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omitted." The edition was published in 1793 faith Wie ich wieder Lutheraner wurde (1831). in 15 vols., and until the appearance of that of He embodied his reminiscences in a series of Knight in 1838 maintained its reputation as novels, