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municated with them by miracle. But grad- called, and when called they can pass no deually a different idea was entertained. Espe- cree. Strictly speaking, Unitarianism has no cially tho moral unity of God was emphasized established ritualism, no priestly order, no in—the perfect harmony of the divine attributes, dispensable, saving sacraments. From the bethe perfect consistency of the divine purposes, ginning until now the prevailing view of the the absolute dominion of the divine goodness. Lord's supper has been that of Zwingli; and God was known and spoken of as Father, the though here and there it has been taught that paternal relation summing up and absorbing the communicant partook spiritually of the body every other. By pursuing this idea of the of Christ, or received a special grace from the divine paternity, the belief was arrived at that elements, these instances have not been numerno power of pure malignity had an existence rous enough to qualify the assertion that the in the universe; that there was no personal “communion” is observed in the Unitarian Satan; that evil was no absolute entity, limit- churches as a memorial rite dear to the affecing, marring, or thwarting the beneficent en- tions and sacred by association, but carrying ergies of the Supreme; that the whole universe with it no special efficacy, demanding in its was dispossessed of 'demons, and belonged participant no special holiness, and useful only without reservation to the All-Good. Having as a means of cultivating the religious life. In reached this point, and expelled Satan from several societies of the “new school” it has the world this side the grave, it was impos- been dispensed with altogether. Greater disible not to go further and expel him from versity of opinion has obtained respecting bapthe region which lay on the other. Unita- tism than respecting communion. The early rianism has therefore earnestly contended Unitarians on the continent and in England opagainst the doctrine of everlasting punishment posed infant baptism, but advocated strenuousof the wicked. While it holds no fixed or ly the baptism of adults. Socinus thought it consentaneous opinion in regard to the state of little consequence whether one were bapof being in another life, it has asserted that the tized or not. There are those to-day who think state of being could not in any case be one of it of considerable moment that children should hopeless misery. There might be suffering, be baptized; others deem it of no moment severe in degree and indefinite in duration; but whatever. For the most part, when observed, it would be disciplinary, not vindictive in its it is made a social household ceremony, and is purpose, and it would cease when its beneficent cherished for the pleasing sentiment that is end was secured. Unitarians have insisted associated with it. —The worship in Unitarian very strongly on the doctrine of retribution, assemblies is very simple. In 1785 the society but its object was never supposed to be the in- worshipping in King's chapel, Boston, elimifliction of suffering for its own sake, or to satis- nated Trinitarianism from the Book of Comfy merely the moral law; many have contended mon Prayer," and retained the book in its althat the pain was but the necessary consequence tered form. In other places, societies have or the inevitable concomitant of sin, enduring compiled books of worship for themselves. In as long as that endured, and no longer; but most there is no book. Efforts have been made the prevalent theory is probably that of the recently to render the public worship attractive progressionists, who hold that the next life is by a "vesper service” of a musical and devothe continuation of this, and that the soul un- tional character. In some portions of the deder new conditions carries forward to its com- nomination an ecclesiastical spirit has shown pletion the process of spiritual development itself working to reanimate the body of the begun here. The same general modification church by restoring the declining interest in of view that characterizes the Unitarian the institutions and ceremonies. The progthought in the particulars already mentioned, ress and spread of Unitarianism has never may be observed in the opinions respecting the been rapid, and such advance as it has made Bible. The Polish Unitarians mostly held fast has been due more to the general movement to the inspiration of the Scriptures, and ap- of society than to its own conscious efforts. pealed to them as final authority in all points There is little recognized Unitarianism on the of religious belief. The early English Unita- continent of Europe. Most of the Protestant rians did the same. The “new school” (if we ministers in Holland and Germany, it is bemay use the phrase for the sake of distinctness) lieved, hold Unitarian opinions. In Paris these do not appeal to the Scriptures as inspired and opinions are supported by government like infallible oracles, but discuss religious ques- other forms of faith, and one of the most elotions on grounds of philosophy alone. Re- quent preachers there, Athanase Coquerel, has garding the Bible as the most interesting and for years proclaimed the Anti-Trinitarian docvaluable part of the world's literature, they trines. Recently, the writings of Channing seek in it illustration of the spiritual laws, but have excited interest in Paris. In Great Britnot final statements of moral and religious ain there are about 313 congregations, of which truth.-In regard to church government, it is England has 235 with 226 ministers, Scotland enough to say that the congregational form is 6 with 5 ministers, Ireland 42, and South Wales the prevalent, perhaps the only one.

