a few have been treated grammatabundant in the southern states, migrating ically; three or four, as the Uigur, the Jagatai thither from the colder parts. It is essentially or oriental Turkish, and the Osmanli, have rea carrion eater, though it will devour any kind ceived literary culture, and are to be studied of fresh meat, and even small living mammals, in written monuments. Of these last, the diabirds, and reptiles; it has been known to attack loct of the tribe which has been during the past and kill weak and sickly animals in the fields. 500 years dominant in European and Asiatic It associates in flocks of 25 to 30, even when Turkey, or the Osmanli Turkish, as it is disnot feeding, becoming very familiar in the tinctively called, is of by far the greatest imsouthern cities, where it performs a very use- portance, and to it we shall chiefly direct our ful scavenger's work in devouring any carrion attention. Its peculiarities are such as natuor animal filth left in the streets; it is called rally result from its position and its culture John Crow vulture in Jamaica, and gallinazo under the powerful influence of Arabic and in many places in the S. W. portions of North Persian; every part of its vocabulary, and even America. It finds out its prey at a great dis- some departments of its grammar, are filled tance by the acute sense of sight, like other with Arabic and Persian elements; so that it vultures; its flight is lofty, and uncommonly presents the remarkable and unique spectacle graceful and long sustained, sailing for miles of a dialect made up of materials derived from without apparent effort, with the tips of the the three grand and totally disconnected famiwings bent upward by the weight of the body; lies of language, the Turanian, Semitic, and it is often seen in company with the black vul- Indo-European, to the detriment, of course, of ture, hawks, kites, and crows; it is also a good its native character, by the corruption of its walker on the ground. Its average weight is forms and the artificiality of its style. This is 63 lbs., which is somewhat less than that of the true especially, however, of the language which black vulture; it is also less common than the is taught in the grammars and written in the latter bird, more retired in its habits, and, literature; the vernacular idiom of the people though more inclined to carrion, neater, better is a much purer Turkish. The Osmanli is usuformed, and a more rapid and elegant flier. It ally written with the Arabic alphabet, which is fond of particular roosting places, generally is exceedingly ill suited to it, as to the Persian, high and dead cypresses in deep swamps; it since it marks the vowels very imperfectly, and drinks freely, immersing the bill to the base in its distinction of consonantal sounds is in and taking long draughts; it is very sensitive part defective and in part redundant; to conto cold, and liable to disease about the eyes and struct the spoken alphabet and phonetic form legs in the shape of warts and excrescences; of the language from the published grammars when alarmed or provoked it utters a loud hiss- is well nigh an impossibility. It is also someing noise. In the southern states the breeding times written with the Armenian alphabet, season begins early in February, the nest being which represents it much more faithfully. It usually placed in the hollow of a dead tree, or, has 9 vowels: 4 hard, viz., 2, 0, U, and a pecuit is said, even on the ground, and containing liar guttural i ; and 5 soft, viz., ä (a flat), e, i, 2 eggs, 27 by 2 inches, light cream-colored, ö (French eu), and ü (French u). In the same with irregular black and brown marks; both word, as a general rule, only vowels of one or birds incubate, each feeding the other and the of the other of these classes are allowed to young with the disgorged contents of the succeed one another; the dominant syllable, stomach ; incubation lasts 32 days, and only which is usually the final one of the root or one brood is raised in a season; the nests be- theme, assimilating to its own character all that come extremely dirty and fetid.

follow it. The consonants are y, r, l; ng, n, TURKISH LANGUAGE AND LITERA- m; 8, 2, sh, zh; kh, gh, f, o; k, 9, t, d, p, b; TURE. The languages spoken by the different hi and the compounds ch, . The language tribes of Turkish or Tartar origin form a prin- has no proper articles, although its numeral cipal division of the great Scythian, Altaic, or one" and its demonstrative are sometimes

VOL. XV.-42

[ocr errors]


used nearly as articles. The adjective is unin- i. e., I had struck. By these means, a great flected. The nouns have no distinction of gen- variety of more or less genuine verbal forms is der; their plural is formed by the addition of produced, in the admission and classification of lar or ler. There is no nominative case-end- which, however, grammarians greatly differ; ing; the unchanged theme is employed as and the verbal paradigm is a very rich one as subject, in address (vocative), and also as in- regards the number and nicety of its distincdefinite object of a verb. Of cases, formed by tions. The prepositions in Turkish are all inseparable affixed particles, which may prop- postpositive affixes; many proper prepositions, erly be regarded as terminations of declen- however, are borrowed by it from the Arabic sion, there are an accusative, in i; a genitive, and Persian, and are placed and construed acin ung; a dative, in e; an ablative, in den; cording to the usage of those languages. It an instrumental, in le; and a locative, in de. is almost entirely destitute of any conjuncThese suffixes are, saving certain slight eu- tions except those of Arabic and Persian origin, phonic changes, invariable; they are appended some of which was those for and, but, or, if, as

