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of which issue tall erect culms, with flat, lan- drained by Warsaw and Richardson creeks; ceolate, broad leaves, and broad, many-flower- area, about 350 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 11,202, ed spikelets of closely appressed flowers. The of whom 2,246 were slaves. The surface is broad-leaved uniola (U. latifolia, Mx.) is an generally hilly and the soil in some parts ferelegant plant with culms 2 to 3 feet high, the tile. The productions in 1850 were 59,856 spikelets of a pleasing green color, oblong, bushels of wheat, 39,875 of Indian corn, and acute, with 10 to 15 flowers. It is found on fer- 2,264 bales of cotton. There were 23 churches, tile hillsides and banks of rivers from southern and 1,038 pupils attending public schools. Pennsylvania to Kansas and southward. It is Granite and slate abound, and excellent stone well suited to the garden, especially if the soil for hones and whetstones is found. Gold mines is light and sandy, and easily propagates from of some value have been worked. Capital, seeds or division of its roots. The panicled uni- Monroe. IV. A N. district of S. C., bounded ola (U. paniculata, Linn.) has stout culms 3 to E. by Broad river and S. by the Ennoree, and 5 feet high, very long rigid leaves, becoming intersected by the Pacolet and Tyger rivers; soon convolute, crowded, drooping panicles, area, 500 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 19,635, of whom and is a conspicuous plant, occurring in the 10,801 were slaves. The surface is hilly and drifting sands on the sea coasts from southern the soil fertile. The productions in 1850 were Virginia to Florida. The graceful uniola (V. 655,078 bushels of Indian corn, 68,826 of wheat

, gracilis, Mx.) has smaller, contracted, and wand- 99,739 of oats, 47,127 of sweet potatoes, and like panicles, with appressed branches broadly 14,156 bales of cotton. There were 25 grist wedge-shaped, and with 4 to 8 flowers, the mills, 18 saw mills, 8 tanneries, an iron founculms 3 feet in height; it is found on the coast dery, 40 churches, and 285 pupils attending from Long island southward. . A species with public schools. Iron ore and granite abound, smooth linear leaves and slender culms, 1 to and there is one valuable gold mine. It is in. 2 feet high (U. nitida, Baldwin), occurs in tersected by the Spartanburg and Union rail. swamps of Georgia and Florida; and another road. Capital, Unionville. V. A N. co. of species (U. distichophylla) is described by La- Ga., bordering on N. C., and drained by the billardière as indigenous to New Holland. The head streams of the Hiawassee and Tocoa rir. uniolas possess no agricultural value, but are ers; area, 630 sq. m. ; pop. in 1860, 4,413, of grasses of extraordinary beauty.

whom 116 were slaves. The surface is mounUNION, the name of counties in 13 of the tainous, being traversed by the Blue ridge. United States. I. A N. E. co. of N. J., bound- The highlands are well adapted to pasturage. ed N. E. by Passaic river, E. by Staten Island The productions in 1850 were 274,345 bushels sound and Newark bay, and S. by Rahway of Indian corn, 40,428 of oats, and 30,867 of river, and drained by Elizabeth river and sev- sweet potatoes. There were 2 tanneries, 1 forge, eral small streams; area, 101 sq. m.; pop. in 12 churches, and 275 pupils attending public 1860, 27,781. The surface is nearly level, and schools. Iron, marble, and granite are found, the soil generally fertile. The productions in and there are profitable gold mines. Capital, 1860 were 10,034 bushels of wheat, 14,693 of Blairsville. VI. A N. parish of La., bordering rye, 191,980 of Indian corn, 100,507 of oats, on Ark., bounded E. by the Washita river and 55,225 of potatoes, 230,145 lbs. of butter, and intersected by its affluents the D'Arbonne and 12,128 tons of hay. There were 44 carriage Lutre bayous; area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. factories, 11 clothing factories, and altogether in 1860, 10,390, of whom 3,745 were slaves, 181 manufacturing establishments with a capi- The surface is moderately hilly and the soil tal of $2,921,739; 50 churches, 6 newspaper sandy and fertile. The productions in 1850 offices, and 4,599 pupils attending puốlic were 292,095 bushels of Indian corn, 105,820 schools. It is intersected by the New Jersey of sweet potatoes, and 5,213 bales of cotton. and the New Jersey central railroads. It was There were 11 churches, and 514 pupils atformed out of part of Essex co. in 1858. Cap- tending public schools

