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Under act Dec. 14, 1660..
by the president. The question as to the right of the debt; and at the inauguration of Mr. to hold slaves within the territories, which had Lincoln it stood at $88,995,810. The outbreak long been a subject of contention, was settled by of civil war, and the necessity of creating and the act of congress approved June 20, 1862, pro- equipping a new army and navy, required a hibiting for ever involuntary servitude except for vast expenditure, which could only be met by crime in all the territories of the United States. the issue of treasury notes and bonds; but the -The finances of the United States at the close confidence of the capitalists and the people in of the war of the revolution were in a most the stability and financial resources of the govdeplorable state; the continental currency au- ernment insured the negotiation of these on thorized by congress, and emitted in vast sums favorable terms. On Dec. 1, 1861, the new and without any adequate provision for its pay- government had issued $150,000,000 of bonds, ment, had depreciated till it was completely $100,000,000 of which were to run 3 years, worthless ; $500 in continental bills would and to bear 7.3 per cent. interest, and $50,000,hardly purchase a breakfast. Spurious emis- 000 were 20-year bonds at 6 per cent. It had sions of large sums had rendered the whole also issued $24,550,325 of demand treasury issue of doubtful character, and much of it was notes without interest, and a temporary loan never redeemed. The national debt was very of $3,993,900 for 60 days; making in all $178,heavy, while the developed resources of the 544,225, and increasing the national debt to country were small. In 1791 the national $267,540,035. In 1862 congress authorized the debt was $75,463,476, and for the next 15 years emission of other bonds and demand notes; and it averaged about $80,000,000. In 1806 com- on May 29, 1862, the debt actually incurred menced a systematic effort for its reduction, and remaining unpaid was as follows: and in 1812 it was $45,209,738. The war of Loans, 1842, 6 per cont. $2,853,364 11 1812-'15 raised it to $127,334,934. The pros- Lvans 1847, 6 per cent. 9,415,250 00 perous and peaceful period which followed was Loans, 1848, 6 per cent. 8.908,341 SO
Loans, 1859, 5 per cent. 20,000,000 00 eminently favorable to the gradual reduction Loans, 1860, 5 per cent. 7,022,000 00 of the debt, and in 1835 it had been practically Loans, 1861, 6 per cent. 18,415,000 00 extinguished, only $351,289 remaining, and in Treasury notes issued
Texan indemnity, 6 per cent... 8,461,000 00— $70,104,955 91 1836 $291,089. The revenue at this time from Prior to 1857, int. stopped.. the sale of public lands, and the large amount
Under act Dec. 18, 1857..
221,650 00 of receipts for customs, had accumulated to
June 22, 1860, and February such an extent that more than $28,000,000 and March, 1861, 6 per ct. 2,767,900 00 was distributed among the states in the ratio of
March 2, July 17, and August
5, 1861, 6 per cent.. 111,600 00 8,882,161 64 their population, as a deposit liable to be called 8-year bonds, 7.3 per cent.....120,628,450 00 for by the government in any emergenoy, but 20-year bonds, 6 per cent... 50,000,000 00- 170,535,455 00
Oregon war debt, 6 per cent..,
878,450 00 without interest. It has never been recalled. United States notes, no int...
145,880,000 00 The disasters resulting from the financial crisis Certificates of indebtedness, 6
47,199,000 00 of 1837 compelled the government to incur a
5 and 20-year bonds, 6 per ct... 2,699,000 00- 49,818,400 00 small debt, which in 1839 was reported at 4 per cent. temporary loan ... 5,913,042 21 $11,983,738. This was reduced in the two fol- per cent. temporary loan 44,865,524 35- 50,778,566 56 lowing years; but while the change in the Total amount of public debt.
