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by the following rationale of the operation: the various tools employed.- Processes were When cyanide of potassium, which consists of afterward invented by Prof. Eaton for converttwo atoms of carbon and one each of nitrogen ing cast iron into steel, which are particularand potassium, is decomposed at a high tem- ly applicable to moulded objects, the form of perature in contact with iron by reason of the which it is desirable to retain in the condition affinity of its carbon for the iron, the nitrogen of steel. The castings adapted to this operation would be set free, but that in the presence of are such as are employed in the ordinary manignited carbon and an alkaline base it always will ufacture of malleable iron castings, being precombine with these to produce cyanide of this pared from those mixtures of pig iron which base. In this case, an atom of potassium being produce a silver-white high iron of great hardreleased, all the conditions are favorable for this ness, and such fluidity when melted as to take reaction. Thus the charcoal is added to repro- the minutest impressions of the mould. By duce the cyanide of potassium as fast as it is boiling these in fused carbonate of soda, Prof. decomposed; and the action of this salt is as a Eaton found that the carbon of the cast iron was carrier to convert the charcoal into the proper gradually removed, proceeding from the outcondition required for its being taken up by side of the articles toward the centre, and that, the iron. These and other experiments led to according to the stage of the operation at the charging of melting pots with bits of mal- which the articles were taken out, they might leable iron and a mixture of cyanide salts and be obtained in steel of any desired grade of powdered charcoal. After melting, the prod- hardness or proportion of carbon, test bars of uct turned out into ingot moulds was found to suitable thickness introduced into the pot with be cast steel, which, by the ordinary method, the articles to be converted and taken out from was then drawn into bars. The process proved time to time indicating the progress of the to be more expeditious and economical than operation. Bubbles of carbonic oxide rising any before applied to the manufacture of steel. through the boiling soda indicate that the proIn 1851 and 1852 its practicability was demon- cess of removing the carbon is still going on. strated upon a large scale, first at Rochester The pot employed is of cast iron, an inch or and afterward at New York, and its applica- more thick, and the boiling is kept up for about tion to the reduction of iron ores and the pro- 70 hours to produce the change throughout a duction of steel direct from the ore tested. At thickness of about an inch. The effect of the this stage of the history of the process Prof. carbonate of soda is not merely to combine with Eaton disposed of his interest in it to other and remove the carbon from the iron, but any parties, who directed their attention wholly to sulphur, silicon, phosphorus, &c., present are attempts to work by means of it the ores of taken up, and the metal is freed from these imiron. They neglected to patent the process, purities so detrimental to steel. The process and some time afterward application was made was found well adapted for the rapid production and obtained for a patent by an individual who, in steel of multiplied copies of the same article, while the demonstrations were made in New especially of those which by reason of their York, had an opportunity of obtaining knowl- irregular figures it would be difficult to forge, edge of the materials employed. Thus the such as plough points, &c.; while it was also discoverer and original proprietors lost the ex- well suited to others, as hoes, shovels, &c., which, clusive control of this method of making steel. being cast in small thick plates and converted, Under the patented process another salt (sal might then be rolled out, the tang properly ammoniac) has been used, which, however, can shaped, and the finish given without the neceshave no effect upon the result, as it volatilizes sity of riveting or welding separate pieces toat a temperature much below that at which the gether. Bars of cast iron have also thus been other ingredients of the mixture are affected. converted into excellent steel and used for cutThe manufacture is now carried on in New lery. The forging after converting no doubt Jersey and on Staten island by the owners of has the effect of giving greater diversity to the the patent; and works are about to be started metal, although the converted steel presents at Pittsburg. The process, however, is in- no indications of deficiency this respect. If cumbered with the objection that it is neces- necessary, articles cast in the shapes they are sary to employ the choicest kinds of Amer- to retain may be rendered more dense by comican bar iron, in order to produce cast steel pressing them in dies.—Carbonate of soda was of a uniform good quality, and to the still found to be much more efficient than the hymore serious difficulty arising from the rapid drate, and this led to experimenting upon the destruction of the costly melting pots in which effect of carbonic acid gas as a decarbonizing the malleable iron is fused. These rarely stand agent. In the bottom of a vertical cylindrical more than two or three meltings, and some retort were placed bits of limestone, above these only one, before they are rendered worthless. pieces of cast iron, and from the top proceeded The quality of much of the steel produced is an open tube for the escape of the gases. The fully equal to the best of English manufacture, retort was so arranged in the fire as to receive so that its use has been adopted in several of the heat chiefly in its middle portion, all that the important mines of Lake Superior, where was required at the bottom being enough to the consumption of steel is very great, and also slowly expel the carbonic acid from the limein numerous quarries and machine shops for stone. When the retort was heated, the gas that


