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are rare.

Large numbers of cattle are kept, and goats including Roanoke island in the latter, in. and sheep are particularly numerous, but pigs tersected by Alligator river; area, 320 sq. m.;

The wild animals include the cha- pop. in 1860, 4,943, of whom 1,597 were slaves. mois, hare, and marmot; and there are several The surface is level and the soil sandy. The birds of prey, especially eagles.—About of productions in 1850 were 7,952 bushels of the population are of German descent, and the wheat, 149, 385 of Indian corn, and 20,745 of remainder Italians; both are Roman Catholics, sweet potatoes. There were 21 shingle mills, and distinguished for the strength of their de- 12 churches, and 400 pupils attending public votional feelings. They are honest, frank, and schools. A large portion of the county is corvery industrious. About 30,000 of them annu. ered with swamps and heavy forests of pine, ally migrate during the summer months to the cypress, and red cedar; and shingles, staves, surrounding countries, and return about the tar, and turpentine are extensively exported. end of autumn with the profits of their labor. Capital, Columbia. The manufactures, though numerous, are not TYRTÆUS, a Greek poet of the 7th cenvery extensive, and include lace, embroidery, tury B. O., variously stated to have been a nagloves, hardware, cutlery, and toys. Mines of tive of Attica and of Lacedæmon. An ancient copper and lead are worked, and gold and sil- tradition recounts that, in the second Messever are procured in small quantities. An im- nian war, the Spartans were commanded by an portant transit trade is carried on, but the oracle to apply to the Athenians for a leader. commerce of the country is not very extensive, In answer the Athenians, opposed to the extenand consists chiefly of dried fruit, cheese, wine, sion of the Spartan dominion, sent Tyrtæus, a cattle, timber, iron, salt, &c. Innspruck is con- schoolmaster of low family and reputation, and nected by railway with Munich and Saltzburg, deformed, as the most unfit person they could and Botzen with Verona. There is a univer- select for the purpose. But he so inspired the sity at Innspruck, and the province has 45 su- Spartans with his war songs, that the Messenians perior, several infant, and between 3,000 and were subdued to the condition of belots. His 4,000 popular schools. In early times the Ty- poems were of two kinds: marching songs in rol was inhabited by the Rhætians and Celtic anapæstic measures, to be sung with the musie tribes, and under the Roman empire formed of the flute; and elegiac exhortations to conpart of Rhætia, having been subdued in the stancy and courage. The fragments of them are reign of Augustus. During the decline and in Gaisford's Poetæ Minores Græci (translated after the fall of the western empire it was sev- into English verse by Polwhele, 1786–92). eral times ravaged by barbarians, was succes- TYRWHITT, Thomas, an English anthor, sively occupied by the Ostrogoths, Lombards, born in London, March 29, 1730, died there, Bavarians, and Franconians, and afterward Aug. 15, 1786. He was educated at Eton and divided into petty lordships, all of which paid at Queen's college, Oxford, where he took his tribute to the dukes of Bavaria. These lord- degree of A.B. in 1750, and in 1756 was apships subsequently becan united, and the pointed under secretary of war, which position whole of the territory passed to the house of he exchanged in 1762 for that of clerk of the Austria by inheritance in 1363. Austria re- house of commons. He resigned office in 1768, tained peaceable possession of it till 1805, when and devoted the remainder of his life to literary she was compelled to cede it to Bavaria by the pursuits. Two years previous to his death he peace of Presburg. The people were highly was appointed a trustee of the British museum, dissatisfied with this arrangement, and under to which institution he bequeathed a portion Andreas Hofer rebelled in 1809; but the Bava- of his valuable library. His principal works in rians and French reëntered the country, and English are : “ Observations on some Passages the people were subdued. In the last action in Shakespeare” (8vo., Oxford, 1766), and an the women fought by the side of the men, and edition of Chaucer's “Canterbury Tales," with nearly 400 of them were cut down by the ene- an“ Essay on his Language and Versification, my's cavalry. The Tyrol was restored to Aus- an Introductory Discourse, and Notes" (5 vols, tria by the congress of Vienna.