. The Washita and D'Ar ital, Elizabeth. II. A central co. of Penn., bonne are navigable for steamboats. Capibounded E. by the Susquehanna river and its tal, Farmersville. VII. A 8. co. of Ark., borWest branch, and drained by Penn's, Buffalo, dering on La., bounded N. W. by the Washita White Deer, and Middle creeks; area, about river, and drained by several of its tributaries ; 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 14,145. The surface area, about 1,230 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 10,298, is mountainous, the Buffalo, Nittany, and other of whom 1,331 were slaves. The surface is hilly mountains belonging to the Alleghany range and the soil fertile. The productions in 1860 traversing a large part of the county ; the soil were 341,406 bushels of Indian corn, 93,660 of along the streams is very rich. Iron ore, bi- sweet potatoes, 7,037 bales of cotton, and tuminous coal, and limestone abound. There 32,861 lbs. of butter. Capital, El Dorado. are several iron furnaces and founderies, 2 VIII. A new N. E. co. of Tenn., intersected by newspaper offices, and in 1860 there were Clinch river, and bounded N. by its N. fork; 3,778 pupils attending public schools. Snyder area, about 400 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 6, 117, of co. was formed out of the south half of Union whom 182 were slaves.

The surface in the in 1855. The North Branch canal passes

along N. and centre is mountainous, and in other the E. border. Capital, New Berlin. III. À parts hilly, and the soil adapted to grazing. S. co. of N. O., bordering W. and S. on S. C., Wheat, Indian corn, and tobacco are produced,

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and iron ore and bituminous coal are found. nectady. This sum was afterward largely inCapital, Maynardsville. IX. A N. W. co. of creased by further subscriptions, and through Ky., separated from Indiana and Illinois by the the influence of Gen. Philip Schuyler

, who had Ohio river, and drained by Tradewater and been a liberal contributor, the location was Highland creeks; area, 350 sq. m.; pop. in fixed at Schenectady. On Feb. 25, 1795, the 1860, 12,791, of whom 3,105 were slaves. The regents of the university incorporated it. It surface is undulating or hilly and the soil fer- received its name from the coöperation of sevtile. The productions in 1850 were 680,640 eral religious denominations in its organization. bushels of Indian corn, 11,994 of wheat, 50,045 The first president was John Blair Smith, D.D., of oats, and 494,784 lbs. of tobacco. There who on his election resigned the pastorate of were 18 churches, and 1,284 pupils attending the third Presbyterian church in Philadelphia, public schools. "Bituminous coal is abundant, but in 1799 returned to his former charge, and and there are several sulphur and chalybeate died a few months later. He was succeeded springs. Capital, Morganfield. X. A central by Jonathan Edwards the younger, who, at the co. of Ohio, drained by affluents of the Scioto time of his election in May, 1799, was pastor of river ; area, 445 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 16,507. a Congregational church in Colebrook, Conn. The surface is level and the soil fertile. The He died in Aug. 1801, and in 1802 the Rev. productions in 1850 were 624,898 bushels of Jonathan Maxcy, D.D., then president of Brown Indian corn, 26,563 of wheat, 88,274 of oats, university, was chosen to succeed him, but after 247,407 lbs. of butter, 210,340 of cheese, 62,233 two years resigned to accept the presidency of of wool, and 16,969 tons of hay. There were the South Carolina college. In 1804 Elipha26 churches, and 3,279 papils attending public let Nott, D.D., then pastor of a Presbyterian schools. It is intersected by the Bellefontaine, church in Albany, was elected to the presidenTerre Haute, and St. Louis, and the Springfield, cy of the college, and still holds the office Mt. Vernon, and Pittsburg railroads. Capital, (May, 1862). At President Nott's accession Marysville. XI. A S. E. co. of Ind., bordering the college was but slenderly endowed and had on Ohio, drained by the East fork of White- but a small number of students. The college water river; area, 168 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, building (there was then only one) was in the 7,110. The surface is generally undulating city. Application was made to the legislature and the soil very fertile. The productions in for aid, and in 1805, and subsequently in 1814 1850 were 631,515 bushels of Indian corn, and 1822, lotteries were authorized, the net 58,862 of wheat, 52,930 of oats, 204,269 lbs. of proceeds of which were to go to the endowbutter, and 3,665 tons of hay. There were 27 ment of the college. The fund thus raised, churches, and 1,828 pupils attending public together with some subscriptions and donations, schools. Capital, Liberty. XII. A S. co. of permanently invested, amounted in 1822 to III., bounded W. by the Mississippi and drained $331,612.13. The proceeds of the last lottery by Olear creek; area, 320 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, were involved with private property of Dr. 11,182. The surface is undulating and the soil Nott, who managed the whole, and in process fertile. The productions in 1850 were 314,705 of time the accounts had become so much combushels of Indian corn, 31,902 of wheat, and plicated, that it required many months and the 42,249 of oats. There were 27 churches, and skill of eminent accountants to ascertain the 1,300 pupils attending public schools. Iron rights of the

two parties. These having been ore, lead, chalk, bituminous coal, porcelain determined, Dr. Nott, by papers executed Dec. clay, alum, and copperas are found. It is in- 28, 1855, made over to trustees for the college tersected by the Illinois central railroad. Cap- a large sum, estimated at several hundred ital, Jonesborough. XIII. A S. W. co. of Iowa, thousand dollars. The building first erected in drained by the head waters of the Platte and Schenectady proving inadequate for the wants Grand rivers; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, of the college, a tract of land was purchased 2,012. The surface is level or undulating, and in 1814 on an eminence E. of the city, and the soil fertile. The productions in 1859 were two buildings were erected. To these have 3,498 bushels of wheat, 65,608 of Indian corn, since been added buildings for library, cabi1,964 tons of hay, and 36,274 lbs. of butter. net, and lecture rooms, and a fine central The line of the projected Burlington and Mis- chapel, begun in 1858. The building in the souri railroad passes through the county. Cap- city was sold to the municipal authorities for ital, Afton.

the use of the public schools. In 1855 the UNION COLLEGE, a seat of learning at college was partially reorganized, and departSchenectady, N. Y. In 1779 the inhabitants ments of civil engineering and analytical of the region lying N. of the Mohawk river chemistry established, which are amply propetitioned the legislature for the incorporation vided with facilities for instruction. Mr. E. C. of a college, but without success. In 1782 and Delavan has presented to the college a fine in 1791 the petition was renewed, but again cabinet of minerals and shells, known as the failed. In 1793 the Schenectady academy was “Wheatley collection," purchased for the instiincorporated. In 1794 an effort was made to tution at a cost of $10,000. The faculty now obtain an endowment for a college by subscrip- consists of the president, vice-president, 12 protion, and $7,935 was contributed by 99 persons fessors, 1 lecturer, and 3 tutors. There are in Albany, and $3,425 by 231 persons in Sche- about 320 students. The whole number of

VOL. XV.-45


alumni in 1860 was 3,657, of whom 1,300 were ism was one of the earliest developed forms of clergymen; and the number of volumes in the religious opinion. In Germany Ludwig Hetzer college libraries was about 16,000.