Each so

30. The Unitarians have 5 periodicals. Misciety manages its own affairs, temporal and sionary operations are conducted through the spititual, in its own way. Councils are seldom British and foreign Unitarian association. The




English Unitarians have been largely interested ed not until he experienced what he regarded in philanthropic undertakings. They early es- as the new birth. This new experience led tablished the domestic mission in London; and him to institute meetings during the week for at present they have 10 laborers at work in prayer and religious conference. The interest London, Birmingham, Bristol, Manchester, excited by these proceedings, and the spiritual Liverpool, and Halifax. Unitarianism in Amer- destitution of the country, induced him to hold, ica had its birth and still has its head-quarters in barns and groves in various places ontside of in Boston. If it goes to other parts of the his pastoral charge, what were called "grest country, it goes with New Englanders. There meetings." To one of these, held at İsage are in the United States about 263 societies, of Long's, in Lancaster co., all persons who had which Massachusetts has 164, and the city of experienced a change of heart, without respect Boston 21 ; Maine has 16, New Hampshire 15, to their ecclesiastical relations, were especially Vermont 3, Rhode Island 3, Connecticut 2, invited. A large assembly, in which LutherNew York 13, New Jersey 1, Pennsylvania 5, ans, Reformed, Mennonites, Dunkers, Amish, Maryland 2, Ohio 5, Illinois 11, Wisconsin 2, and Moravians were represented, convened; and and Missouri

, Kentucky, Minnesota, South among the number was found Martin Boehm, Carolina, Louisiana, California, and the district a Mennonite preacher, who had also some of Columbia, each 1. There are about 339 time before obtained what he deemed the new ministers. The “Christians” of the West, a life. At the conclusion of a remarkably effecvery numerous body, are Unitarian in theol- tive sermon by Boehm, Otterbein arose, and, ogy; so for the most part are the Universalists. embracing him, exclaimed: “We are brethren." The divinity school at Cambridge, Mass., is This was the origin of the name of the new Unitarian, and so is the Meadville (Penn.) the- church. Otterbein and Boehm labored togethological school. The periodicals published by er for more than 50 years; and as the calls for the denomination are 8 in number. The Amer- preaching became numerous, laymen selected ican Unitarian association commenced its exist- from the converts were licensed to presch. ence in May, 1825. Its purpose was to effect These laborers at first held conferences at the

more systematic union and a concentration of great meetings; but when this became impraclabors by which interest may be awakened, con- ticable, annual conferences were appointed fidence inspired, and efficiency produced.” On where preachers were licensed, examined, disthe same day, without concert, a similar associa- ciplined, and directed in their labors. In tion was formed in England, bearing the title of 1859 the church had 29 annual conferences; the British and foreign Unitarian association. In 1,150 ministers, 700 of whom were itinerant; the first year the American association receiv- 336 circuits; 25 stations; 224 missions, 6% ed less than $1,300; now it receives annually of which were established in 1858–9; 4,50 from $12,000 to $13,000. It has assisted nearly preaching places; 880 meeting houses; 3,199 100 churches which required foreign aid; issued classes; and 84,000 members. It has at Das277 tracts, in editions varying from 2,000 to ton, Ohio, an extensive printing establishment, 8,000 copies, making a total of 1,764,000, where several periodicals and a variety of books beside reports and miscellaneous tracts; dis- are issued, in English and German. It owns 7 tributed 1,100 sets of Dr. Channing's works, institutions of learning, viz.: Otterbein nniand 1,500 copies of Dr. Peabody's “Doctri- versity, Ohio; Hartsville university, Ind. ; nal Lectures ;"' expended in 8 years for the Michigan collegiate institute, Mich.; Western purchase, printing, and publication of books, college, Iowa; Blandinsvillé seminary, .; $43,090; employed as many as 20 home mis- Fremont seminary, Kansas; and Sublimity sionaries; and for several years supported a college, Oregon. The United Brethren in missionary in India. Closely affiliated with Christ have but one grade of ministers

, are the association is the “Christian Book and Arminian in theology, and supply their churchPamphlet Society,” established by young men es with preaching on the itinerant plan. They in 1827, which in the past 9 years has circu- have quarterly, annual, and general conferlated gratuitously over 83,000 pamphlets and ences. The highest ecclesiastical body is the 4,500 books. The missionary and charitable general conference, which meets every 4 years

, societies in Boston under Unitarian support or and is composed of delegates from the conferpatronage are too numerous to be particularly ence districts elected by ballot, every member mentioned here.

of the church being entitled to vote

. No UNITAS FRATRUM. See MORAVIANS. slaveholder, no adhering member of any secret

UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST, a Prot- combination, and no manufacturer, seller, or estant church, having no ecclesiastical connec- drinker of intoxicating liquors can be a mém: tion with the Moravians, with whom they are ber of the church. They regard a change of frequently confounded. They arose among the heart as an indispensable condition of member Germans in Pennsylvania about 1760. In 1752 ship. Baptism is administered by either sprinkPhilip William Oiterbein, a missionary of the ling, pouring, or immersion, each member

being German Reformed church, sent out to America permitted to exercise his own judgment in reby the synod of Holland, began to preach in gard to the mode; infants are baptized when Lancaster, Penn., but soon becoming convinced it is desired. Open communion at the Lord's that he was not himself a converted man, rest- table is practised. Until about 1825 the Crit

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ed Brethren in Christ confined their labors al- enactments and sometimes as the government most exclusively to persons speaking the German directed, by a practical acceptance of the breaklanguage; but at present by far the greater num- ing of the bread and an acknowledgment of ber of the communicants speak English. They the authorities of the united church; but it have churches in the eastern, middle, southern, was considerably disturbed by the introduction and western states, in most of the territories, of a new liturgical book, the Agenda. A theand in Canada. In some of the western states ological commission, appointed to compose this church is among the largest denomina- such an instrument, accomplished nothing. tions.—See “ History of the United Brethren in The king then published an Agenda, which Christ," by G. Lawrence.

had been introduced by his cabinet (1822) into UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH, an the court church, gave orders that it should be ecclesiastical denomination in Germany, which introduced into the garrison churches of his arose in 1817 out of a union of the Lutheran kingdom, and recommended it to all the con-. and Reformed churches. Attempts at uniting gregations of the realm, instead of the conflictthese two churches were made as early as ing and arbitrary forms which had previously 1529, when leading theologians of both schools been used in the different provinces. Many held a conference at Marburg. Though fruit- objections were raised against the Agenda, esless, these attempts were often renewed, and pecially by the strict Lutherans; and when in other religious conferences between theolo- 1834 a royal decree was issued ordering its ingians of the two denominations were held at troduction into all non-united as well as united Leipsic in 1631, and at Cassel in 1661. In 1703 congregations of the kingdom, a number of Frederic I. of Prussia convened several Lu- strict Lutherans seceded from the national theran and Reformed theologians at Berlin, to church. For several years the government discuss the practicability of a union. He erect- endeavored by the suspension of ministers to ed union churches at Berlin and Charlotten- coerce them back into the national church ; burg, and had the orphans of the two denomi- but in 1845 Frederic William IV. conceded nations brought up in the same establishments; liberty of worship. They then organized an but the Lutheran clergy made a successful independent Lutheran church, which numberresistance to the progress of these schemes. ed in 1861 about 60,000 members. All the A “Plan of Union” proposed by Klemm and rest of the former Lutheran and Reformed Pfaff, theologians of Tübingen from 1710 to churches of Prussia, embracing about 10,000,1722, met with little favor. Frederic's succes- 000 souls, are nominally connected with the sor, Frederic William I., issued several decrees United Evangelical church.