8vo., London, 1775–8). He also aided in the TYRONE, a N. county of Ireland, province publication of Chatterton's " Poems by Row. of Ulster, bounded by Londonderry, Lough ley," and supported the authorship of them by Neagh (which separates it from Antrim), Ar. Chatterton in a reply to the strictures of Dean magh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, and Donegal; Miller and Jacob Bryant. He was an accomarea, 1,260 sq. m.; pop. in 1861, 238,426. The plished Greek scholar, and published potes, chief towns are Strabane, Dungannon, and animadversions, and conjectures on writings Omagh. The surface is greatly diversified, and by Plutarch, Babrius (the supposed author of has many fertile plains and valleys. The only Asop's fables), Euripides, Strabo, and others

. considerable rivers are the Foyle and Black. His principal work in this department of litwater. Coal is found, but turf is the usual erature was an edition of Aristotle's “Poetics," fuel. The Londonderry and Enniskillen rail- published posthumously in 1794. road passes through Tyrone near Strabane. The TYTLER. I. William, a Scottish author, county returns two members to parliament. born in Edinburgh, Oct. 12, 1711, died Sept.

TYRREL, an E. co. of North Carolina, bor- 12, 1792. By profession he was a writer to dering on Albemarle and Pamlico sounds, and the signet, but his reputation rests chiefly upon


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a work published in defence of Mary, queen in the “Encyclopædia Britannica” is also by of Scots, entitled an “ Inquiry, Historical and Mr. Tytler. His remaining works comprise a Critical, into the Evidence against Mary, Queen “Life of Wickliff,” published anonymously in of Scots," &c. (1759), and which gained him 1826; “Lives of Scottish Worthies," formfrom Burns the title of "revered defender of ing 3 vols. of "Murray's Family Library;" the beauteous Stuart.” He also published the “Life of Sir Walter Raleigh,” containing many “ Poetical Remains of James I., King of Scot- new facts carefully digested from state papers; land” (8vo., Edinburgh, 1783), and some mis- & “Historical View of the Progress of Discellaneous papers. II. ALEXANDER Fraser covery in America;" & "Life of King Henry

" (Lord Woodhouselee), a Scottish jurist_and VIII. ;" and a number of minor productions. author, son of the preceding, born in Edin. The latter part of his life was passed in Engburgh in Oct. 1747, died there, Jan. 5, 1813. land. His biography, written by the Rev. John He was called to the bar in 1770, and in 1786 Burgon (1859), represents him as a pious, cheerwas appointed professor of universal history ful, and affectionate man, beloved by all who and Roman antiquities in the university of Ed. knew him. In addition to his other acquireinburgh, in which capacity he prepared a coursements, he was an excellent musician, and wrote of lectures subsequently embodied in his well verses considerably above mediocrity. known “Elements of General History" (Edin- TZETZES, JOANNES, & Greek scholar and burgh, 1801), afterward published in “Mur- poet, who flourished at Constantinople about ray's Family Library.” In 1790 he was appoint- the middle of the 12th century. He was dised judge advocate of Scotland, and in 1802 & tinguished with the title of grammarian, then judge of the court of session, with the title commonly given to the learned. His works of Lord Woodhouselee. His remaining works consist of poems, scientific treatises, and comcomprise an “Essay on the Principles of Trans- mentaries on ancient authors. His poems are lation,” & “ Life of Lord Kames,” a treatise on the Icaka, containing the whole Trojan story “The Law of Courts Martial,” two supplements from the birth of Paris to the return of the to the “ Dictionary of Decisions," and a variety Greeks from Troy; Bißlos iotopian, more comof miscellaneous minor publications. He was monly called Chiliades, a collection of 668 the intimate friend of Dugald Stewart, Scott, mythical and historical stories; and Carmen Mackintosh, Mackenzie, and other eminent Iambicum, on the education of children. Of authors, and one of the most estimable and his commentaries, only those on the Iliad, on accomplished gentlemen of his time. III. Pat- Hesiod, and on Lycophron have been printed. RICK Fraser, a Scottish author, son of the TZSCHIRNER, HEINRICH GOTTLIEB, a Gerpreceding, born in Edinburgh, Aug. 30, 1791, man theologian, born at Mitweida, Nov. 14, died in Malvern, England, Dec. 24, 1849. Ho 1778, died Feb. 17, 1828. He studied theology was admitted in 1813 into the faculty of advo. at Leipsic, became academic Docent at Wittencates, and for many years steadily practised his berg, entered holy orders in 1801, and was approfession, which he finally relinquished for pointed professor of theology at Wittenberg in the more congenial pursuit of literature. His 1805, and at Leipsic in 1809. He accompanied first literary efforts of importance were pub- as chaplain the troops of S: Ty from Wei. lished in “ Blackwood's Magazine,” to which mar to Tournay in 1813, and became the suche became a contributor at the time of its first cessor of Rosenmüller as superintendent at appearance in 1817; and somewhat later he Leipsic in 1815, and prebendary of Meissen in produced a “Life of Crichton" and a “Memoir 1818. He was one of the most effective oppoof Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton." In 1822 nents of the Catholic reaction in Germany. he became one of the founders of the Banna- Among his more important works are a contyne club, a circumstance which drew him into tinuation of the church history of Schrökh (2 still closer association with literary men and vols., Leipsic, 1810); Protestantismus und Kaantiquaries; and about 1825, at the suggestion tholicismus aus dem Standpunkte der Politik beof his friend Sir Walter Scott, he commenced trachtet (1822; translated into English, French, his “ History of Scotland,” the work on which and Dutch); Das Reactions-System (1824); his reputation mainly rests, and which was Briefe eines Deutschen an die Herren Châteaucompleted in 1843, after 18 years of labor, in briand, De Lamennais, &c. (edited by Krug, 9 vols. "It embraces the period between the 1828); Vorlesungen über die christliche Glauaccession of Alexander III. in 1249 and the benslehre (by Hase, 1829); and Der Fall des union of the crowns of England and Scotland Heidenthums (unfinished, by Niedner, 1829). in 1603, professes to be built upon “unques- He was highly esteemed as an academic lectútionable muniments,” and is still the standard rer and pulpit orator, and published several work on the subject. The article “Scotland" volumes of sermons.



U the 21st letter and 5th vowel of the Eng- pittoresque (1856); La question des principau

lish alphabet. It is not found in the Se- tés Danubiennes derant l'Europe (1858); and an mitic languages, which have no distinct letters introduction to the “ Ballads and Popular Songs for vowels proper, and was probably originally of Roumania” (1855). He has also translated wanting in the Greek, in which its modern the Saturnalia of Macrobius (1845) and edited equivalent is ov; in the Hebrew its place is the works of Voiture (2 vols. 12mo., 1856), and supplied by the letter cav, and in the Armenian for two years was editor of the Rerue de l'Oriby ħioun, both of which are pronounced some- ent; beside which he has written for the Paris times as vowels and sometimes as consonants. Presse and Siècle, and the Courrier de Paris. In the Latin also it frequently had the force of UCCELLO, Paolo, an Italian painter, born a consonant, as in the words uaco, uelox, silua, in Florence about the middle of the 14th cen. now written vaco, veloz, silva. It was in fact tury, died, according to Vasari, in 1432. He constantly confounded with V, and for some was a contemporary of the sculptors Ghiberti time a distinction was made between U vowel and Donatello, and the first painter who develand U consonant, the latter name being applied oped the principles of perspective. He painted to the character V, which did not come into principally in fresco, and was fond of depicting use until after U. In the first books printed birds and animals, an example of which occurs with Roman characters V was used as the cap- in his illustrations of the histories of Adam ital for both sounds, and u as the small letter. and Eve and of Noah and the deluge, in the In the Gothic alphabets the distinction was church of Sta. Maria Novella in Florence. made much earlier than in the Latin. In Eng. Few of his works now remain, lish, u has 4 sounds, as exemplified in the UDALL, NICHOLAS, an English anthor, born words but, bull, unite, and rule. In the last it in Hampshire in 1506, died in 1564. He was has the sound of oo, which is the normal one educated at Corpus Christi college, Oxford, of the Italian, Spanish, German, and Slavic u; was master successively of Eton and Westmin. the 3d is pronounced as if the u were preceded ster schools, and in the early part of the reign by y. In French the letter has a sound of its of Edward VI. was appointed to a canonry at own, which cannot be represented in our Windsor. He published “Flovres for Latyne tongue, and resembling the German ü.–U is Spekynge” (London, 1533), a series of selecinterchangeable with a, as in the Arabic defi- tions from Terence; some translations from nite article, which is rendered ul and al, or in the Latin works of Erasmus; and a Latin traGerm. Hut, Eng. hat; with i, as Lat. maxumus gedy, De Papatu (1540); but his chief claim and maximus; with o, as Lat. dulcis, It. dolce; to remembrance is that he was probably the with the diphthongs and oi, as Lat. cura, old first writer of regular English comedies, di. form coira or cæra, Lat. murus, Gr. poipa; vided into acts and scenes. Of these Wood with au, as Lat. mus, Ger. Maus ; with e, as says that he wrote several, but only one is erLat. Siculus, Gr. Elkekos, Lat. tabula, Ger. Ta- tant, entitled “Ralph Royster Doyster," reprintfel, Ger. Ulme, Eng. elm ; with l, as Eng. ed by the Shakespeare society (London, 1847). stout, Ger. stolz, Fr. autel, Eng. altar. U never UDINE, or Udige, a town of Austrian Italy, occurs in ancient Latin inscriptions, V being government of Venice, capital of the delega. used instead. (See LANGUAGE, vol. x. p. 298.) tion of Udine or Friuli, situated in an extensive

UBIOINI, JEAN HENRI ABDOLONYME, a plain on the canal of La Roja, 80 m. by railFrench author, born in Issoudun, department road N. E. from Venice, and 40 m. from Trieste; of Indre, Oct. 20, 1818. He was educated at pop. about 30,000. It is walled and fortified, the lyceum of Versailles, and for several years and has a fine cathedral ornamented with martaught rhetoric at the college of Joigny. In ble pillars, bass-reliefs, and paintings, a lyceum, 1846 he visited Italy, and afterward travelled a gymnasium, several hospitals and charitable in Greece, Turkey, and the Danubian princi- institutions, and a monumental pillar, by Camal. palities. Being at Bucharest when tho revo- li, in one of the public squares, erected to com. lution broke out there in 1848, he took an memorate the peace of Campo Formio, that active part in it, and became secretary of the village being but 14 m. from Udine. A height provisional government. When the Turkish near the centre of the town is occupied by a and Russian troops occupied Wallachia, he re- castle which has been converted into a prison. turned to France, after visiting Constantinople, The Campo Santo is one of the finest cemeteand published Lettres sur la Turquie (2 vols., ries in Europe. The principal manufactures 1849–51; translated into English, London, are silk, linen, and woollen goods, earthenware, 1856); La question d'Orient devant l'Europe hardware, paper, leather, and liqueurs. (1854); La Turquie actuelle (1855); Les pro- UDO. See AUDIUS. vinces Roumaines, forming part of the Univers UGGIONE, MARCO DA, See OGGIONE.


UHLAND, JOHANN LUDWIG, a German lyric 1820, and became pastor of a church at Diebzig poet, born in Tübingen, April 26, 1787. He and afterward at Aix la Chapelle. Having inwas educated at the university of his native curred the enmity of the duke of Anhalt by a place, where he applied himself to legal studies, biography which he had written of his highand after being an advocate received in 1810 ness, he lost his employments and removed to the degree of doctor of laws. He first appeared Prussia, where he occupied himself in the lain print in Seckendorf's Musenalmanach (1806 bors of the ministry. In 1841 he established, and 1807), in Der Poetische Almanach (1812), with several associates of rationalistic tendenand in Der Deutsche Dichterwald (1813). Af- cies, certain theological conferences out of ter a literary journey to Paris, he began the which sprang the society of "Friends of Protpractice of law in Stuttgart, in which city he estantism,” with Uhlich as its president. The also held for a long time a position in the office society was broken up by the Prussian govern. of the minister of justice. The national strug- ment in 1845, and the president ordered to congle against the French during the years 1813- fine himself to his parish. He was soon after *10 strongly excited his feelings; and when the invited to Magdeburg as a preacher. His opinking of Würtemberg determined in 1815 to give ions on baptism here involved him in difficulhis people a new constitution, Uhland, who was ties, and having been suspended by the consisa strong adherent of the liberal party, took an tory, he joined the free church of that city. active part in the contest between the sup- He is a moderately voluminous writer. porters of the old and new systems. He wrote UIGURS. See TURKS. numerous lyrics, the influence of which was UKRAINE (Pol. U kraina, borderland), not confined to Würtemberg, though relating to formerly the name of a S. E. province of indoWürtemberg interests. In 1815 appeared the pendent Poland, extending on both sides of the first collection of his Gedichte, and from that Dnieper, and bordering on the territories occutime to 1819 his poetic labors were arduous, pied by the Tartars. Its limits frequently vabut were interrupted by the share he took in ried, its possession being contested by the Turks, political movements, and also by his application Tartars, and Russians. In later times it was to severer literary studies. In 1819 and 1820 divided into Polish and Russian Ukraine. Since he was elected from Tübingen, and later from the first dismemberment of Poland it has enStuttgart, to the representative assembly of tirely belonged to Russia, and the name is now Würtemberg, where he exerted much influence. generally used as identical with Little Russia, In 1822 he published an essay Ueber. Walther comprising the governments of Kiev, Tchervon der Vogelweide. In 1830, having given up nigov, Pultowa, and Kharkov.

