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was among the killed. On Nov. 1 Gen. Scott, occupied Hickman and Columbus on the Misgeneral-in-chief of the armies of the United sissippi, and began to fortify them. Gen. Grant, States, retired from active service, and was suc. commander of the federal forces at Cairo, imceeded by Gen. George B. McClellan. About mediately took possession of Paducah, on the this time the Union men of East Tennessee, who Ohio just below the mouth of the Tennessee. had been hitherto kept in subjection by the Within a few days Gen. Zollicoffer led a consecession party, began to make various demon- federate force from Tennessee into S. E. Kenstrations of loyalty to the Union, and destroyed tucky, where on Oct. 21 he was defeated at a number of bridges on the confederate lines of Camp Wild Cat by a small body of federals uncommunication. On Nov. 6 the confederate der Gen. Schoepf; and Gen. Buckner occupied states held an election for president and vice- Bowling Green, a place of great natural strength president under their permanent constitution. at the junction of the railroads from Memphis Davis was chosen president and Stephens vice- and Nashville to Louisville, about the centre of president for the term of 6 years, and were the S. part of the state. These positions forminaugurated in the following February. On ed part of a line of posts commencing at the Nov. 8 Capt. Oharles Wilkes, in command of the Mississippi river and stretching through S. frigate San Jacinto, while searching for priva- Kentucky and N. Tennessee to Cumberland teers in the West Indies, intercepted the British Gap, an important pass in the Cumberland mail steamer Trent from Havana for Southamp- mountains near the spot where the W. bounton, and on his own responsibility forcibly took dary of Virginia touches the boundary between from on board Messrs. Mason and Slidell, com- Tennessee and Kentucky. The principal milimissioners from the southern confederacy to tary positions on this line were Columbus on the England and France. The action was resented Mississippi, Fort Henry on the Tennessee, Fort by the British government as an insult to their Donelson on the Cumberland, Bowling Green, flag, and produced a great display of feeling and Mill Spring in S. Kentucky. On Dec. 17 á against the United States; and a war with Union victory was gained at Munfordsville on England seemed imminent, when the president Green river, near the centre of Kentucky; and decided to surrender the commissioners to the on Jan. 19, 1862, Gen. Thomas achieved a more British minister, holding that although the decisive success at Mill Spring, or Somerset, commissioners were contraband of war, on the where Zollicoffer's army, of which Gen. George principles which the British government had B. Orittenden then held the chief command, formerly maintained and never openly re- was routed, and Zollicoffer himself was killed. nounced, yet on the principles of international On Jan. 20 Simon Cameron resigned the office law uniformly advocated by the United States, of secretary of war, and Edwin M. Stanton of Capt. Wilkes had no right to seize their per- Pennsylvania was appointed in his place. On sons without taking the vessel on which Feb. 6 Capt. Foote with a fleet of gunboats they were found into port to be condemned reduced Fort Henry, Gen. Tilghman with his by a prize court. On Dec. 20 Brig. Gen. staff and about 60 men becoming prisoners of Ord routed the confederates with heavy loss On the 15th Bowling Green was evacuat Dranesville, on the road from Washing- ated, the forces retiring to Fort Donelson, ton to Leesburg. By the end of the year which was assaulted by Gen. Grant and surthe United States had enlisted about 640,000 rendered next day, Gen. Buckner and 16,000 men, without counting the 77,000 militia called men falling into his hands. The evacuation out in April, who had been discharged at the of Nashville, Tenn., followed as a necessary end of their 3 months' service, nor the regular consequence on the 25th, and that of Columarmy, which it was estimated amounted at that bus about March 1. The whole of Kentucky time to 20,000. In July the army of the Con- and a part of Tennessee were thus secured by federate States had been officially returned as the federal arms. The legislature and execu210,000 strong, and President Davis had been tive officers of Tennessee fled from Nashville authorized to accept 400,000 more volunteers. to Memphis, and Senator Andrew Johnson was The contest had extended along the whole appointed by President Lincoln military govboundary line between the loyal and the seced- ernor of the state, with the rank of brigadiering states, and both sides had been making general. An unexpectedly strong Union senvigorous preparations for a struggle

for the pos- timent was at once discovered in the western session of the Mississippi river. The federal as well as the eastern counties; the city countroops had a base of operations at Cairo, Ill., cil of Nashville requested the mayor to have where the Ohio and the Mississippi unite, and the U. S. flag displayed on all the public buildunder orders of the war department were fitting ings (April 14), and a number of the principal out at that point a formidable fleet of gun and citizens issued a call (May 4) for a public meetmortar boats. The whole river, from a spot & ing to take measures for the reëstablishment few miles below Cairo to its mouth, was in the of the federal authority in Tennessee. While possession of the confederates. The soil of these events were taking place, another naval Kentucky had hitherto been respected as neu- and military expedition was fitted out and tral by both parties; but about Sept. 1 Bishop placed under the command of Gen. Burnside. Polk of Louisiana, who had received a comunis- Ît sailed from Hampton roads, Jan. 12, ension as major-general in the confederate army, tered Pamlico sound by way of Hatteras inlet,


and attacked Roanoke island, which separates land, which she sank after a short but terrible Pamlico from Albemarle sound, and which fire; and then attacked the Congress, which in the confederates had strongly fortified. The the course of half an hour was run ashore and attack was opened Feb. 7 by the gunboat compelled to strike her flag, after which she fleet under Flag Officer Goldsborough; and was burned. The steam frigate Minnesota got while the bombardment was in progress the aground early in the action, and could not come troops landed, stormed the intrenchments, within range. During the night, which put a and obliged 2,500 of the enemy to surrender. stop to the work of destruction, Capt. Ericsson's On the 8th the fleet passed up the sound to new iron-clad battery Monitor arrived from New Elizabeth City, N. O., captured one and destroy- York, and the next morning engaged the Mered 4 of the 7 gunboats forming the confederate rimac as she was about opening an attack upon flotilla, and occupied several towns in North the Minnesota. The battle lasted 5 hours, the Carolina. On March 14 Gen. Burnside captur- two vessels several times touching each other, ed Newbern, N. O., after a severe battle, tak- and firing without apparent effect. The Merriing 200 prisoners and 64 guns, and immediately mac was finally compelled to retire, after reafterward marched a force by land thence to ceiving considerable injury from a shot which Beaufort, the best harbor in that state. The entered one of her ports. The only damage town made no resistance, but Fort Macon, on board the Monitor was caused by a shot which defends the entrance to it from the sea, which struck the pilot house and wounded the held out until April 25. From Port Royal ex- commander, Lieut. Worden, by driving particles peditions under Capt. Dupont proceeded to the of cement into his eyes. The vessel berself principal seaports of Florida, all of which were was struck over 20 times, but was entirely unoccupied with little or no resistance, and oper- injured. With the exception of an attack upon ations were pushed forward for the capture of some small unarmed merchant vessels, the conSavannah. Its principal defence, Fort Pulaski, federate fleet at Norfolk, which comprised beon the Savannah river, was taken April 11, but side the Merrimac the iron-clad steamers Jamesthe federal forces made no immediate move- town and Yorktown, made no further more ment toward the city itself. On Feb. 13 the ments. In the West the military operations right wing of the army of the Potomac, under had lost nothing of their importance. A deciGen. Banks, crossed the river at Harper's Ferry sive victory was gained by the national forces and advanced to Charlestown. On March 6 under Gen. Curtis at Pea Ridge, Ark., March Gen. McClellan began a movement toward 6, 7, and 8, over the armies of Van Dorn, Richmond, the enemy falling back as he advan- Price, and McCulloch, which had just been ced, and taking up a new line of defence along driven out of Missouri. After the evacuation the Rappahannock. Centreville was occupied of Columbus and Nashville the confederates on the 11th, and Manassas immediately after. took up two strong positions: one at New VadWhile McClellan's headquarters were still at rid, Mo., on the Mississippi, and at Island No. Fairfax Court House, near Manassas, the rear Ten in the river a few miles above that town; of his army was quietly embarking at Alexan- and the other at Corinth, in the N. E. corner dria for Fortress Monroe, but the movement of Mississippi, near the Tennessee river. New was soon suspected and guarded against by the Madrid was taken by Gen. Pope, March 14, and enemy. From Fortress Monroe he advanced Island No. Ten was attacked by the gunboat upon Yorktown (April 4), which was well for- fleet of Flag Officer Foote on the 16th. The tified, and held by a division under Gen. Ma- defences here proved unexpectedly strong. The gruder. The organization of the army was gunboats were all above the island, and consenow changed. Gen. McClellan, having taken quently, in the swift current of the Mississippi

, the field, was relieved from the command of the could not attack the batteries in the only way other military departments, and several new they were fitted to attack at short range, departments were created. Gen. Halleck was namely, with “head on." Gen. Pope at New assigned to the department of the West; Gen. Madrid was unable to coöperate in a land atHunter to the department of the South, compris- tack, because the inundated condition of the ing South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida ; Gen. country prevented his marching his army abore Butler to the department of the Gulf; Gen. the island to the neighborhood of the fileet; Fremont to the mountain department in western and at New Madrid he had no means of crossVirginia and eastern Tennessee; Gen. Banks to ing the river to the Kentucky shore, where 2 the department of the Shenandoah; Gen. confederate force was posted. The difficulty McDowell to the department of the Rappahan- was overcome by cutting a canal 12 miles long nock; and Gen. McClellan to the department through the neck of land formed by a bend in of the Potomac. The frigate Merrimac, which the river opposite the island, thus enabling serthe confederates had equipped as an iron- eral transports from Foote's fleet to reach Ser clad floating battery and ram, on March 8 at- Madrid. Two of the gunboats ran past the bat

acked the Unite States vessels in Hampton teries in the night, and the crossing having roads. The sailing vessels Congress and Cum- been effected under their protection, the island berland opened their broadsides upon her surrendered on the night of April 7-8, with without effect, the shot rattling upon her iron about 6,000 prisoners, 124 guns, and a great sides like

hail. She first ran into the Cumber- quantity of stores. The main body of the

western army under Gen. Grant meanwhile fight took place June 6, and resulted after an pushed forward toward the confederate posi- hour and a half, owing in good part to the tion at Corinth. On the 6th their advance operations of the ram fleet, in the capture or guard was attacked at Shiloh, near Pittsburg destruction of 7 of the rebel boats, one escapLanding, on the Tennessee, a few miles from ing by superior speed. Memphis immediately Corinth, by A. S. Johnston and Beauregard. surrendered. On the lower Mississippi a still The battle raged from 2 o'clock in the morning more important success had been gained by the until the approach of night, with varying suc- federal navy. As long ago as November Ship cess, but with disadvantage on the whole to the island, near the mouth of the river, had been federal troops, who were driven back to the occupied and made a rendezvous for a military river, where the gunboats enabled them to force under Gen. B. F. Butler, designed for the make a stand. Gen. Johnston was among the occupation of New Orleans. On April 16 a killed. During the night both sides were re- fleet of 45 vessels, carrying 280 guns and 21 enforced, and the battle was renewed at 7 the mortars, and commanded by Flag Officer Farnext morning. After a contest of 8 hours the ragut, the mortar boats being under the special confederate forces broke under a charge of 6 command of Capt. David D. Porter, moved up regiments led by Gen. Grant in person, and re- the river to attack Forts Jackson and St. Philip, treated toward Corinth, closely pursued by the on opposite sides of the stream about 75 m. becavalry. At Corinth they had erected works low the city. Both these works were of great of a quite formidable character, and here they strength, and between them a chain had been remained for nearly two months, the national thrown across the river. The bombardment army, which had been largely increased and began on the 18th and lasted 6 days, when was now commanded by Gen. Halleck, slowly Flag Officer Farragut, having broken the chain, advancing toward their position. Gen. O. M. ran past the forts with 14 steamers and gunMitchel in the mean time, with a small body boats, destroyed a squadron of the enemy's of federal troops, seized Huntsville on the main rams and gunboats, silenced the batteries above line of the Memphis and Charleston railroad in the forts, and occupied New Orleans without northern Alabama, capturing 200 prisoners, 15 further opposition on the 25th; Gen. Mansfield locomotives, and a large number of cars, and in Lovell, in command of the confederate land the course of two or three days had occupied troops, evacuating it on his arrival, and destroy100 miles of the same road, thus cutting off all ing all the cotton, sugar, and other valuable direct communication between the S. Atlantic stores. Forts Jackson and St. Philip surrenstates and the West. The entrance of the na- dered to Capt. Porter on the 28th. Gen. Buttional troops into Alabama was hailed with ler now moved up with his army, took formal joy by numbers of the inhabitants. On May possession of New Orleans, and placed it under 30 it was discovered that Corinth had been martial law. Farragut's fleet passed up the evacuated, every thing of value being removed river, captured Baton Rouge, and afterward proor destroyed. Gen. Pope was sent in pursuit; ceeded to Vicksburg, the only remaining strong but the main body of the enemy, consisting of hold of the confederates on the Mississippi. nearly all the available troops in the whole Here he passed the powerful batteries on shore, confederacy with the exception of the army joined Flag Officer Davis's flotilla from Memphis, concentrated about Richmond, made good its and a bombardment was opened upon the city, retreat, and appears to have been broken up ‘and continued till Aug. 1, when it was suspend. into several detached bodies, of which we have ed to await the coöperation of land forces. On not yet (Sept. 1) any certain information. the peninsula between the York and James The contest in the West was now confined to rivers McClellan had commenced the siege of the Mississippi, where after the fall of Island Yorktown April 5, and the confederate army No. Ten the confederates had made a stand at had gradually concentrated at Richmond. Gen. Fort Wright, about 50 m. above Memphis. Fire McDowell had moved upon Fredericsburg was opened upon this work by the gunboats April 18, and Gen. Banks about the same time and mortar vessels, April 18, but without much moved up the valley of the Shena ah. On effect. On May 8 the federal flotilla, command- May 4 the confederate troops evacuated Yorked by Capt. O. H. Davis (Flag Officer Foote town and Gloucester Point, leaving 71 guns in having been disabled by a wound), was attack- their works, and retreated toward Richmond, ed here by 8 confederate gunboats, 4 of which McClellan pursuing them. They were overwere provided with rams. After a sharp con- taken the next day at Williamsburg, where a flict of an hour the confederates were driven sharp action occurred; and on the 7th Gen. off, losing 3 of their boats blown up and sunk. Franklin, who had been sent from Washington On the 31st it was discovered that the fort had to reënforce McClellan, landed at West Point been abandoned. The vessels then dropped on the York river, and defeated a force under down to Memphis, where the whole confeder- Gens. Whiting and G. W. Smith. On the 10th ate fleet, consisting of 8 gunboats and steam Norfolk was occupied without resistance by a rams, was awaiting its arrival. The federal detachment from Fortress Monroe under Gen. flotilla had meanwhile been reënforced by 8 or Wool, and the iron-plated vessel Merrimac 10 steam rams fitted out under authority from was blown up to prevent it from falling into the war department by Col. Charles Ellet. The his hands. The Monitor and several other


vessels, including two new and formidable they were supported by the divisions of Heintiron-clad gunboats, were sent up the James zelman and Kearny, and enabled to maintain river to operate against Richmond, but met the contest till reënforcements were brought with obstructions near Fort Darling, a few miles across by Sumner, when the confederates were below the city, and were driven back with loss repulsed and the ground that had been lost was (May 15). The Monitor, though repeatedly recovered. The attack was renewed the next struck, was uninjured, but could not elevate day, but the federal troops were everywhere her guns enough to produce any impression on victorious. Their loss was officially reported as the fort, which was situated on a high bluff. 5,739 killed, wounded, and missing. The conAnother check was experienced in the valley of federates were led by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, the Shenandoah, where Gen. Banks, after pene- who was wounded on the first day. No other etrating 100 miles and driving the enemy be- battle of importance occurred until June 26, by yond Harrisonburg, was ordered to send most of which time 3 army corps had crossed the Chick his troops to McDowell. While thus weakened, ahominy. The confederates had been heavily having barely 5,000 men left, he was attacked reënforced, and McClellan, convinced of the by 20,000 confederate troops under Gen. J. T. impossibility of defending his extended lines Jackson, and his advance, consisting of 900 men with the force at his disposal, resolved to transunder Col. Kenley, was cut off at Front Royal, fer his base of operations to the James river. May 23. By a prompt retreat Banks saved The supplies were accordingly shipped at the the rest of his army and nearly all his baggage, White House, and the army prepared to move retiring into Maryland, closely pursued by by the left flank. On the evening of the 26th Jackson as far as the Potomac. This event the enemy under Jackson fell with overwhelmcaused the greatest alarm in Washington, it ing force upon McClellan's right wing at Bearer being at first supposed that the whole army Dam, and, though driven back late at night, from Richmond was about to cross into Mary- renewed the attack in heavier numbers the land. The governors of Pennsylvania, New next morning. The federals under Fitz John York, and the New England states were tele- Porter fell back to Gaines's hill, where a bloody graphed to send on more troops, and several contest was maintained until night, the main militia regiments immediately set out for Balti- body of the army being at the same time enmore and the Potomac. Jackson however re- gaged along its entire line. That night and the treated as rapidly as he had advanced. Fre- next day the whole army and its train were mont, by forced marches across the mountains, moving toward the James, Franklin with the endeavored to intercept him, but succeeded 6th army corps being left to cover the retreat. only in overtaking his rear guard and forcing a Every step of the march was obstinately disbattle at Cross Keys, near Harrisonburg, June puted. The passage of the White Oak swamp 8, in which Jackson was worsted. Another especially, June 30, was attended with great engagement took place the next day at Port slaughter, being accomplished only after a battle Republic, on the Shenandoah, where Jackson at- which lasted all day. On July 1 the army tacked the advance of Gen. Shields's corps, and reached the James river, and there they were forced it to fall back upon the main body, when again attacked at Malvern hills, but defeated he was in turn repulsed. Gen. McClellan mean- their assailants more completely than in any while slowly followed the confederate army up, previous engagement of the 6 days' fight. That the Yorktown peninsula, until on May 20 he night they marched to Harrison's Landing, a reached the Ohickahominy, a small tributary position of greater strength some distance beof the James river, flowing through a swampy low, and about 17 m. from Richmond, where tract at a distance of from 6 to 15 m. from Rich- they remained until Aug. 14, protected by mond. Here a delay was caused by the neces- a large fleet of gunboats. The federal loss sity of constructing bridges and roads. Con- during these 6 days was reported as 1,565 killtinual skirmishing occurred, and on the 27th a ed, 7,701 wounded, and 5,958 missing; total

, sharp engagement was fought at Hanover Court 15,224. The corps of Fremont, Banks, and House, 16 m. N. of Richmond, where Gen. Fitz McDowell were consolidated, June 26, into John Porter succeeded in cutting off communi- the “army of Virginia," and placed under cation with Richmond over the Fredericsburg the command of Major-Gen. Pope. In conrailroad. Portions of the army had meanwhile sequence of this appointment Gen. Fremont crossed the Chickahominy, and by the end of asked leave to retire from active service, and the month the extreme advance was at Fair was replaced by Gen. Sigel. On July 1 the Oaks, 5 miles from Richmond; the extreme president called for 300,000 more rolunteers left was on or near James river; and the to serve during the war. On the 11th Majorright extended to the White House, on the Gen. Halleck was appointed to the comniand Pamunkey, one of the head streams of the of all the land forces of the United States as York. It was here that the army had its de- general-in-chief

, Gen. Grant succeeding himn in pot of supplies. On the 31st the confederates

, command of the army of the Mississippi. On taking advantage of a flood in the Chickahom- June 16, Gen. Hunter, with all the available iny, attacked the advance under Gen. Casey at forces at Port Royal, made an unsuccessful demFair Oaks, and drove them back to the river onstration upon James island near Charleston, with the loss of their guns and baggage. There where the enemy were intrenched at a place

called Secessionville. The federal troops, com- by the order of July 1 was prosecuted with remanded by Gen. Benham, were repulsed after markable energy; the western states especially a fight of 5 hours, with a loss estimated at 700. declared themselves ready to raise more than On the 18th Gen. Morgan, of the U. 8. volun- their quotas, and now (Sept. 1) the whole levy teers, seized Cumberland Gap, the main gate of 300,000 is fully armed, equipped, and the of communication between Kentucky and east- greater part of these new forces are already in ern Tennessee. On the 11th the army under the field. A large portion of them have been Gen. Curtis arrived safely at Helena, Ark., sent to serve in the department of Ohio, created where it remained till about Aug. 12, when it Aug. 19, comprising the states of Indiana, Ohio, moved upon Little Rock. Missouri, Kentuc- and Kentucky, and including Cumberland Gap ky, and Tennessee were now overrun by gue- and the region about it in Tennessee, under the rilla bands, who inflicted great damage upon command of Maj. Gen. H. G.Wright.—The extra the Union inhabitants. Toward the latter session of congress which began July 4, 1861, part of July, the provisional governor of Mis- closed on Aug. 6. Its chief acts were for the prosouri ordered a draft of the whole militia of viding of ways and means to carry on the war, the state to resist them. Murfreesborough, and for this the duties on certain imports were Tenn., was captured on July 13 by a force com- increased, and a loan of $250,000,000 was auposed chiefly of guerillas. On the 15th the thorized, together with an issue of $50,000,000 confederate iron-clad ram Arkansas engaged a in treasury notes. The first regular session bepart of Flag Officer Davis's flotilla near the gan Dec. 2, 1861, and ended July 17, 1862. Mr. mouth of the Yazoo river, injured several of Breckinridge, the late vice-president, who had the vessels, and ran through the rest of the appeared as a senator at the extra session, was fleet to Vicksburg. On Aug. 4 she left Vicks- expelled for treason in having openly embraced burg to take part in a confederate attack on the confederate cause, as were also two memBaton Rouge, and on the 6th she was attacked bers of the house of representatives. Bills near that place by the U. S. gunboat Essex, were speedily passed for the construction of Commander W. D. Porter, and after an action gunboats on the Mississippi, and of 20 iron-clad of about 20 minutes she took fire and was vessels of war. By the acts of this session the blown up. At the same time the attack of the secretary of the treasury was authorized to confederate land forces, some 10,000 strong, led issue $150,000,000 more treasury notes, to neby John C. Breckinridge, was repelled after a gotiate $500,000,000 of 6 per cent. bonds, to spirited action by the federal army, about 4,500 receive temporary deposits to the extent of strong, under Brig. Gen. Thomas Williams, who $100,000,000 at the rate of 4 per cent., and to fell in the action. The losses on both sides issue to all creditors of the government certifiwere heavy. On Aug. 9 a hotly contested bat- cates of indebtedness. A tax law levying a tle was fought at Cedar Mountain, 8 m. S. of duty of 3 per cent. on the products of all kinds Culpepper Court House, Va., between a corps of of labor and the net profits of every descripGen. Pope's army commanded by Gen. Banks, tion of business was passed, as was also a tariff and a confederate army which had made a rapid adding about 5 per cent. to previously estabadvance from Richmond under command of lished duties. Slavery was abolished in the Gen. Jackson. The attack of the confederates district of Columbia, and prohibited in all the was unsuccessful, notwithstanding their superi- territories of the United States, present or to ority of numbers, and on the following day they come. On the recommendation of President retired in the direction of Richmond. The fed- Lincoln, a resolution was passed offering to any eral loss in this battle was about 1,500 killed, state which will abolish slavery an indemnity wounded, and prisoners. The first important sufficient to remunerate the slaveholders. The measure of Gen. Halleck, in assuming the chief army was ordered to receive within its lines command of the federal armies, was to order all fugitive slaves, and not to surrender them the army of the Potomac to retreat from its to their owners; and the president was auposition at Harrison's landing to Yorktown and thorized to employ the slaves in the military Fortress Monroe, with a view to its transfer to or naval service at his discretion, the slaves of the Rappahannock and its direct coöperation all open rebels being declared free. An act with the army of Virginia under Gen. Pope. confiscating all the property of rebels and This difficult and perilous movement was begun emancipating their slaves completes the list of on Aug. 14, Gen. Fitz John Porter's corps lead- important anti-slavery measures effected by ing the march and arriving at Newport News, this congress. The supreme court was reorits place of embarkation, on the 18th, without ganized by apportioning the judicial circuits being disturbed by the enemy; the other corps according to population, thus giving to the free accomplished the movement with equal success. states 6 of the 9 judges. A homestead act and Meanwhile, on Aug. 4, an order was issued by a Pacific railroad act were also passed by this the president calling for an additional force of congress, which has perhaps encountered more 300,000 men to serve for 9 months, to be raised serious responsibility, and undertaken and carby drafting. This order, instead of checking ried through a series of legislative measures of the popular enthusiasm, gave it an astonishing more consequence to the country, than any stimulus, under which the work of filling up other congress since the foundation of the gov. the number of the 300,000 volunteers required ernment.

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