$491,448,984 11 tariff in 1842* eventually increased the amount
Average rate of interest on the entire debt, 4.854 per cent. of receipts from customs, the heavy expenses In tables XXXV. and XXXVI. will be found the incurred in the Florida war more than kept annual revenue and expenditures from March pace with the increasing revenue, and the debt 4, 1789, to June 30, 1861, and the condition of accumulated to $27,203,451 in 1843. It had the public debt and the payments made for its fallen to $16,750,926 in 1846, when the Mexican redemption and interest during the same period. war and the assumption of the debt of Texas, The amount received from loans and treasury the Gadsden purchase, and the supposed neces
notes from March 4, 1789, to June 30, 1861, was sity for maintaining lines of government mail $462,935,664.64. The total of customs, lands, steamers, coöperated to increase the national and miscellaneous is larger than the total receipts debt. In 1849 it was $64, 704,694; in 1853, by about $39,000,000, a sum which represents $67,340,629. From this point it fell off, the losses, unavailable funds, &c. During this pesurplus revenue at the disposal of the govern- riod of 72 years there have been 17 general ment enabling it to buy up its own bonds, and 18 special tariffs enacted. The dates of which it often did at a large premium in ad- the general tariffs are: July 4, 1789; Aug. 10, vance of their maturity. In 1857 the debt stood 1790; March 3, 1791; May 2, 1792; June 7, at $29,060,387; but by July 1, 1860, it had 1794; Jan. 29, 1795; March 3, 1797; April 27, risen to $64,769,703. The condition of the 1816; May 22, 1824; May 19, 1828; July 14, country in the last 4 months of Mr. Buchanan's 1832; March 2, 1833 (the compromise tariff); administration compelled a still further increase Sept. 11, 1841; Aug. 30, 1842; July 30, 1846;
March 3, 1857; March 2, 1861. The price of The tariffs of 1824, 1828, and 1832 were protective, and
the public lands was fixed in 1785 at $1 per that of 1833, known as the compromise tariff, 'was construct- acre; May 18, 1796, it was raised to $2 per ed with a sliding scale which did not reach its minimum of duties till 1841; and the new protective tariff of 1842 had
acre, but at a later date was reduced to $1.25, at first the effect of reducing the amount of revenue. except in the alternate sections where grants
From miscellaneous sources..
have been made, in which it is held at $2.50 the increased duties levied on articles of genper acre.
The receipts of the government for eral consumption, and the proceeds of the comthe year ending June 30, 1861, were:
prehensive tax bill passed in June, 1862, could Balance in the treasury, June 30, 1860 $3,629,206 71 not be predicted. The estimated expenditures
89,582,125 64 for the same year are: From public lands..
For civil list, other tban for the interior deFrom loans and treasury notes.. 41,861,709 74 partment and the public debt
For interior department (pensions and InAggregate eceipts from all sources, and
4,102,969 96 balance... $86,885,900 27 For the war department.
860..159.996 61 For the navy department.
45,161.994 18 The expenditures for the same period were: Redemption of the loan of 1842.
2.953.364 11 For the civil list (other than the public debt
Interest on public debt .....
89,933,966 42 and the interior departinent),
$23,187,203 19 For interior department (Indians and pensions) 3,760,022 72
Aggregate of expenditures for the year ... $475,831.245 51 For the war department
22,991,150 44 For the navy department
12,428,577 09 Showing a deficiency to be provided for of $379,181,245 51 For payment of Texas creditors..
The construction of a larger number of iron. For redemption of loan of 1846..
1,000 00 For the redemption of treasury notes. 18,141,900 00 plated vessels for the navy than was at that For interest on the public debt..
4,000,178 76 time contemplated, and the increase of the Aggregate expenditure.....
army beyond the numbers specified in the act
of July, 1861, have probably raised the amount Balance in the treasury
$2,257,065 80 required for the war and navy departments These statements, it will be noticed, do not beyond the sums specified in this estimate. include the postal revenue and expenditure, The expenditure under the civil list, in the which are distinct
, and will be given further statement of expenses in 1861, included the on. The secretary of the treasury, at the compensation of members of congress and the commencement of the session of the 37th executive and judiciary departments, the ofi congress (Dec. 1861), presented the following cers of the mint and branches, assistant treasuestimates of the receipts and expenditures of rers and their clerks, inspectors, surveyors. the years ending June 30, 1862, and June 30, general and their clerks, &c., and the expense of 1863. Though modified to some extent by cir- the government of the territories. These items cumstances not then foreseen, they will not amounted to $6,156,199.25. Under the head probably vary greatly from the actual receipts of “miscellaneous” are included expenditures and expenditures. The estimated receipts for for the coast survey; for transportation of the the year ending June 30, 1862, were:
mails to foreign countries and by sea; for defBalance in the treasury, July 1, 1861... $2,257,065 80 ciencies of revenue in the post office departFrom customs...
32,198.602 55 ment; collecting the revenue from customs; the From public lands.
435,967 08 Froun iniscellaneous sources..