, to the simple theme in the singular, and to the that-are in frequent and familiar use, although plural sign in the plural. The nu more in the formal and written style than in are : 1, bir ; 2, iki ; 3. üch ; 4, dort; 5, besh; the conversational. The place of conjunctions 6, elti; 7, yedi; 8, sekiz ; 9, dokuz; 10, on; is supplied by gerundives and possessive forms, 11, on bir, &c. ; 20, yegirmi; 30, otuz; 40, through means of which the different members kirk; 50, elli ; 60, elimish; 70, yetmish; 80, of a compound sentence are twined into one, seksen ; 90, doksan ; 100, yoz; 1000, bing. To with the principal verb always at the end. form the ordinals, inji is added. The personal This position of the verb, together with the pronouns, which alone offer some anomalies operation of the rule that the determining word of declension, are: I, ben ; we, biz ; thou, sen ; must precede the determined, gives the Turkish ye, siz. In the third person we have rather a construction an inverted form which often demonstrative than a personal pronoun: that seems very strange to our, ol; those, anlar. "Possessive pronominal LITERATURE. The earliest literature produced suffixes are: m, my; miz, our ; n, thy; niz, by any of the divisions of the Turkish race is your; i or si, his, hers, its; lari or leri, their. that of the Uigurs, a remote eastern branch of These are appended directly to the nominal the family, who originally occupied the coun: theme, singular or plural, and the affixes of try south of Lake Baikal, but later established case follow them, as baba-lar-um-dan, from my themselves about the Tangnu Tagh, and played fathers. There is no relative pronoun, except a conspicuous part in the contests and migrathe Persian ki. The verbal roots are not al- tions of central Asia during several centuries, ways reducible to a monosyllabic form. From until their nationality was swallowed up in the each root are formed a number of themes of Mongol empire, about A. D. 1200. Something derivative conjugation, by adding conjugational of culture and Christianity was communicated affixes; these are, for the passive, il; for the to them from Syria, doubtless by Nestorian reflexive, in; for the reciprocal, ish; for the missionaries; and their scanty alphabet, of 14 causal, der ; and for the negative, me; which characters, formed from the Syriac, became last, by prefixing e, becomes a sign of impossi- later the parent of the Mongol and Mantchoo bility. Any or all of these affixes may be com- alphabets. Most of the Uigur literature is lost, bined at once with a verbal root, so far as the and of what remains only few relics here idea admits of their combined modification; so found their way to Europe; little is known of that in theory we may have as many as 36 it in detail, although it has been made to yield themes from one root, each conjugated through some information respecting the history of the out in the same manner as the simple root: people. They are said by the Chinese to have e. g., from sev-mek, to love (mek is infinitive received and translated the Chinese classics affix), come sev-il-ine-mek, not to be loved; and histories, and they are known also to have 800-der-il-mek, to be made to love ; sev-ish-il adopted to some extent the Buddhist doctrines eme-mek, not to be able to be loved by one and literature. The second era of Turkish culanother, &c. The root of the verb, without ture dates from the conquest by Turkish tribes affix, is the 2d person singular imperative: of the countries of Mohammedan Asia, begine. g., ser, love! The tenses and moods are of ning with the latter half of the 10th century. two kinds, simple and periphrastic. The for- Overrunning first the north-eastern provinces mer are formed either by appending a predi- of Iran, and finding there the new Persian litcative pronominal suffix to a participle (except erature commencing its career, their wild in the 3d person, which is left without suffix), chiefs became its admirers, patrons, and imitaor by adding a possessive suffix to a noun of tors, and the Turkish mind and language reaction; thus, from dogmak, to strike: pres. ceived that strong Persian impress which they part. dogur, striking; pres. dogur-um, striking. have ever since borne. The eastern Turkish Î, 1. e., I am striking, I strike; pret. 'dogd-um, literature, or that produced beyond the Casstriking-mine, i. e., I have struck. The peri- pian, is usually called the Jagataian, from the phrastic tenses are formed by combining a par. name given to that country in the partition of ticiple or noun of action with an auxiliary the Mongol empire. It is much less abundant, verb; as dogmish idum, having struck was I, and also much less known, than the literature

« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »