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wheel, and being continually resisted by the ly; when the flesh becomes white and the apex spring which pulls in the opposite direction, of the root runs up into a sort of stalk or stem the combined effect is to deflect the mandrel during the first year, it is considered inferior; and work precisely with the variations of out- and on blossoming, the flowers have been obline of such wheel. The point of the rubber served to be of a deeper yellow.-The French is substituted for the roller when the indenta- turnip originated from the B. napus (Linn.); its tions of the pattern are very fine. To insure leaves are smooth and glaucous, the lower ones a more uniform movement, and to communi- petioled, lyrate-pinnatifid, the upper oblong, cate the motion while allowing the oscillations cordiform-amplexicaul; the flowers yellow; of the mandrel, the engine is driven by a hand the pods linear. The esculent variety is the winch with a band passing round a foot wheel, navet of the French, the root forming an oval while & second band passes from a small pul- tuber below the crown or origin of the stem. ley on this axis to the mandrel pulley. By There are at least 3 varieties of this sort disshifting the slide rest as required, a number of tinguished by their color: the white, which is like concentric curves are executed; and by the most common; the yellow, of a more deliemploying and cutting one pattern over anoth- cate flavor; and the black, so called from the er, an endless variety and complexity in the blackish tint of its skin. The French turnip is figures may be obtained.-Of the few machines considered sweeter and freer from any acrid which have been invented for turning irregu- properties than the field or garden turnip, and lar forms, in heavy or ordinary work, that it is much prized by some for the table.—B0of Blanchard is perhaps the best known and tanically considered, the French, Swedish, most successful. (See BLANCHARD, Thomas.) and English or field turnip are related to the -For further information respecting the tools cabbage, and likewise seem to hold intimate and materials used in turning, and for many relations to each other, so that their specific difother details, see Holtzapffel's “ Turning and ferences have been a matter of much uncerMechanical Manipulations” (3 vols., London, tainty.-In Great Britain, where the turnip cul1847–52); and for the general subject, see ar- ture is of great importance as preparatory to a ticle “Lathe” in “ Appleton's Dictionary of system of successive crops, and where it has Machines,” &c. (New York, 1857), and Vali- become essential to agriculture, the different court's Nouveau manuel complet du tourneur kinds are exceedingly numerous, and have been (3 vols., Paris, 1848–53).

obtained by careful seed sowing, hybridizing, TURNIP, an esculent root known in garden- and experimental processes to procure the best ing and agriculture. The common or field varieties. Such a need does not exist in the turnip originated by a long cultivation of the United States, where productive crops of Indian wild brassica rapa (Linn.), a biennial of the corn will be found better suited for breaking natural order of crucifere, and growing spon- up new ground and fitting it for future operataneously in Great Britain and Europe. Its root tions. Our drier atmosphere and our liability is small, round, fleshy, tapering downward with to droughts render turnips as a crop more una few fibres into a radicle; the leaves near the certain, yet by careful management they can be root are lyrate-pinnatifid, jagged, rough, and raised with profit. Lands in tillage, of almost green, with fleshy petioles; the stem 1 to 4 feet any nature, especially those of a light sandy high, branched, with nearly entire and smooth loam, can be sown with turnips, the Swedish leaves; the flowers of a pale yellow, the pods and the French turnips requiring the deepest (siliques) erect, slender, linear. The field or and the best. After taking a crop of grass from garden turnip is distinguished by its flattened the field, it may be broken up, manured, harroot, expanding beneath the origin of its stem rowed, and sown with ruta baga, thinning if into a thick, round, fleshy tuber. It is subject the plants stand too thickly in the rows, hoeing to great variation in the size and weight of the to keep them clear, and pulling the roots in root, owing to its tendency to enlarge in rich November. It lias been found on experience or proper soils; and it may differ in its flavor, that, generally speaking, the sorts originating or in the shape of the foliage, or even in the in this country are better suited to our climate, color of the root. A distinct permanent variety and their seeds command higher prices, than is the tankard or decanter turnip, in which the the English or continental seeds. 'Of 52 sorts root is of an oblong form, and of which there of turnip seeds imported from abroad by Mr. are red and white kinds. The roots of this va- David Landreth of Philadelphia, he found two riety are, however, of a looser texture, and it only which he thought worth perpetuating. is less hardy than the common turnip.-The The catalogues however advertise for sale about Swedish turnip or ruta baga, also extensively a dozen, some designated as American, of grown as a field crop and for feeding cattle, which perhaps the red strap-leaved and the originated from the B. campestris (Linn.), a white strap-leaved, the long French white, plant indigenous to Europe. Its young leaves and Skirving's ruta baga are among the best. are hairy, but the older ones are smooth and The turnip is subject to much injury from inglaucous, lyrate-toothed, those of the stem cor- sects, and in Europe entire fields have been date-amplexicaul, acuminate; the flowers whit- destroyed by a small coleopterous insect, which ish yellow. The root of the ruta baga in its best feeds on the seed leaves and growing foliage. condition is yellow both externally and internal- (See TURNIP Flv.) Plant lice or aphides and several larvæ injure the roots, and they some- yellow; it is abundant on the seed leaves of the times grow distorted into what is called club- turnip and other plants early in May, in some bing. No proposed remedies have been so seasons threatening to be almost as injurious as successful as a clean and careful cultivation, the European insect; the same remedies have sowing abundance of seed, and encouraging been found effectual here.-Among the lepidopbirds which feed on insects. The field hus- tera, the pontia oleracea (Harris), the potherb bandry of turnips was familiar to the ancient or white butterfly, is often called turnip fiy. Gauls, ånd as garden vegetables they were not The wings are white or yellowish, dusky near unknown to the Greeks and Romans.

the body; back black, and antennæ blackish TURNIP FLY, a name given to several in- with narrow white rings; the expanse of wings sects of different orders, but especially to the about 2 inches. Toward the beginning of June small chrysomelian beetles of the genus haltica it may be seen fluttering over turnip and cab(Illig.), which attacks the turnip in its various bage beds for the purpose of attaching 3 or 4 parts and stages of growth. In the genus hal- of its eggs to the under side of the leaves; the tica (Gr. Idrikos, skilled in leaping) the body is eggs are yellowish, pear-shaped, ribbed longivery convex above, oval, with short thorax tudinally, and is of an inch long; they are and wide head; antenne slender; hind thighs hatched in about 10 days, attain their full size very thick and formed for leaping ; surface of of 14 inches in 3 weeks, when they are pale the body generally smooth and shining, and green, and eat irregular holes in any part of the often prettily colored; claws notched and leaf; they pass a chrysalis state of 11 days, sus. hooked, enabling them to keep firm hold of the pended by silken threads attached to the hind leaves of plants on which they feed, especially feet and fore part of the body in some protectthe cruciferous vegetables, to which they are ed place; they are again abundant toward the often very injurious. They are all very small, beginning of August, laying eggs for a 2d brood, the largest not more than 2 lines long and i the chrysalids from which survive the winter, wide; most are shining green, tinged with coming out perfect insects in May or June; the brown or yellowish. The turnip fly of Eng- chrysalis is of an inch long; the larvæ are land is the H. nemorum (Illig.); it devours the eaten by titmice and other insectivorous birds; seed leaves of the turnip as they appear above the chrysalids can be collected on boards placed the ground, continuing its ravages all summer; for them near the ground, and the butterflies in winter it conceals itself in some dry and are easily caught in bag nets, as they fly low sheltered place, laying its eggs in spring on the and lazily. This species is rarely found south leaves; the larvæ eat the soft pulpy substance, of the latitude of New Hampshire. Some dipmaking little galleries in which they undergo terous insects, as the flower flies (anthomyiada), their changes, and in this way are as injurious in the larva state infest the roots of turnips, as the full-grown beetles; they are slender &c., eating also the pulpy parts of the leaves grubs, tapering at each end, with 6 legs, and and stem; in this state they closely resemble become perfect insects in a few weeks, a con- the maggots of common flies. stant succession occurring through the sum- TURNSOLE. See HELIOTROPE.