and Johann Denck promulgated it in a rationUNITARIANISM, the general name since alistic form, associating the belief that Christ the reformation for that class of opinions which was an illuminated teacher and a perfect human grew up in opposition to the doctrine of the example, with the doctrine of the inner light, Trinity, rejecting the threefold distinction of and the persuasion that all spirits, even those personality in the Divine Being, and asserting of devils, would at last be brought into blessedthe absolute unity of God. These opinions ap- In Swabia, Sebastian Frank the mystic peared simultaneously with the earliest specula- appealed to the interior Word which judged tions on the Logos, and, though uniformly pro- the letter of Scripture, and to the interior nounced heretical by the church, kept even pace Christ of whom the historical Christ was only with those speculations through all the suc- the symbol and sign. Through Switzerland, cessive periods of its history. Toward the end Claudius of Savoy taught the Hebrew monoof the 2d century we find them associated with theism and the simple humanity of Jesus. In the names of Theodotus, a Byzantine leather- the 16th century Unitarian doctrines of a radidresser, who came to Rome and gathered there cal stamp were openly and freely disseminated a small company of disciples, and Artemon, in Saxony and Holland, in connection generally who also taught in Rome, and whose school with Anabaptist opinions. In Italy, long bemaintained for about 100 years its attitude of fore the reformation, there existed an indefinite sharp rationalistic antagonism to the church amount of dissent from the orthodox Trinitadogma. Both of these men asserted the simple rian faith. The reformation brought the here• humanity of Christ, contending that he was sies to light only to show how extensive they no more than a divinely illuminated prophet. were, and to occasion their immediate expulTheodotus was excommunicated, not probably sion from the country. Fugitive Unitarians in for his opinions alone, which Artemon insisted considerable numbers found refuge in Switzerwere the urrent opinions till after his day. land. Hither came from Venice Lælius SoSubstantially the same views were held about cinus, who settled in Zürich about 4 years bethe same time by Beryllus, bishop of Bostra in fore the burning of Servetus in Geneva. At Arabia. He found an opponent in Origen, and that date he was travelling in Italy, but on his was, it is said, induced to retract his doctrine. return he occupied himself with theological Nearly contemporaneous with Theodotus and speculations, his caution and probably the indisArtemon, Praxeas came to Rome from Asia tinctness of his views saving him from persecuMinor and taught under a new form the indi- tion, though not from suspicion, on the part of visible unity of the Godhead. The school of Calvin and other leaders of the Trinitarian parArtemon represented Christ as man in the si- ty. At Zürich Bernardino Ochino, an intimate militude of God; Praxeas represented him as associate of Socinus, published in 1563 the disGod in the similitude of man, the humanity logues in which the doctrine of the Trinity, and being only a mask. His fame as a brave con- indeed every other cardinal doctrine, was subfessor shielded Praxeas from suspicion, and mitted to severe examination. Matteo Gribaldi gave considerable currency to his views until and Giorgio Blandrata of Saluzzo taught in Tertullian brought down upon them his fiery and about Geneva that the Father and the Son polemics. In connection with Praxeas, as hold- were two distinct persons, the first divine in ing essentially the same opinions of Christ, the essence, the second having a derived divinity

. name of Noëtus is recorded as teaching in Smyr- Calvin was obliged to use his authority to stop

In him we have the germs of the doctrine the increasing heresy. Blandrata withdrew to afterward developed by Sabellius in the middle Zürich; other teachers left Switzerland for of the 3d century, a doctrine which saved the Poland. A few years later Giovanni Valentino divinity of the Son by destroying not only his Gentilis, a Calabrian, was beheaded at Bern for humanity, but his personality as a member of false doctrine and blasphemy, his opinions bethe Trinity. Arianism (see Arius) originated ing similar to those which the Spaniard Ser in the 4th century, in a private discussion be- vetus had disseminated so widely through tween Arius, a presbyter of Alexandria, and the Switzerland, Germany, and France. Poland bishop Alexander, the latter maintaining the was now the refuge of the Unitarian believers essential equality of the Son and the Father, and A printing establishment at Racow issued the former throwing on the bishop the reproach writings of Faustus Socinus about the middle of Sabellianism, and asserting that the was a of the 16th century. The nobility, a powerful

, time when the Son was not-thus denying the rich, and independent class, all but sovereign Son's eternity, making his generation depen- on their own estates, encouraged the principles dent on the will of God, and assigning to him of the reformation in their most radical forn, a position subordinate to the Supreme, though The exiles from Italy and Switzerland made solitary and unapproachable by any other creat- Pinczow their head-quarters, and were known ed being. This doctrine became the parent of as Pinczovians. For 10 years they freely pure the later Socinianism, and through that the di- sued their inquiries within the pale of the rerect progenitor of the Unitariansm of a still later formed church. Gonesius wroto boldly against day.-At the time of the reformation Unitarian- the Trinity. Blandrata would use none but