The country his legal practice, he was made extraordinary forms an extensive and for the most part exprofessor of the German language and literature ceedingly fertile plain, watered by the Dnieper in the university of Tübingen, but this position and its lower affluents, and inhabited chiefly he resigned in 1833, as he could not be released by Cossacks. (See Cossacks.) from his duties in order to attend the sittings ULEMA (the Arabic plural of alim, wise), of the diet, to which he was a deputy, and in the collective name of the body of learned which he was one of the most prominent mem- men in Turkey. In its strict sense the ulema bers of the constitutional opposition. In 1836 comprehends the professors of law and divinity, appeared at Stuttgart his work entitled Ueber the law as well as the religion of the Turks den Mythus der nordischen Sagenlehre von Thor, being grounded upon the Koran. The head of which was followed in 1844_'5 by a collection the ulema is the mufti; next to him come the of popular songs under the title of Alter hoch- cadileskiers, of whom there are two, one for und niederdeutscher Volkslieder, both works Europe and one for Asia; the third class are being the fruits of profound researches into the mollahs, who are the superior judges in the the literary history of the middle ages. He provinces; and after them are the cadis, who declined to appear as a candidate in the elec- are the lowest officers of justice. The cadilestion of 1839, and lived for several years in re- kiers have a voice and vote in the divan, and tirement. In 1848_he was sent by the elec- all cadis are appointed by and subject to them. toral division of Tübingen to the national In a more enlarged sense, ulema comprehends assembly at Frankfort, where he acted with beside these the religious teachers and officers. the liberal party. Since this he has remained ULFILAS, UlPhilas, or WULFILAS, a Gothic in retirement. Beside the works already men- bishop, born among the Goths in 311, died in tioned, he has written two dramas, Herzog Constantinople in 381. He belonged to a family Ernst von Schwaben (Heidelberg, 1817), and of Christian Greeks of Cappadocia, whom the Ludwig der Baier (Berlin, 1819). Several of Goths had carried into captivity about 267. He his songs have been translated into English was educated in the Gothic language, and in by Longfellow, and a translation of some of his 341 became Arian bishop of those Goths who poems, with a memoir by A. Platt, has been dwelt between the Danube and Mt. Hæmus. In published in England (London, 1848).

360 he was present at the Arian synod of ConUHLICH, LEBERECHT, a German rational- stantinople, and at the time of his death had istic theologian, born in Köthen, Feb. 27, gone thither to attend a disputation. He re1799. He studied theology at Halle, received peatedly led his people across the Danube into an extraordinary professorship at Köthen in lower Mæsia, and exercised a great and salutary influence among them; but he is now Lord Anson's expedition. In Oct. 1744, he chiefly remembered by his translation of the embarked for Europe in a French vessel, which Scriptures into the Mæso-Gothic, which is the was chased by an English privateer, and sought earliest specimen extant of the Teutonic lan- refuge in the harbor of Louisburg in Cape Breguage. This version included the Old and New ton; but as that city had lately fallen into the Testaments, with the exception of the books of hands of the British, he was taken prisoner and Kings. Before the translation could be made carried to London, where his scientific friends he was obliged to frame a new alphabet of 24 obtained his liberty, and made him a member of letters, 4 of which were invented by himself the royal society. On his return to Spain in 1746 in order to express sounds unknown to Greek he was appointed to the command of a frigate, and Latin pronounciation. The version was and created a commander of the order of Sanin constant use by the various tribes of Goths tiago. He immediately set about writing a hisso long as they preserved their nationality; tory of the expedition, while the scientific por. but only a portion of it now exists. (See tion of the report was written by his compan. Gotho LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.)