1,918,095 86 erecting and maintenance of lighthouses, &c.; From Joans and treasury notes already real
the erection and repairs of marine hospitals
, 197,242,588 14
custom houses, &c.; the taking of the 8th cenFrom amounts yet to be realized on loans of July 17 and August 5..
75,449,675 00 sus; the printing and binding for the governFrom direct tax
20,000,000 00 ment; and expenses connected with the governAggregate of actual and estimated resources
ment of the District of Columbia. The expenat that time provided, for the year $329,501,994 88 ditures of the post office department for the The estimated expenditures were :
fiscal year ending June 30, 1861, were $19,For the civil list..
$35,854,626 97 606,759.11, of which $8,406,652.51 was for the For the interior department (Indians and
transportation of inland mails and the payment pensions)..
5,996,142 26 For the war department..
of route and local agents and mail messengers, For the navy department..
67,817,933 58 $440,524.02 for the transportation of foreign For the redemption of the principal of the
mails, and $326,097.35 for the ocean mails to public debt.
45,498,050 00 For Texan debt..
'112,092 59 California and Oregon; compensation to postFor interest on public debt
21,407,032 42 masters and their clerks, $3,461,363.45; postTotal estimated liabilities of the year..... $548,406,422 06 age stamps and stamped envelopes, $92,772.70;
payments for balances due on British mails, Showing a deficiency of receipts of.. $213,904,427 68 $120,507.82; for balances on French mails This deficiency congress provided for by author- $24,440.59; payments to letter carriers, $149,izing the issue of legal tender treasury notes 073.62, &c. The gross revenue of the year was and bonds to the necessary amount. For the $8,349,296.40, of which $646,498.14 was for year ending June 30, 1863, the estimated re- letter postage, $6,864,791.43 for stamps sold, ceipts are:
$571,209.28 for newspaper and pamphlet postFrom customs..
$40,000,000 00 age, $19,305.66 for registered letters, $149,From pulic lands.
800,000 00 From miscellaneous sources.
073.62 on account of letter carriers, $94,563.45 Froin the direct tax laid in 1861
20,000,000 00 on account of emoluments, and $3,854.82 misFrom internal duties ....
20,000 000 00 cellaneous. As compensation for the transporFrom the income tax...
tation of free mail matter, $700,000 was approTotal.....
$95,800,000 00 priated from other funds, and the deficiency in The receipts from customs and from taxes are the receipts beyond this was $4,551,966.98 greatly underestimated, as the revival of trade, The whole number of post offices, June 30,
ized at that time.
1861, was 28,586; the number of route agents regiments of artillery, and 10 regiments of inwas 392, and of local agents 35; the number of fantry. By act of congress, approved July 29, mail routes was 6,340, and their length 140,399 1861, the president was authorized to add miles, of which 22,018 miles was by railroad, 22,714 men to the regular army, and the nomi5,339 by steamboat, 30,733 by coach, and 82,- nal strength of the force is now (July 1, 1862) 309 by inferior means of transportation. The as follows: 4 major-generals, io brigadiernumber of miles of annual transportation was generals, corps of engineers, corps of topograph. 54,455,454. The cost of railroad transporta- ical engineers, ordnance department, 6 regition averaged 11 cts. per mile; steamboat, 15}; ments of cavalry, 5 regiments of artillery, coach, 11; and inferior modes, 7 cts. The U. and 19 regiments of infantry. The organizaS. mint is considered a bureau of the treasury tion of the regiments is represented in the foldepartment. In the following table its coinage lowing table : is given from 1858, the date to which it is brought down in the article Coin:
1st, 2d, 3d, and
New Infantry regiments,
1859... 1860. 1861.
1 1 8 12 12 24
1 1 2 12 24 12 718 1,058
1 1 8 12 24
24 1,722 1,794 1,763 1,867
1 2 10 10 10 548 868 552 902
1 1 8 24 24
24 1,587 2,867 1,639 2,440
$19,777,418 70 $4,699,223 95 $24,476,642 65
3,250,636 26 26,697,919 61
Second lieutenants.. coinage of each metal from the establishment
Enlist'd men, minimum of the mint to June 30, 1861:
128, 159,481 97 Copper..
2,647,478 55 The new regiments are organized according to Total.
$799,923,362 14 their maximum strength, that is, in 3 battalions, Of this amount about $520,000,000 was from but it is not known how large a part of their bullion derived from the mines of the United men have thus far been enlisted. The corps of States. During the year ending June 30, 1861, engineers consists of 1 colonel, 4 lieutenantthe mint at Philadelphia, its branch at San colonels, 8 majors, 12 captains, 15 first lieutenFrancisco, and the assay office at New York, ants, 15 second lieutenants, and 600 enlisted were more fully employed than in any former The topographical engineers comprise 1 year. The amount of bullion received at the colonel, 3 lieutenant-colonels, 8 majors, 10 capmint and its branches and the assay office was: tains, 13 first lieutenants, 18 second lieutenants, gold, $116,970,002.66; silver, $4,624,961.57; and 100 enlisted men. The ordnance departtotal deposits, $121,594,964.23. Deducting the ment includes 1 brigadier-general, 2 colonels, 2 redeposits, the amount left for coinage was lieutenant-colonels, 4 majors, 12 captains, 12 $72,146,571.01. The coinage for the year was: first lieutenants, 12 second lieutenants, 15 milgold coins, $60,693,237; fine gold bars, $20,- itary storekeepers, and 440 enlisted men. In015,163.64; silver coins, $2,605,700; silver cluding these 3 corps, and officers of the staff, bars, $278,006.94; cent coins, $101,660; total of the adjutant-general's department, judge coinage, $83,693,767.58; number of pieces of advocate's department, inspector-general's deall denominations of coin, 23,724,913. The partment, one signal officer, and officers of the branch mints at Charlotte, N. C., Dahlonega, quartermaster's, the subsistence, the medical, Ga., and New Orleans were seized by the con- and the pay departments, who are not attached federate authorities in the winter or early to regimental organizations, the total nominal spring of 1861, and no returns were made from maximum strength of the regular army is 41,them later than March, 1861. In table XXVII. 247, which the president is empowered to inwill be found detailed statistics of the banks of crease to 44,893 by virtue of the act of June the different divisions of the United States for 17, 1850, authorizing him to raise to 74 the the 3 years ending June 30, 1858–61; and table number of privates in any company serving on XXVIII. completes the view of the banking the western frontier and at remote and distant interest in the United States, from the date at stations. This has been done in 69 of the 198 which it is left in the article Bank to the close companies of the old army. In Jan. 1862, the of 1861.—The policy of the country has never following arsenals and armories were under been to keep a strong military force in time of the supervision of the war department: Kenpeace, but to rely upon volunteers in case of nebec, Me.; Springfield and Watertown, Mass.; any emergency. In March, 1861, the army Champlain (at Vergennes), Vt.;
Watervliet (at consisted of one major-general (lieutenant- West Troy) and New York, N. Y.; Alleghany general by brevet), 4 brigadier-generals, and (at Pittsburg) and Frankford (at Bridesburg), 16,000 other officers and men. The several Penn. ; Pikesville, Md. ; Washington, D. O.; arms of the service were : 1 corps of engineers, Fortress Monroe, Va.; St. Louis, Mo.; Leaven1 corps of topographical engineers, 1 ordnance worth, Kansas; Detroit (at Dearbornville), corps, 2 regiments of dragoons, 2 regiments of Mich.; and Benicia, Cal. The arsenals at Faycavalry, 1 regiment of mounted riflemen, 4 etteville, N. C., Charleston, S. C., Mount Ver
406 16 7
5 third class screw steamers.
8 side-wheel steamers.
19 90 85 45 28 5
non, Ala., Baton Rouge, La., and San Antonio, 1 ship of the line..
8 frigates. Tex., were seized by the secessionists at the
20 sloops.. commencement of the civil war; and that at 3 brigs.. Harper's Ferry, Va., was burned by the U. S.
8 store ships..
6 steam frigates.. forces to prevent it from falling into their 6 first class steam sloops.. hands. The only national military academy is
4 first class side-wheel steamers. that at West Point. On April 15, 1861, the pres
8 second class steam sloops. ident issued a proclamation calling for 75,000
4 second class side-wheel steamers.. militia to serve for 3 months in putting down
2 steam tenders.... the rising in the southern states, and by 69
1,346 guns. July 1, 77,875 men had come forward and were Of this force the following were in commisin the field. On May 4 a second call was made sion, the remainder being in ordinary, dismanfor 42,000 volunteers to serve 3 years or during tled, &c. : the war, and on July 27 congress requested the 2 frigates.. states to furnish 500,000 volunteers for the 11 sloops
3 store ships. same period. On Dec. 1 the strength of the
1 screw frigate... entire army, volunteers and regulars, was re
5 first class stesim sloops. ported by the secretary of war as follows:
8 second class steam sloops..
5 third class screw steamers. Volunteers. Regulars. Aggregate. 8 side-wheel steamers....
1 steam tender.. Engineers..
54,654 4,744 59,898 Artillery..
20,380 4,308 24,688 Riflemen and sharpshooters 8,395
8,395 These vessels had a complement, exclusive of Infantry... 657,208 11,175 568,383
officers and marines, of about 7,600 men. One Total. 640,637 20,334 660,971 vessel (the sloop Levant) was lost in the Pa
cific; one steamer fell into the hands of the In July, 1862, the president issued a call for confederates at Pensacola; one steam frigate 300,000 more volunteers, and on Aug. 4 ordered (the Merrimac), partially destroyed and sunk st a draft of 300,000 militia, to serve for 9 months. Norfolk, was afterward raised by the confederThe number of major-generals of volunteers, ates and cased with iron; and two sloops and July 1, 1862, was 21, and of brigadier-generals one brig, beside several worthless vessels
, were 194. The number of general officers of volun- destroyed at Norfolk when that place was teers is limited by act of congress to 40 major- abandoned by the United States forces. By the generals and 200 brigadier-generals
. The completion of unfinished vessels, and the conmilitia force of the United States, according struction and purchase of others, the navy had to the latest returns received at the office of been increased, at the date of the last report the adjutant-general, is 3,214,769, including of that department (Dec. 1861), to 264 vessels 500 general officers and 3,453 general staff (including those under construction), mounting officers. These figures, however, can only be 2,557 guns, measuring 218,016 tons, and mantaken as approximative. Three of the states ned by 22,000 seamen. These were as foland all the territories except Utah have made lows: no returns, and the returns from the others are for various dates from 1827 to 1860. (See Militia.) A large part of the militia is included
OLD NAVY. in the above mentioned volunteer force, many
Ships of the line... regiments having entered the service in a body.
Sloops.. By act of congress passed July 16, 1862, the
Brigs... president is authorized in certain emergencies Store ships. to call forth the militia of any or all the states Receiving ships, &c..
Screw frigates... of the Union, and to continue them in service First class screw sloops.. 9 months; and if, in consequence of defects in First class sido-wheel steam 8.00ps..
Second class screw sloops... any of the state laws or in the execution of
Third class screw sloops. them, it shall be necessary to provide for en- Third class side wheel steamers rolling the militia or otherwise putting this act Steam tenders.......
PURCHASED VESSELS. into operation, the president is authorized to
Side-wheel steamers.. make all necessary rules and regulations. The
Screw steamers enrolment of the militia must in all cases in- Ships.... clude all able-bodied male citizens between the schooners.. ages of 18 and 45, and must be apportioned Brigs.. among the states according to representative VESSELS CONSTRUCTED. population.—The navy, at the outbreak of the Screw sloops... civil war in 1861, consisted of 90 vessels, pierced Steam gunboats.
Side-wheel steamers. for about 2,415 guns. This included vessels Iron-clad steamers on the stocks, stationary store ships, receiving
Total...... ships, and vessels worn out and not worth repairing. The available force was:
The purchased vessels were all selected from
No. of vessels.