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Scripturo language in speaking of God and London that Christ was not God. Nye told Christ. Stancar taught that Christ mediated some divines of the assembly that “to his as man only. Gregory Pauli openly denied his knowledge the denying of the divinity of Christ preëxistence. Statorius contended that the was a growing opinion;" and Dr. Owen in Holy Ghost was the power of God's grace in 1655 wrote: "There is not a city, a town, the soul. The Unitarians were called ecclesia scarce a village in England wherein some of . minor; but they were hardly more than an this poison is not poured forth.” In April, unorganized band of dissenters till F. Socinus 1652, copies of the Racovian catechism were came among them and elaborated the system burned in London, an indication of the connecwhich has since borne his name. Socinus spent tion between Polish Socinianism and English several years in Cracow, and left it only when Unitarianism. The first apostle of Unitarianresidence there became insecure. With Sigis- ism in England was John Biddle, of Magdalen mund III. the dark days of Unitarianism came hall, Oxford. He gathered a congregation in in. The Jesuits were recalled to the kingdom; London, published two catechisms setting forth the offices of dignity and emolument were given a rude and crude scriptural theology, and is to the Roman Catholics; the populace was in- said to have translated the Racovian catechism stigated to acts of violence against dissenters; into English. Biddle had great scorn for "the and Socinus narrowly escaped death at the brain-sick notions which were first hatched hands of a mob. In 1627 the church in Lublin in the brains of Platonists to pervert the worwas broken up; in 1638 a decree was passed ship of the true God," and was zealous in opdevoting to destruction the famous school at posing them to a degree that brought on him Racow, which, under the patronage of Socin. serious persecution. The council of state diian nobles, had been cailed the Athens of Sar- rected Dr. Owen to refute Biddle's views. Somatia. The outcasts from Racow filed to cinian opinions were very prevalent in the Kisscelin; but that place was also doomed. church, even more than out of it, some said. From the colloquy of Thorn the Unitarians In 1705 we hear of "troops of Unitarian and alone were excluded. A decree of John Casi- Socinian writers, and not one dissenter found mir forbade the profession of Arianism on pain among them." Thomas Firmin, a most earnest of death. Under the pressure of this decree, Unitarian, disseminated his doctrines within which was to take effect at the expiration of the establishment. Milton's Unitarianism seems two years, some of the Unitarians abandoned not to have been suspected in his time. A their faith, and others abandoned their country Calvinistic member of the church of England and went to Transylvania, Germany, Silesia, admitted that a large body of the clergy were Prussia, and the Netherlands. Pursued by au- lapsing into Socinianism. The great debate on thority, hated by the people for their opinions, the Trinity which engaged the religious world divided among themselves, they dragged on a during the last 10 years of the 17th century, in painful existence till the end of the century, which South and Sherlock took so conspicuous and then as a body disappeared from all other a part, was raised by Unitarians, who were countries of Europe but Transylvania.—In numerous and able enough to draw attention the English mind Unitarian opinions took root to their opinions, though their publications at a very early period of the reformation. bore no name of author, publisher, or printer. In the reign of Edward VI., George Van Paris Before the close of the century they had their was burned at Smithfield for denying the own places of worship in London. The writproper divinity of Christ. Francis Wright was ings of Locke favored indirectly the progress burned at Norwich in 1588 for similar opin- of Unitarian views. Locke himself disavowed ions. The fires were lighted again in Smith- the name of Socinian; but Edwards, in his field 24 years later to burn Arianism in the “Socinianism Unmasked," made a direct attack body of Bartholomew Legate. The same year on his “Reasonableness of Christianity.” The (1612) Edward Wightman suffered at the stake publication of Hartley's “Observations on in Lichfield for the rather inconsistent heresies Man”_gave rise to a new school, of which Joof Ebionitism and Arianism, his judges prob- seph Priestley was the head. It was founded ably not understanding the distinction, but on the principles of the sensational philosophy, deeming either fair cause for burning. Among accepted religious truths on the evidence of the humbler classes many denied the Godhead miracle, and limited the number of those of Christ, some asserting his simple humanity, truths to the cardinal doctrines, the unity of others claiming for him an angelic nature. At God, and the general resurrection. Their a later period, encouraged by the free thought opinions gained ground but slowly. Of this of the age and by foreign influences, chiefly stamp was the Unitarianism that first made its from Holland, the doctrines of the continental appearance in America by the middle of the Anti-Trinitarians prevailed extensively. The last century. Emlyn's "Inquiry into the Scripsynods of London and York found Socinianism ture Account of Jesus Christ” was republished formidable enough in 1640 for the direction of in Boston in 1756, and extensively circulated; a special canon against it. The poet Suckling and the general tone of thought in Boston was allotted to it a separate chapter in his “ Account decidedly Unitarian 30 years later. A Unitaof Religion by Reason.” Under the long par- rian was made professor of divinity at Camliament the doctrine was openly preached in bridge in 1805. Ten years later, the republi

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cation in Boston of Belsham's chapter on the and with a few the type of a new order of hu. "Progress and Present State of the Unitarian man beings, the inaugurator of a new social Churches in America,” in his “Memoir of Lind- state. Some, while refi ing to ascribe to him sey,” brought on the controversy between Dr. omnipotence, omniscience, or omnipresence, Channing and Dr. Worcester which resulted in have claimed for him infallibility, impeccability, a separation of the Unitarians from the "Or- and å perfectly righteous will; others hare thodox,” and the establishment of a sect. But contended that his whole nature was confined American Unitarianism was to no considerable within human limitations. One class speak of extent an echo of English thought. Channing Christ as saviour, mediator, intercessor, and exerted a powerful influence on American and final judge; another class drop all these appel