ion, Jorge Juan (4 vols., Madrid, 1748). After ULLMANN, Karl, a German theologian, born this he was employed by the Spanish court in in Epfenbach in the Bavarian Palatinate, March making tours of observation in various coun. 15, 1796. He studied philosophy and theology tries of Europe, in 1755 went a second time to at the universities of Tübingen and Heidelberg, America, and after the peace of 1763, by which and in 1819 became Privatdocent of theology Louisiana was ceded by France to Spain, was at the latter; in 1821 was promoted to an extra- made governor of that region. He arrived ordinary professorship; and in 1829 he accept- there in March, 1766, but found the inhabitants ed a call as ordinary professor to Halle, but unwilling to submit to Spanish domination, in 1836 returned to Heidelberg. In 1833 he The troops he brought with him were few, and was appointed by the grand duke of Baden he was compelled to govern the country "evangelical prelate” (bishop of the state through the French troops commanded by church) and member of the supreme ecclesias- Aubry. Though he seems to have sincerely tical council. This place he retained until 1860, desired to conciliate the people, their disconwhen he resigned. His first important work tent broke out into an open riot, in consequence was a monograph on Gregory of Nazianzus of which he was obliged to leave the colony, in (Darmstadt, 1825). In 1828 he commenced the government of which he was succeeded by with his colleague Umbreit the publication of O'Reilly. Returning to Europe, he published the Studien und Kritiken, which counted among in 1772 a volume of essays on the natural hisits contributors theologians like Schleierma- tory and antiquities of America, and in 1778 cher, Lücke, Dorner, and Rothe, and established “The Marine, or the Naval Force of Europe for itself the reputation of being one of the best and Africa,” and “Observations of a Solar theological quarterlies of Protestantism. The Eclipse made at Sea." He was now a lieutenfirst article, contributed by Ullmann, “On the ant-general in the naval service, and was ap, Sinlessness of Christ,” is one of his chief pro- pointed to the command of a squadron intended ductions. In 1830 he published against Heng. to capture off the Azores an English merchant stenberg, who had demanded the removal of fleet heavily laden, and afterward to sail to two theological professors of Halle charged with Havana and join an expedition fitting out rationalism, a memoir in defence of the liberty against Florida. Absorbed in his astronomical of teaching. A work on “ Johann Wessel, à investigations, Ulloa forgot to open his sealed Predecessor of Luther" (Hamburg, 1834), was orders, and after cruising about for two months afterward enlarged by him and published under without success returned.

He was tried in the title of Reformatoren vor der Reformation 1780 by a court martial demanded by bimself, (2 vols., Hamburg, 1841-2). The most impor- and, though acquitted, was never again allowed tant of his other works is Ueber das Wesen des to engage in active service. He was one of the Christenthums (4th ed., Hamburg, 1855). Sev- most munificent promoters of science and the eral of the above named works have been arts in Spain, had a large share in establishing translated into English.

the observatory of Cadiz, encouraged woollen ULLOA, Antonio DE, a Spanish mathema- manufactures, and finished the havens of Fertician and naval officer, born in Seville, Jan. rol and Carthagena. He was also the means 12, 1716, died in the Isla da Leon, near Cadiz, of furnishing Spain with its first cabinet of July 3, 1795. He was educated for the navy, natural history, and its first laboratory of es. became in 1733 a member of the royal marine perimental metallurgy. guards, and in 1735 received the commission of ULM, a town of Würtemberg, situated on lieutenant, and was sent to South America with the left bank of the Danube, on both sides of its the French academicians who were commis- tributary the Blau, and opposite

the mouth of sioned to measure a degree of the meridian at the Iller, 45 m. S. S. E. from Stuttgart

, with the equator. He labored strenuously to advance which it is connected by railway; pop. in 1858, the geodetical operations, which were begun in 21,853, exclusive of the

garrison.' Tho Danube June, 1736, near Quito, but was constantly call- here forms the boundary between Würtem, ed away from his scientific duties to assist in berg and Bavaria.

The rivers are crossed putting the coast in a state of defence against by several bridges, one of which connects the

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