6 7 17 2 3 6 6 6
504 16,094 350
12.104 342 16,651 12
11,953 46 45 28 8
the merchant marine, and altered to fit them to ject to the laws and regulations of the navy the necessities of war. Though most of them except when detached for service with the would be found incapable of standing a regular army by order of the president of the United naval contest, thay have proved well adapted States. As reorganized by Congress in 1861, it for blockading service, for transports, and for consists of 1 colonel commandant, 1 colonel, 2 coast and river fleets. In addition to the ves- lieutenant-colonels, 4 majors, 1 adjutant and insels enumerated above are the gunboat, ram, spector, 1 paymaster, 1 quartermaster, 2 assistant and mortar fleets built for action on the Missis- quartermasters, 20 captains, 30 first lieutenants, sippi and other western waters, under authority 30 second lieutenants, and 3,074 enlisted men. of the war department, but since transferred to HISTORY. The country now comprised withthe control of the secretary of the navy. The in the United States was, when first visited by gunboats, constructed by order of Gen. Fre- Europeans, exclusively inhabited by the red or mont, are 12 in number, mounting in the aggre- copper-colored race commonly called American gate 126 guns, beside a rifled 12-pounder boat Indians. Of the origin of these people nothing howitzer on each vessel. The guns are all 32, 42, is positively known, though their own vague and 64-pounders, except one, a 128-pounder. traditions and their general resemblance to the Seven of the gunboats are iron-plated. Gen. tribes of north-eastern Asia give a certain deFremont also caused 38 mortar boats to be gree of plausibility to the theory that their anbuilt, each about 60 feet long and 25 feet wide, cestors came to America by way of Behring's surrounded by iron-plated bulwarks, and carry- straits or the Aleutian islands. There is some ing one 13-inch mortar. A number of schoon- reason to believe that these savages were not ers included in the above list of purchased ves- the first occupants of the land, in almost sels have also been fitted up as mortar boats, every part of which, and especially in the valand were engaged in the capture of the Missis- ley of the Mississippi, are found monuments sippi forts below New Orleans. The ram fleet, consisting of mounds and other earth works of which first came into action in the naval en- great extent, which are supposed to have been gagement near Memphis, was fitted out by the erected by an unknown and long extinct race. late Col. Ellet. It consists of 8 or 10 river steam In physical appearance, manners, customs, retowboats, strengthened and armed with iron ligion, and social and political institutions, the prows for the purpose of running down the Indians were so strikingly alike as to form but vessels of the enemy. A number of iron and ono people; yet they were divided into a muliron-clad vessels are now (Aug. 1862) building, titude of tribes almost perpetually at war with including 6 on the plan of the floating battery each other, and speaking a great variety of Monitor. In Feb. 1862, congress authorized dialects, among which have been traced 8 radithe construction of 20 iron-clad gunboats, ap- cally distinct languages, viz., the Algonquin, propriating $10,000,000 for that purpose. A Iroquois, Cherokee, Catawba, Uchee, Natchez, naval school for the education of officers was Mobilian, and Dacotah or Sioux. The Algonestablished at Annapolis, Md., in 1845, and quins inhabited the territory now included in ternporarily removed in April, 1861, to New- New England, a part of New York and Pennport, R. I. By act of congress approved July sylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, 16, 1862, the active list of line officers in the Virginia, North Carolina as far south as Cape navy, with the maximum nuinber of officers Fear, a large part of Kentucky and Tennessee, allowed to each grade, is constituted as follows; and the greater portion of Ohio, Indiana, Il9 rear admirals; 18 commodores; 36 captains; linois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. 72 commanders; 144 lieutenant-commanders; Their most important tribes were the Kniste144 lieutenants; 144 masters; 144 ensigns; neaux, Ottawas, Chippewas, Sacs and Foxes, and midshipmen (students of the naval acade- Menomonees, Miamies, Piankeshaws, Potamy) to the number of 2 for every member and watomies, Kickapoos, Illinois, Shawnees, Powdelegate of the house of representatives, 2 forhatans, Corees, Nanticokes, Lenni-Lenapes or the District of Columbia, and 10 appointed at Delawares, Mohegans, Narragansets, Pequots, large by the president, beside whom the presi- and Abenakis. The Iroquois occupied nearly dent may appoint 3 midshipmen yearly, to be the whole of that part of Canada which lies selected from boys enlisted in the navy. The south of the Ottawa, between Lakes Ontario, navy yards, at the commencement of President Erie, and Huron, the greater portion of New Lincoln's administration, were at Portsmouth, York, and that part of Pennsylvania and N. H.; Charlestown, Mass. ; Brooklyn and Ohio which lies along the southern shore of Sackett's Harbor, N. Y.; Philadelphia, Penn.; Lake Erie. They were completely surrounded Washington, D. C.; Norfolk, Va.; Pensacola, by the territories of their enemies the AlgonFla.; and Mare island, Oal. By the act of quins. Their chief tribes, the Senecas, Cayucongress reorganizing the navy department, gas, Onondagas, Oneidas, and Mohawks, formapproved July 5, 1862, the following bureaus ed a confederacy which was known to the Eng. are created : yards and docks, equipments and lish as the Five Nations, and after 1722, when recruiting, navigation, ordnance, construction they admitted the Tuscaroras, as the Six Nations. and repairs, steam engineering, provisions and The English, however, often termed them colclothing, and medicine and surgery. The ma- lectively the Mohawks or Mingoes, the latter rine corps is organized as a brigade, and sub- name being given them by the Algonquins.