There is great designed to promote a union. The rise of ra- difference of opinion, however, as to the nature tionalism, toward the close of the 18th century, and extent of the union by which the United disposed the theologians generally in favor of á Evangelical church has been called into existunion of the two churches, whose distinctive

One party-generally called the contenets, it was generally admitted, had but few federalists—under the leadership of Prof. Hengbelievers among the clergy of either. Schlei- stenberg and the late Dr. Stahl, maintain that ermacher proposed to establish at first only an the union consists in a mere external confederaexternal church unity, and to leave the contro- tion and subjection to the same general church versies of scientific theology open to discussion. government; that the individual churches reThe tercentenary of the reformation in 1817 main Lutheran, Reformed, or (if they have ex: led at length to the practical establishment of pressly adopted the union) United; and that if the union, which, however, in the opinion of the right of adhering to the old standards of many of its advocates, was to consist at first the Lutheran confession should be curtailed, it only in the establishment of a common church would become the duty of the party to secede. government and the common celebration of A second party, commonly called the consenthe Lord's supper.

The leadership in this sus party, takes for its doctrinal basis the Bible movement was assumed and has ever since and the common dogmas of the Lutheran and been inaintained by the government of Prussia. Reformed confessions. It controls the theoThe clergy of Berlin issued a declaration in logical faculties of most of the universities, not favor of the union, and a circular of the min- only in Prussia, but in the other German ister of the interior confirmed it, and decreed states. Among its leading men are Nitzsch, that the united church should bear henceforth Twesten, Hoffmann, Niedner, Tholuck, Julius the name Evangelical Christian church. It Müller, Jacobi, Dorner, Lange, Liebner, Stier, was thought that the union would be gradually Ullmann, Umbreit, Ebrard, Herzog, and Rothe. and peaceably consummated by an agreement A third party, frequently designated as the respecting a constitution, church property, and union party, reject the authoritative character ordinary usages. It was also decided that of the oid symbolical books of both the Luthe Lord's supper should be celebrated by a theran and the Reformed denominations, and mere breaking of the bread and a faithful reci. base themselves on the Biblo simply, claiming tation of the words used in the original institu- at the same time the right of subjecting the tion. For several years this work appeared to authenticity of the Old and New Testaments be in process of accomplishment in the several to critical examination. This party embraces ecclesiastical corporations, sometimes by public many of the disciples of Schleiermacher, the


school of Tübingen, and a number of liberal Cod on the Atlantic to the Pacific, near the divines of different shades of opinion. The parallel of lat. 42°, about 2,600 m., and the second and third parties agreed in asking for greatest breadth from Madawaska in Maine the introduction of a presbyterian church con- to Key West in Florida, about 1,600 m., the stitution, embracing district, provincial, and mean length being about 2,400 m. and the mean general synods; but their exertions were vig- breadth about 1,300 m. The line of the fronorously resisted by the confederalists. Fred- tier toward British America measures 3,303 m., eric William IV., who repeatedly declared his and that toward Mexico 1,456 m. The bounwish to restore full self-government to the dary line on the ocean, including the larger innational church, convoked in 1846 a general dentations, is 12,609 m., of which 6,861 m. are synost, order to complete her organization. on the Atlantic, 3,467 m. on the gulf of Mexico, The work was interrupted by the revolution and 2,281 m. on the Pacific. With the exof 1848, but resumed in 1856 by another gen- ception of a small portion of the N. E. coast, eral conference, and began to be carried out the shores on the Atlantic and gulf are low, upon the accession to the government of the while those on the Pacific are mostly bold and regent, now King William I., in 1858.—The ex- rocky. The most important indentations are ample of the king of Prússia in consolidating Passamaquoddy, Frenchman's, Penobscot, Casthe Lutheran and Reformed churches into a co, Massachusetts, Buzzard's, New York, RariUnited Evangelical church was followed in a tan, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays, and Long i number of other German states. Thus the Island, Albemarle, and Pamlico sounds on the union was introduced, either by resolution of Atlantio; Tampa, Appalachee, Appalachicola

, synods or by a general vote, in Nassau (1817), Pensacola, Mobile, Black, Barataria, Atchaftthe Bavarian Palatinate (1818), Baden (1821), laya, Vermilion, Galveston, Matagorda, Aranand even in Würtemberg (1827), where the Re- sas, and Corpus Christi bays on the gulf; and formed church had hardly an existence. The San Francisco bay and the straits of Juan de union may be considered permanently estab- Fuça on the Pacific. Politically the republic lished in the Bavarian Palatinate and in Baden, is divided into 34 states, 8 territories (inin both of which the church has a presbyterian cluding Arizona, not yet organized), and the constitution, inclusive of a general synod, which federas district of Columbia. For convenience in both churches is, unanimous in maintaining the states are generally classified by geograthe union. In the other state churches, in phers as follows: eastern or New England which the consistorial element still prevails states, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Masover the synodal, the views of the churches sachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut; middle and congregations on the subject liave never states, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, been fully ascertained, and their final relation Delaware; southern states, Maryland, Virginia, to the United Evangelical church can be de- North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia

, Flortermined only after a completion of their ec- ida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas; clesiastical constitution. Saxony, Hanover, western states, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky, Bavaria proper, Mecklenburg, Brunswick, and Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, several other states were too exclusively Lu- Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, California

, theran, Switzerland too exclusively Reformed, Oregon. The southern and western states are to fall in with the movement. In Austria and sometimes also subdivided as follows: southern, France a fusion of the Lutheran and Reformed Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carochurches has also many friends, but nothing lina, Georgia, Florida; south-western, Alabama, has been done as yet in the way of practical Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tenexecution. In the United States there is a nessee; north-western, Kentucky, Ohio, Michibranch of the United Evangelical church of gan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Germany, called Evangelischer Kirchenverein Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, California, Oregon. des Westens, founded at St. Louis in 1841.-See The date of admission of the states into the Hering, Geschichte der kirchlichen Unionsver- Union and of the organization of the territories, suche (2 vols., Leipsic, 1836-'8); Nitzsch, Ur- their area, and their population according to the kundenbuch der Evangelischen Union (Bonn, successive decennial censuses, are shown in 1853); Julius Müller, Die Evangelische Union tables I., II., and III. The areas are derived in (Leipsic, 1854); Stahl, Die Lutherische Kirche some instances from the result of state surveys. und die Union (Berlin, 1858).

The total area of the states and territories, acUNITED PROVINCES. Soe Netherlands. cording to the report of the topographical bu

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, The, a reau made at the close of 1853, and subserepublic in North America, lying between lat. quently revised and amended, is 2,963,666 sq. 24° 30' and 49° N. and between long. 66° 50' m., of which 820,680 sq. m. belonged to the reand 124° 30' W. It is bounded N. by British public at the peace of 1783 ; about 889,579 sq. America, from which it is in part separated m. were added by the purchase of Louisiana by the river St. Lawrence and Lakes Superior, 66,900 by the acquisition of Florida, 318,000 Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario; E. by the by the annexation of Texas, 308,052 by the Atlantic ocean ; S. by Mexico and the gulf of Oregon treaty, and 550,455 by the Mexican Mexico; and W. by the Pacific ocean. The treaties. Mr. Kennedy, superintendent of the greatest length of this vast region is from Cape census bureau, estimates the total area at