What they lack in size these beetles TURNSPIT. See TERRIER. make up in numbers and voracity; the loss to TURNSTONE, a wading bird of the oysterthe turnip crop from their ravages is sometimes catcher family (hæmatopodide) and genus strepconsiderable, in a single year in Devonshire silas (Illig.), so named from its turning over by amounting to half a million of dollars; they the strong bill the stones and weeds along the like sunny places, and are rarely found in shady margins of the sea and of lakes and rivers in fields or beds, cold, shade, and rains being the search of insects, mollusks, and crustaceans natural protection against their attacks. The which hide beneath them. The only well best method of ridding the plants of these characterized species, S. interpres (Illig.), is beetles is to water the leaves carefully and reg- about 9 inches long and 18 in alar extent; ularly with a solution of lime or other alkali; above it is irregularly variegated with black

, sprinkling lime or the dust of chalky roads upon dark rufous, and white; head and neck white them when wet with dew, the infusion of above, with numerous spots and stripes of wormwood, the decoction of walnut leaves, brownish black; in front of eyes and on throat and the smoke of burning straw and weeds will white, usually bordered with black; lower also free the leaves of this pest; the farmers parts, back, rump, and under wing coverts, accelerate the growth of the crop as much as white; quills brownish black, with white possible, keeping them off till the turnip is in shafts; tail white at base and tip, with termithe rough leaf, when it is safe. The stages of nal half brownish black; conspicuous white this insect's growth are fully described in vol. bar on wings, bill black, and legs orange. The ii

. of the “Transactions of the Entomological bill is shorter than the head, compressed, obSociety of London," by Mr. Le Keux. The H. tusely pointed, and slightly bent upward at striolata (Fabr.), the wavy-striped fea beetle tip; nasal groove very wide and shallow, for of the United States, much resembles the pre- half the length of the bill; legs moderate and ceding; it is less than % of an inch long, shining stout, with tarsi scaled in front; toes short black, with a broad, wavy, buff stripe on each and not webbed, the hind one touching the wing cover, and the knees and feet reddish ground; wings long, the 1st quill longest; tail


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moderate and rounded. It is generally seen in to the ancients, and which is mentioned by small flocks of 5 or 6, sometimes in company Pliny.-Turpentine slowly hardens when exwith various sandpipers; it is not at all shy, posed to the air, partly from evaporation of the and emits a loud whistling note during flight; more liquid portion, and partly from the resinin its spring and summer dress it is a very ification of this by oxidation. It softens and handsome bird; the eggs are 4, 1} by 14 inches, liquefies by heating, readily takes fire and pale yellowish green with a few black lines and burns with a smoky flame, and is completely irregular patches of brownish red. It is one soluble in alcohol and ether. In its crude of the most widely distributed of birds, being state it is applied to very few uses. By the found throughout North America on the Atlan- distillation of common crude turpentine with tic and Pacific shores, in Europe, at the straits or without water, a volatile product, known as of Magellan, Cape of Good Hope, the East In- oil or spirits of turpentine, is obtained, and dies, Australia, and indeed in most parts of the resin or rosin, also called colophony, remains world; in Great Britain it comes in August in the still. (See Resins.) The oil is generally and remains till May, when it goes north to purified by redistillation with caustic alkali, breed. The S. melanocephalus (Vig.) differs which removes traces of acid and resin. Its only in the prevalence of the dark color on the formula when pure is C20H16. It is a colorless head, breast

, and upper parts; it is abundant in mobile liquid, highly inflammable, with a charwestern North America, and is probably only acteristic, pungent, bitterish taste, and strong a variety of the common turnstone.

odor; should be neutral to test paper; of speTURPENTINE, a liquid or semi-solid oleo- cific gravity 0.86, with a boiling point about resin, which exudes naturally, or through in- 320° F. (specific gravity of vapor, 4.76); is cisions, from the wood of most coniferous trees, perfectly miscible with ether and absolute alsuch as the pine, larch, and fir; also the thin- cohol, less so with ordinary alcohol, and hardly ner liquid obtained from this by distillation, at all with water; dissolves readily the resins, which is more properly known as oil or spirits oils, sulphur, and phosphorus, and softens and of turpentine. "American turpentine is princi- partially dissolves caoutchouc. It rotates a pally derived from the pinus australis (Mx.; ray of polarized light to the right or left, acP. palustris, Willd.), or the “long-leaved cording to its origin, that from P. australis pine," which grows very abundantly near the generally to the right and that from P. maricoast in the south-eastern states, especially in tima to the left; but the amount of the rotathe Carolinas and Georgia. The P. tæda, lob- tion is on an average not more than of that lolly or old field pine, also furnishes turpen- produced by quartz. When English oil of turtine, which is generally less fuid than that pentine is simply heated in a closed vessel to from the preceding species; and smaller quan- about 470° F., it is converted into a mixture of tities are derived from some other species. several substances of exactly the same compoThe greater part of the common European tur- sition, but differing very much in their properpentine is obtained from P. sylvestris (Scotch ties, and which may be separated by fractional fir) of N. Europe, and from the P. maritima, distillation. The most important of these are found in its southern part and along the sea isoterebenthene, a colorless liquid having an coasts; much of that derived from the lat- odor of stale lemons, a specific gravity of 0.843, ter tree is sold as “ Bordeaux turpentine, and a boiling point of 350° F. ; and metatereso named from the port whence it is chiefly benthene, a viscous yellowish liquid, with a shipped. “Venice turpentine" comes from disagreeable odor, a tendency to rapid oxidathe larch (larix Europæa); Canadian turpen- tion, and a specific gravity of 0.913, which tine, or “ Canada balsam,” from the American constitutes the residue in the retort after the silver fir or balm of Gilead tree (abies balsamea), heat has reached 660° F., forming about one which abounds in Canada, Nova Scotia, and third of the entire quantity of oil distilled, and the mountainous parts of the northern United is volatile without decomposition at a somewhat States; Chian turpentine from the pistacia tere- higher temperature. Both of these rotate pobinthus ; Strasbourg turpentine from the silver larized light to the left. These modifications fir (abies picea), though the same name is often may be produced at a lower temperature than given to the product of the larix Europæa; 470° F. if the oil be heated with water, or with Carpathian and Hungarian turpentines from several of the chlorides, fluoride of calcium, P. cembra and P. pumilio; dammara turpen- and many organic acids. By the action of sultine, or “dammar," from the P. dammara of phuric acid on oil of turpentine, two other * the East Indies; and the Dombeya turpen- modifications, identical in composition, have tine from the Dombeya excelsa of Chili. There been obtained: terebene, which boils at the are a few other substances considered as tur- same temperature and has a vapor of the same pentine, of which little is known; and the dif- density as the unmodified oil, but is rather less ferent turpentines of commerce are undoubt- oxidizable, and has an odor like that of oil of edly often derived in part from other species thyme; and colophene, a somewhat viscid lithan those to which they are commonly as- quid, of specific gravity 0.940, and a boiling point cribed. The name turpentine is derived from of 590° to 600° F., colorless by direct light, but the Greek tepe Sivdos, the tree furnishing the so fluorescent as in some directions to appear turpentine of Ohios, the principal variety known of a dark indigo blue, with vapor twice as

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dense as that of terebene. By decomposing tains on an average 17 per cent. of essential oil. artificial camphor by means of quicklime, two Much was formerly obtained from New Eng. other modifications of oil of turpentine, identi- land, but for a long time most of the supply cal with it in composition, are produced: cam- has been derived from North Carolina and S. philene, boiling at 273° F., and terebilene. E. Virginia, and later from South Carolina, Neither terebene, colophene, camphilene, nor Georgia, Alabama, and Florida. The product terebilene has any rotatory action upon polar- of turpentine in North Carolina was estimated ized light. Oil of turpentine forms one liquid a few years ago at 800,000 bbls., of which and three solid hydrates, and with hydrochloric 200,000 were exported in the crude condition, acid it forms several liquid and solid com- and the remainder distilled in the state. For pounds, the latter having the appearance and full particulars of value, mode of collecting, smell of camphor, and termed artificial cam- &c., see CAROLINA, NORTH. In Georgia and phors. It very easily oxidizes, and a definite Florida the annual product was estimated at hydrated oxide (C20H160, 2HO) is obtained by the same time at 30,000 bbls.; and in Alabama, placing it in a jar filled with oxygen over water where the manufacture was commenced only a and exposed to sunlight, which forms crystals few years ago, the production, according to a on the sides of the jar, while strong nitric acid recent estimate, was upward of 1,600,000 galls. acts so violently upon it as frequently to in- of spirits of turpentine, with a residue of over flame the mixture." A large number of other 130,000 bbls. of rosin. The exports of spirits organic compounds are also formed by the ac- of turpentine from the United States in 1860 tion of dilute nitric acid, several of the other amounted to 4,072,023 galls., valued at $1,916,acids, chlorine, &c., of most of which little is 289, and of crude turpentine and rosin to 770,known.—The principal applications of oil of 652 bbls., valued at $1,818,238. They are sent turpentine are in the preparation of paints and to nearly all parts of the commercial world, but varnishes (see Paints, and Varnish), in the the largest quantities are taken, in the order India rubber manufacture (see Caoutchouo), named, by England, Holland, Belgium, Hamas a burning fluid, alone or mixed with alcohol burg, Bremen, Chili, Ireland, Brazil

, and Cuba (see BURNING Fluid, and Camphene), and as a The import of crude turpentine into England medicinal agent, used both externally and in- in 1858 was 12,323 tons, or about 86,260 bbls., ternally. It is one of the most energetic of the and in 1859, 12,833 tons, or 89,832 bbls.volatile oils; the vapor is quickly destructive Common European or Bordeaux turpentine is to plants, and to those insects which respire collected by simply making incisions in the by the whole surface, as wasps, lice, fleas, and trunk or removing portions of the bark, and worms. It appears to act more powerfully on collecting the juice in small troughs or in holes the lower animals than on man, as the skin of dug at the foot of the tree; and it is purified the horse is blistered by it much more rapidly by heating and straining through straw, by esthan that of man, and 2 drachms are said by posing it to the sun in a barrel with holes in Schubart to have killed a dog in 3 minutes, the bottom, or by heating it with steam in bags

, while human beings have taken 3 ounces with through which the melted turpentine escapes, out serious injury. In moderate doses it acts Thus prepared, it is whitish and turbid, and as a stimulant to the stomach, intestinal canal, separates upon standing into two parts, one liver, and kidneys, and promotes the evacua- liquid and transparent, the other of the consistions of these organs. In chronic affections of tence and appearance of honey; and the comthe liver, obstructions from gall stones, &c., in mercial article often consists wholly of this chronic rheumatism and sciatica, sometimes in latter portion. The substance called by the typhus and yellow fever, in Asiatic cholera, scar- French galipot or barras is that part of the let fever, obstinate constipation, many diseases turpentine which concretes upon the trunk of of the urino-genital organs, and many other the tree, and is removed during the winter; diseases where a stimulant action is required, it and this, when purified by melting in water and is a medicine of great value, as well as for in- straining, is called white, yellow, or Burgundy testinal worms, which it appears to directly kill, pitch. (See Pitch.) Venice turpentine, so instead of destroying them by removing their named because formerly an important article means of nourishment. As a liniment for of Venetian commerce, is obtained by boring a rheumatic and paralytic affections, for burns, hole in the spring into the heart of the tree, &c., it is very useful; and in vapor it has been about 2 feet from the ground, in which a wooden used as an anæsthetic and a substitute for chlo- gutter is inserted. It is a viscid liquid, of the roform. It is much recommended in hæmor- consistence of honey, with a yellowish or slightrhage from various organs, and in childbed fe- ly greenish color, a more agreeable smell than ver.—Common American or white turpentine common turpentine, and a very acrid taste

. of good quality is yellowish white, somewhat Most of what is sold as Venice turpentine, translucent, of a consistency varying from semi- however, is said to be prepared by dissolving fluid and very adhesive, though still brittle, in rosin in 'oil of turpentine, is very brown, and the middle of summer, to hard and dry in win- appears to be made chiefly in the

United States. ter, and often contains small pieces

of bark or Strasbourg turpentine is procured, according to wood; and the inferior sorts are harder and Duhamel

, by climbing to the top of the loftiest darker colored. When fresh and good, it con- pines by means of spiked shoes, one hand of


the collector being employed to sustain him,

blue to green.

Hardness 6, or like feldspar; while the other holds a cow's horn or tin in- specific gravity 2.6 to 2.83. Nearly all the strument of the same shape, with which he turquoises used in jewelry come from mines in breaks the tumors, and soon fills the horn, Khorassan, about 40 m. W. of Nishapoor, which which he then empties into a tin plate bottle are crown property, and in 1821 yielded a reveslung at his girdle. This is done both in spring nue of about $13,500. The gems are found in and autumn. The product is then filtered nodules and crusts in a porphyritic rock. The through the leaves of the pinus excelsa, and chief seat of the turquoise trade is at Meshed, placed in a funnel made of the bark of the same where most of them are cut. The finest are tree rolled up. It is very transparent, almost generally reserved by the shah of Persia for colorless, and in France is very frequently em- his own use; the next in quality go to India, ployed in medicine. Canada balsam (see Bal- and those rather inferior to Persia, Turkey, SAMS) is often sold for Strasbourg turpentine in and Russia. The imperfect ones, with white the shops. It is used in medicine, by opticians specks, are principally bought by the Arabs,


, for mounting microscopic objects, &c., and for who use them as amulets, generally setting them some other purposes. `Chian or Cyprus tur- in rings of plated tin. A turquoise 2 inches pentine is chiefly obtained from the islands of long, said to have been a talisman belonging to Chios and Cyprus, where incisions are made in Nadir Shah, and with a verse of the Koran enthe summer in the bark of the pistacia terebin- graved on it, is in the possession of a jeweller thus, from which the sap falls upon smooth of Moscow, who values it at $3,800. In the stones placed at the foot of the tree, and is exhibition of 1851 was a collection of more afterward strained. It is a greenish white, than 200 turquoises obtained in 1849 by Major transparent, tenacious liquid, of about the con- Macdonald from new localities in the mounsistence of honey, with an agreeable odor and tains of Arabia Petræa, where they occur in but little taste. As the annual product is small, nodules in a reddish sandstone. They differ in it bears a high price, and is often adulterated. their shade of blue from the Persian stones, but Carpathian turpentine, or Riga balsam, exudes agree with those found in Abyssinia by M. from the extremities of the young twigs of P. d'Héricourt. Common varieties are found in cembra, to which flasks are suspended; it is a Saxony and Silesia ; and there is a turquoise white, thin liquid, with an odor like that of quarry in New Mexico. (See CHALCHIHUITL.) juniper, and is employed as a medicine. Hun- The turquoise is much esteemed as a gem, pargarian turpentine or balsam is obtained in the ticularly in Persia and Russia. Many magical same manner from P. pumilio. The Riga and properties have at various times been supposed Hungarian balsams are but rarely brought to to belong to it, and an old superstition, not yet the United States. The dammara turpentine, quite extinct even in Europe, holds that it loses which is employed in ship building and for a its color during the illness of its possessor, and great variety of other purposes in the East In- regains it with his convalescence. The so called dies, soon concretes into a very hard rosin. “occidental” or “bone” turquoise is only fossil

The turpentine of the Dombeya excelsa is a bone colored by oxide of copper or phosphate glutinous, milky-looking fluid, with a strong of iron. It is brought from Siberia and France, odor and taste.

but is not worth more than one fourth as much TURPIN, TULPIN, or TilPIN, archbishop of as the real stone. It may be distinguished by Rheims, a friend and companion of Charle- being internally foliated and streaked, and by magne.' He was originally a Benedictine monk not taking so high a polish. The turquoise is of the convent of St. Denis, but about 753 was said to be now imitated in so perfect a manmade archbishop, and is said to have died ner as to be with great difficulty distinguished about the beginning of the 9th century. His from the genuine, which is however harder. celebrity is due to the fact that his name is TÜRR, István, a Hungarian general, born prefixed to a Latin chronicle, which relates the in Baja, in the county of Bács, about 1815. expedition of Charlemagne against the Saracens He volunteered in the Austrian army, became of Spain and the fight of Roncesvalles. It is a sergeant major in the regiment of the arch, uncertain whether the real author's name was duke Francis Charles, served through the first Turpin, or whether it was a forgery. The Italian campaign in 1848, and was promoted to work is, however, among the earliest produc- be sub-lieutenant. In Jan. 1849, he deserted tions relating to the events of Charlemagne's to the revolutionists, and was commissioned by reign, and from it the tales of chivalry of the King Charles Albert to raise a Hungarian lemiddle ages were largely taken. It was trans- gion, which he commanded at the disastrous lated from Latin into French in 1206 by a clerk battle of Novara. After that defeat he withof Renaud, count of Boulogne. The original drew to the grand duchy of Baden, and was was first printed in the collection of Schardius there made a colonel in the revolutionary army. (fol., Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1566).

Escaping to England on the suppression of the TURQUOISE, a precious stone, colored by insurrection, he entered the British service at oxide of iron and oxide of copper, of the fol- the outbreak of the Russian war, received a lowing composition : phosphoric acid, 30.9; com

commission in the Anglo-Turkish legion, and alumina, 44.5; water, 19. It does not crystal in 1855 was sent by the government to the lize, has a waxy lustre, and varies in color from Crimea to purchase horses for the army. Ara

VOL. XV.-43

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