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escaped proved to be inflammable, burning with of melting, for each furnace of 10 holes, 200 the blue flame of carbonic oxide, and was evi- tons. The actual product has been estimated dently produced at the expense of the carbon at 40,000 tons of bar steel, producing 23,000 of the cast iron, which furnished an atom to tons of cast steel, 10,000 tons of coach spring each atom of carbonic acid from the limestone. steel, and 7,000 tons to be converted into GerThe diminution of the inflammable gas indicat- man, fagot, and single and double shear steel. ed the removal of most of the carbon, and the The commercial value of the cast steel varies process being stopped, the cast iron was found from £35 to £60 per ton, averaging about £45. to be converted into good steel. To protect The price of the bar steel varies from £28 to delicate castings from being bent at the high £60 per ton, and the rate of £35 per ton, given temperature required, they are advantageously in the table below, is probably under the averpacked in some coarsely powdered substance; age. Coach spring steel is £19 per ton. The and oxide of iron, such as is used in the ordi- whole may then be rated as follows: Dary malleable iron process, is especially well 23,000 tons of cast steel, all qualities at £45 per ton £1,085,000 suited to this purpose; for, beside accomplish

7,000 tons of bar steel, including German, fagot, ing this object, it readily gives up oxygen to

single and double shear steel, average £85

245,000 carbonic oxide at high temperatures, convert- 10,000 tons of coach spring steel, £19 per ton..... 190,000 ing this back to carbonic acid in twofold

40,000 tons........

£1,470,000 quantity, and this is immediately ready to re

This is somewhat increased by the other operaDew its decarbonizing action upon the castings tions carried on at Newcastle and in Staffordwith multiplied effect. . By calculation, the shire. The production of other countries is quantity of carbonic acid required to decar- stated in the following table, which we take bonize any amount of cast iron, the com

from the new edition of “Ure's Dictionary” position of which may be assumed as repre- edited by Robert Hunt: sented by the formula Fe,C, is as 66 to 690, the latter being the weight of the iron; but if 160 lbs. of peroxide of iron be added,

14,954 the first effect should be to produce 132 lbs. of

170,824 carbonic acid, which should decarbonize twice

18,037 the original amount of cast iron. The follow- The United States


212,500 ing modifications have hence been recommend- Concerning the production in the United ed in the manufacture of steel by the soda pro- States no correct statistics have been collected, cess: 1st, the use of the bicarbonate of soda, in and the estimate just named can certainly not place of the simple carbonate; and 2d, the pass- be applied to steel of original manufacture. ing of a current of free carbonic acid through There are many small establishments in Pittsor over the bath of melted soda containing the burg, Philadelphia, New Jersey, and New York, cast iron, in order that the soda may be recar- in which scrap steel is remelted, and some cebonated as fast as its carbonic acid is decom- mentation steel is produced at a few places in posed by the cast iron. Common salt is ad- different parts of the country for the use of Fantageously added, considerably reducing the those who manufacture it; but American cast balk of soda required. In case of the process steel is hardly known in the markets. The having been carried so far as to render the ex- Adirondac manufacture noticed in ADIRONDAO ternal portion too soft, Prof. Eaton rehardens Mountains has ceased, and some others also in this portion by immersing the articles for a New Jersey. Some cast steel is, however, made sbort time in a bath of fused prussiate of pot- in the works in Jersey City; and at Rockaway, ash. He finds that merely keeping them at a N. J., it is produced to the extent of about a hizh temperature in a furnace tends to distrib- ton a day. In Connecticut also there is a man. ute the carbon they contain uniformly through- ufactory of about the same capacity. There is out the mass. It is recommended to make use one establishment in operation on Staten island, of the final product of carbonic oxide generated 'N. Y., which made about 800 tons of steel in in this process, as a reducing agent of the na- 1861, and has a capacity of production sometive oxides of iron. For this purpose the gas what larger. There is another, also employing may be led into a second retort charged with the cyanide process, at Pittsburg, Penn., and these oxides, and there being reconverted into making 500 tons or more per annum. Thus carbonic acid by its reaction upon the oxide, the total production of cast steel appears not this gas may be returned to the decarbonizing to exceed 2,000 tons; and that of blistered retort to go again the same round. The use steel, to be used without melting, is probably of these processes was secured to Prof. Eaton not much more. The great abundance of ores by patent, June 25, 1861.-The great impor- which we possess, as well adapted for this mantance of the manufacture of steel in England is ufacture as those of Sweden and Norway, must shown by the following statement of its condi- ere long render us independent of all foreign to in 1853. It is there carried on chiefly in competition in the production of this important Soeffield and its neighborhood, where there article. The importations of steel into the were at that time 160 converting furnaces of a United States, not including cutlery and saws, capacity of 300 tons of bar steel per annum, were as follows for the years ending June 30, and 1,495 melting holes for cast steel capable 1859, and June 30, 1860:

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810 13.575 21,869



10 117

70 817



14 289 5,087






Sweden and Norway.


1,003 Danish West Indies..

85 Hamburg..


1,704 16,566

1,442 Holland

1,630 13,957

890 1,969

2,658 Belgium

153 1,896

599 2,725 England.

121,905 1,081,477 154,053 900,249 153,794 1,441,802 234,121 $1,185,793 Ocotland.


944 British N. A. possessions..



329 British West Indies France.

132 Surdinia. 290 8,067

2,228 Austria.... 2,601 22,205

44,688 1,153 7,117 Mexico......


128,937 $1,141,971

$905,859 161,615 $1,530,897 235,369 | $1,193,456 -Although England exceeds all other coun- pieces are bored and rifled by Messrs. Plass and tries in its production of steel, the largest manu- The largest gun made up to April, 1861, factory in the world is probably that of F. is of 5.1 inches caliber, and weighs 6,000 lbs. Krupp of Essen, in Rhenish Prussia. It is sit- Pieces found defective on trial tests are only uated in the midst of coal mines, and covers with about one to the hundred. The tensile strength its buildings and yards a space of 1,600 by 1,800 of the steel is said to be equal to a strain of feet; the roofs of the buildings cover 20 acres. from 107,000 to 118,000 lbs. to the square inch. It employs 2,300 to 2,500 men, and consumes - Many of the applications of steel to useful · more than 200 tons of coal each day, and 49,- purposes have been incidentally alluded to in 000 feet of gas for lighting the works. The pro- the course of the present article. These are cess employed has not been made public; but very numerous, and are constantly increasing, the products have attracted great attention in as the methods of manufacture are improved. Europe, from their unparalleled size. They When produced in a small way by imperfect consist of steel cannon, steamboat and other and difficult processes, its use was confined to shafts, railroad axles and tires, and machinery, cutting tools and important instruments that rolls for mints, &c. At the Paris exhibition of required great hardness, strength, or elasticity. 1855 there was a mass of steel from these works In many its use was economized by making of 10,000 lbs. weight, and another piece has only the part subjected to wear of steel, and been produced of 20,000 lbs. weight. A steel welding this to iron; and the practice is still shaft for a French steamer was made 30 feet retained to some extent, as in axes and other long, at a cost of $6,000. The largest casting heavy tools; while in others, as the drills and made is of 40 tons weight, but the works are hammers which consume immense quantities competent to make much heavier ones. Of of steel in mining and various manufacturing the steel car axles it is reported that Mr. Krupp operations, it has been found more advantagepledges himself to pay $10,500 if any that ous, at least in the United States, to use cast he sells breaks within 10 years. The heaviest steel exclusively. Its applications to cutlery hammer weighs 40 tons. A steel cannon is are quite as successfully conducted in this counto be exhibited in London in 1862 of 10-inch try as in any part of the world. But for the bore, the casting of which requires the labor material itself we are chiefly dependent upon of 1,250 men in pouring the metal into the Great Britain ; also for the plates used for saws mould. Many steel cannon have been pro- and steel pens, as noticed in the articles on duced for the European governments, and three these subjects. Plates for engraving require small ones have been sent to this country for an excellent variety of steel specially prepared the city of Philadelphia. The manufacture of for this purpose. Springs of all sizes, from the cannon from paddled steel was commenced in hair springs of watches to the heaviest used New York in 1861 on the plans devised by Mr. upon steam carriages (see SPRING), consume it Norman Wiard, and the first piece was com- in large quantities. Steel wire is made to some pleted and ready for service on July 1; since extent for springs, musical instruments, needles, which time many more, chiefly 6 and 12-pound- &c. Having about three times the strength of ers, with some 50-pounders, have been com- iron wire of the same size, it is advantageouspleted, and have done efficient service in the ly employed for making ropes for special purcampaigns in the South and West. The steel is poses. The application of steel to cannon is puddled at the rolling mills in Troy, N. Y., and of great importance from the large saving in Trenton, N. J., the process being stopped at weight over cast or wrought iron compatible the point when sufficient carbon remains in the with the same strength. This branch is yet in metal to give it the steely character. The metal its infancy, and is carried on to any extent is then hammered into blooms, and is taken to only at the works of Mr. Krupp at Essen. New York, where it is forged in the works of The same may be said of car axles, shafts for Messrs. Tugnot and Dally; after which the solid steamboats, &c. The sonorousness of steel


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renders it a suitable material for bells; some His life, in fact, as he has himself expressed it, of large size have been made in England, one was passed in “sinning and repenting.” Availof which is in use at San Francisco, California. ing himself of the hint afforded by Defoe's triFor the effect of tungsten in combination with weekly paper, the “Review,” he commenced in steel, see TUNGSTEN.

1709 the "Tatler," for which Addison furnished STEEL ENGRAVING. See ENGRAVING. many of the leading papers, though by no means

STEELE, a S. E. co. of Minnesota, drained so many as Steele, whom he now assisted to by the Lester river and branches of Cannon the appointment of a commissioner of the river; area, 432 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 2,863. stamp office. With the overthrow of the whigs The surface is undulating, diversified by prairie in 1710 he lost his office of gazetteer, and with and strips of forest, and the soil fertile. There it the means of supplying the items of official are 3 or 4 small lakes and a number of fine news which at first formed an important feature streams of water. In 1859 there were 32 in the “Tatler.” This paper was accordingly schools. It is on the line of the projected succeeded in 1711 by the “Spectator," written Transit railroad. Capital, Owatonia.

chiefly by Steele and Addison, and subseSTEELE, Sir RICHARD, a British author quently by the “Guardian,” begun and ended born in Dublin in 1675, died at Llangunnor in 1713, and a variety of similar periodicals, near Caermarthen, Wales, Sept. 1, 1729. His some of which enjoyed but a brief existence. In father was secretary to the duke of Ormond, 1713 Steele was led, through dissatisfaction with lord lieutenant of Ireland, and through the ministerial measures, to resign his office, and influence of that nobleman young Steele re- was returned to parliament from the borough ceived his early education at the Charter- of Stockbridge, in Hampshire ; but having been house, where his intimacy with Joseph Addi- arraigned before the bar of the house of comson was formed. In 1692 he entered Merton mons for writing articles in the “Crisis" and college, Oxford, but left at the expiration of 3 the "Englishman," “ maliciously insinuating years without taking a degree, in the hope that the Protestant succession in the house of of obtaining a commission in the army. His Hanover was in danger under her majesty's friends discountenanced the idea, and a relative administration,” he was adjudged to be guilty in Ireland, who had named him heir to a large of a scandalous libel, and was expelled by estate, threatened to disinherit him if he car- a vote of 245 to 152-the whole proceeding ried it into effect; but Steele, having made up being, according to Lord Mahon, "a most bis mind to be a soldier, enlisted as a private fierce and unwarrantable stretch of party vioin the horse guards, and was accordingly dis- lence.” His pen, however, continued to be inherited. His genial humor and ceaseless flow actively employed in the whig interest, and of animal spirits made him a general favorite, upon the accession of George I. he received and he was promoted to a cornetcy, and subse- several profitable appointments, including that quently to a captaincy in Lucas's fusileers, the of governor of the royal company of comedians, latter appointment being due to his colonel

, was knighted by the king, and elected to parLord Cutts, to whom he had dedicated “The liament from Boroughbridge. No accession of Christian Hero” (1701), a little book written means however seemed to better his fortunes, when the author was deep in debt, in drink, and while holding half a dozen offices, and and is all the follies of the town," to strengthen commanding the admiration of the town by his his mind in habits of religion and virtue. In talents, he was frequently reduced to the most odd contrast to this work appeared in the suc- pitiable pecuniary shifts. Having opposed the ceeding year his comedy of “The Funeral, or court measure for fixing permanently the numGrief à la Mode," which had great success, and ber of peers, he was deprived by the lord chamwas followed by “The Tender Husband” and berlain of his license for acting plays, whereby, * The Lying Lover.” The latter, as Steele according to his own account, he sustained a some years later informed the house of com- loss of nearly £10,000. In 1721 he was reinmons, was "damned for its piety;" but the stated in his office, and produced in the sucauthor, who had by this time become a fashion- ceeding year his last and best comedy, "The able man upon town, readily turned his talents Conscious Lovers," which proved completely into other channels, and for many years wrote successful, and brought him in ample receipts. nothing more for the stage. He took his place He was nevertheless reduced soon after to the among the wits of Queen Anne's reign, was necessity of selling his share in the playhouse appointed gazetteer and gentleman usher to in Drury Lane, the proceeds of which were Prince George of Denmark, and, with ample speedily consumed by extravagance and an unmeans derived from two marriages, the second successful lawsuit with the managers. At this of which took place in 1707, he lived constantly juncture a paralytic attack rendered him incabeyond his income, was often in pressing need pable of further literary labor, and he retired of money, and never free from fear of the bai- to a small estate near Caermarthen in Wales, liffs. Amid the most reckless dissipation, he left him by his second wife, where he died alwas invariably good-natured and amiable, and most forgotten by his contemporaries, having bis follies were usually succeeded by severe con- "outlived his places, his schemes, his wife, his trition, which however would not prevent him income, his health, and almost every thing but from transgressing as deeply the next day. his kind heart.” Although the fame of Steele

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as an essayist is somewhat overshadowed by making several turns round the axle, is carried that of his literary coadjutor, Addison, he pos- toward each side of the ship, so that the turnsessed perhaps the more fertile imagination of ing of the axle draws the tiller toward that the two, and is entitled to the credit of having side the rope of which is being wound up. first conceived the characters of Sir Roger de The handles for working the wheel appear as Coverley, Will Honeycomb, and others of the spokes extended beyond the periphery. About Spectator club, which received their finishing the year 1802 boats were used on the Forth and touches from the hand of Addison. He was Clyde canal with the steering wheel fixed fordistinguished by a chivalric admiration of wo- ward and connected with the rudder by ropes, men, and his letters to his wife, about 400 in chains, or rods. _Though this plan did not connumber, form one of the most singular corre- tinue in use in Europe, it necessarily followed spondences ever published. There is an elabo- the construction in the United States of the rate treatise on the character and genius of long river steamers, the decks of which are obSteele in Forster's “ Historical and Biographical structed with cabins and machinery, and the Essays” (2 vols., London, 1858); and Thackeray, wheel has been set in these in the most conspicin his “Lectures on the English Humorists," uous place forward, in a sort of tower called has treated the same subject at length. The the pilot house. In consequence of serious diswritings of Steele have never been collected. asters having occurred from the ropes leading STEELYARD. See BALANCE.