3,230,572 sq. m. The commissioner of the nebec, Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Susgeneral land office in 1860 estimated the land quehanna, Potomac, James, Chowan, Roanoke, area of the states and territories at 2,943,257 Pamlico or Tar river, Neuse, Cape Fear, Great sq. m. or 1,883,744,000 acres; or including the Pedee, Santee, Savannah, and Altamaha, all Indian territory, 3,010,277 sq. m. or 1,926,- of which exceed 300 m. in length, and are navi636,800 acres. The population of the 13 colo- gable to a considerable distance from the sea. nies at the breaking out of the war of the 3. The rivers of the southern slope, flowing revolution in 1775 was 2,803,000, including into the gulf of Mexico, the principal of which, about 500,000 slaves. Table IV. gives the E. of the Mississippi,' are the Appalachicola number of deaf and dum, blind, and insane and the Mobile, and their affluents, and W. of persons in the United States in 1850 and 1860; the Mississippi, the Sabine, Trinity, Brazos, table V., the increase per cent. of the popu- Colorado, and Rio Grande. 4. The rivers lation of each state and territory during the 10 which flow into the Pacific, of which the most years next preceding each decennial census; important are the Columbia, which has several table VI., the nativities of the white and large affluents; the Sacramento and the San free colored population in 1850 ; table VII., Joaquin, which flow into the bay of San Franthe capitals of the states and territories, cisco; and the great Colorado of the West, their population to the square mile, the valu- which has its terminus in the gulf of Califoration of real and personal estate, and the nia. Few countries in the world contain so number of representatives of each state in con- many lakes as the United States, though these gress under the censuses of 1850 and 1860; are principally confined to the northern porand table VIII., the population of all the cities tion. Of the five great lakes, as they are and towns of the United States having over called, the largest bodies of fresh water on the 12,000 inhabitants in 1860. The uncivilized globe, with perhaps the exception of the newly Indians are not included in the census re- discovered and imperfectly known lakes in the turns, and the Indian territory, not forming interior of Africa, four, viz., Superior, Huron, a component part of the republic, though Erie, and Ontario, lie on the northern border, belonging to it, is not counted in estimating partly in the United States and partly in Britthe area. It has an area of 74,127 sq. m. ish America, while Michigan is wholly within In 1789 the number of Indians within the ter- the territory of the republic. So is nearly all ritory of the United States was 76,000. By the of Champlain, another lake of great length, acquisition of new territory this number was though far inferior in breadth to the five great raised to 129,366 in 1825, exclusive of those in lakes. Near the southern end of Lake Chamthe Missouri valley; and to 400,764 in 1853, plain, in New York, is Lake George, renowned though all the tribes have been rapidly dimin- for its beautiful scenery, a feature equally ishing. The numbers reported in 1853 were characteristic of a number of other lakes in the distributed, as nearly as can be ascertained, as neighboring wilderness of the Adirondac, and follows: in the Indian territory, 91,428; New of others in New England. Among the last York, 3,745; North Carolina, 1,600; South Car- mentioned, the most important are Mooseolina, 200; Florida, 500; Alabama, 100; Mis- head in Maine, Winnipiseogee in New Hampsissippi, 1,000 ; Texas, 29,000; Wisconsin and shire, and Memphremagog, which lies partly Minnesota, 29,786 ; California, 100,000; Ore- in Vermont and partly in Canada. The northgon and Washington territory, 23,000; 'Utah, ern part of Maine is thickly strewn with lakes 11,500 ; New Mexico, 45,000, Missouri valley of great beanty and considerable size; and in (Blackfeet, Sioux, and other tribes), 43,430; the almost every part of New England sheets of plains, or Arkansas river (Kioways, Comanches, water are abundantly found under the designaPawnees, &c.), 20,000. În Dec. 1861, the gov- tion of ponds, which in Europe from their size ernment held relations with 152 tribes, com- and beauty would be classed as lakes. The prising 239,506 persons, of whom were fe- central and western parts of New York conmales.—The rivers of the United States, exclu- tain several large lakes, the most remarkable of sive of the St. Lawrence, which washes a por- which are Otsego, Oneida, Cayuga, Seneca, and tion of the northern frontier, may be comprised Skaneateles. In the southern states lakes of in four distinct classes. 1. The Mississippi and fresh water are rarely found except in Florida, its affluents, which drain the entire region be- where the principal is Okeechobee, and in Loutween the Alleghanies and the Rocky moun- isiana, where there are many lakes formed by tains. The chief of these affluents are, on the expansions of the numerous rivers. Of these E., the Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, and Yazoo; latter, Lakes L'Allemand and Chetimaches are and on the W., the Minnesota, Des Moines, large bodies of water. In the states of the northMissouri, Arkansas, and Red river. Several west, lakes are very numerous in Wisconsin and of these rivers are streams of the first class, Minnesota ; the great number and size of those from 1,000 to 2,000 m. in length, while many in the latter form indeed one of its most reof the secondary affluents have courses extend- markable geographical features. The most ing from 300 to 1,000 m. 2. The rivers which noted lakes in the states and territories on the rise in the Alleghany chain and flow into the Pacific side are the Great Salt lake and Pyramid Atlantic. Of these, the most important, be- lake in Utah, Klamath lake in Oregon, and Tuginning at the N. E., are the Penobscot, Ken- lare lake in California.—The principal mountain

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