. even on English Unitarianism, and gave them lations, and know him only as teacher, quicka new direction, partly by withdrawing interest ener, and guide. Here he is venerated as Lord; from points of controversial divinity, partly by there he is loved as brother. The Polish Unisubordinating theories and religion to the reli- tarians debated the point of offering divine gious life, but more by bringing into light the honors to Christ. Socinus, though refusing to spiritual elements of human nature, and thus accept the preëxistence, refused the Christian initiating the practice of trying religious sys- name to such as would not pray to Jesus. tems by the instincts and sentiments of the There have been Unitarians who taught that soul. To Channing Unitarianism owes much the Holy Spirit was a person; but now, so far of its freedom from sectarian and dogmatic as we know, all agree in considering it an intrammels. The writings of Lessing, Eichhorn, fluence. The rejection of the dogma of the Herder, Schleiermacher, De Wette, and Strauss, deity of Christ has brought with it the rejecthe transcendental philosophy, the historical tion, in more or less absolute form, of other criticism, were all welcomed and studied by characteristic dogmas in the creed of Christenthe successors of Channing, and all contributed dom. The doctrine of total depravity and largely to the formation of a new school of moral inability was among the first to fall. All thought, which was adopted with most enthu- Unitarians contend for man's power to receive siasm by Unitarians, and was represented in moral illumination; most claim a freedom of England by James Martineau, and in the United choice between good and evil, and the natural States by Theodore Parker.-The creed of power to obey the right. A few accept the Unitarians is not easily defined, for the reason doctrine of a fall, but hold that its consequences that they disavow all right to frame or impose were never destructive of the innate rectitude authoritative statements of opinion. Socinian- of human nature, or of the law written on the ism was a clear and coherent scheme of theo- heart; a few reject the doctrine of hereditary logical doctrine; but Socinianism was never and transmitted qualities, and maintain that identical with Unitarianism; the early English the soul of each new-born child is like a sheet Unitarians took pains to signify their dissent of white paper unpledged to good or evil; some from the system of Socinus, and at present very others recognize the law of transmission, but few Unitarians are Socinians. On one point contend that man, instead of beginning his only Unitarians have been always agreed, viz., career as a perfect being, began at the lowest the subordination of Christ. But respecting the point of imperfection, and has since been makdegree of the subordination, and the extent to ing progress toward' his full development in which other doctrines of Christendom have been mind and character. With the dogma of deaffected by it, there has been no agreement. pravity fell that of the infinite sacrifice, a ricaThere are Unitarians who accept the Trinity in rious atonement being unnecessary, since man a philosophical sense, while rejecting the deity is supposed to be in possession of his own moral of Christ; and there are those not Unitarians and spiritual powers; and impossible, since the who accept the deity of Christ, but reject the Christ has lost the rank necessary to render his Trinity. Some Unitarians have held that Christ sacrifice adequate to the great end. The Uniwas an angelic being, from the beginning asso- tarian view of the atonement depends of course ciated with the Father, and through him creat- on the view of Christ and of human nature, ing the world. Others have conceived him as and so belief ranges all the way from a modia human being, miraculously endowed and su- fied conception of a Saviour's redeeming office pernaturally qualified to bring a revelation of to the opinion that his whole function as truth. Others again have regarded him as a discharged in his office of teacher and exempler. simple man of wonderful spiritual gifts, by — The first phase of Unitarianism in any coun: which he obtained an extraordinary but natural try may be most fitly described as Anti-Trinimastery over souls and bodies, and through tarianism; the next, a fuller statement of the which he organized a society called the church. simple positive doctrine, the unity of God. At Some have asserted and some have denied his first the divine unity was conceived numeripreëxistence; some have admitted and some cally, as unitheism, in opposition to tritheism have rejected his miraculous birth; some have and polytheism; the God was a being of nudidoubted, while others have laid stress on his vided metaphysical personality, of a single conmiraculous history; with some he has been an sciousness. He was the one God of the Heinspired prophet, with others an ideal man, with brews, an individual being who dwelt external others a perfect example of moral excellence, to his works, ruled them from without, and com

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