to the rudder being burned in case of fire, it is STEEN, Jan, a Dutch painter, born in Ley- now made a law that chains or iron rods 'shall den in 1636, died in 1689. He early rose into be used for this purpose. Large vessels require great reputation as a humorous painter, through- several men at the wheel in rough weather; out life was addicted to good living, and is even and the very largest appear to have fallen short said to have opened a public tavern. His pic- of due efficiency in their steering apparatus, tures represent merrymakings, card parties, tav- and of the necessary power for working it. ern interiors, alchemists' laboratories, schools, Steam engines specially devoted to this work sick rooms, &c. According to Kugler he was may yet be found indispensable. By the use almost the only artist of the Netherlands who of 2 screw propellers, one each side the rudder, brought into full play all the elements of genu- it is found by Mr. Edwin A. Stevens of Hoboine low comedy. Fine-specimens of his powers ken, N. J., that when these are worked in opare to be found in private collections in Eng- posite directions the vessel may be turned on land, but the greatest number of his works are its centre as a pivot, and he has adopted this in the museums of the Hague and Amsterdam. plan, which is the most efficient steering apThat of the Hague contains the well known paratus known, for the “Stevens battery." picture entitled a "Representation of Human (See Battery, and Suip.) Life.” He painted in all about 300 pictures. STEEVENS, GEORGE, an English author and

STEERING APPARATUS, the appliances Shakespearian editor, born at Stepney in 1736, by which vessels are guided through the water. died at Hampstead in Jan. 1800.

He was The earliest method was by a long oar passed educated at Eton and at King's college, Camout of the stern. Sometimes more than one bridge. His first publication, a reprint of were used for this purpose, as is seen in the “Twenty of the Plays of Shakespeare, being drawings of some of the ships of the ancient the whole Number printed in Quarto during Egyptians. An oar is a very efficient means his Lifetime" (4 vols. 8vo., 1766), contained, in of steering boats, and is still employed on such addition to a faithful reprint of the original as often require sudden turning or the exertion text, a variety of readings from other quarto of considerable force to bring the boat round, editions, given in the foot notes; and the repuas on some canal boats, whale boats, rafts, &c. tation which he thereby acquired led to his asThe principle of the rudder is explained in the sociation with Johnson in the preparation of acticle Ship, vol. xiv. p. 601. The head of the the edition of Shakespeare which was published rudder, projecting above the deck, is furnished in 1773 with their joint names. Their 2d with a horizontal or lever called the edition appeared in 1778, and two years later tiller, by which the rudder is turned. The Malone, who had rendered Johnson and Steeterm helm is often applied to this, as also to vens some assistance in its preparation, publishthe rudder and tiller together. As by reason ed a supplement containing the doubtful plays of the motion of a vessel through the water & and the poems. Steevens, who regarded this powerful force is exerted to keep the rudder on almost in the light of a challenge, immedia line with the keel, and as by the shock of ately set to work upon a new edition of Shakethe waves the rudder is sometimes violently speare, which occupied him, in conjunction thrust to one side or the other, it becomes with Isaac Reed, incessantly during the next 12 necessary on small vessels to steady the tiller years. Disregarding the principles which had by a rope made fast to the weather side of the guided his former labors, he aimed at preparvessel, and one end held with a turn around ing a text which, “instead of a timid and serthe tiller. A block and tackle are required for vile adherence to ancient copies,” should be vessels of larger size, replaced upon still larger distinguished by the “expulsion of useless and ones by “the wheel.” * This is a wheel and supernumerary syllables, and an occasional axle set upon the tiller, the rope of which, supply of such as might fortuitously have been

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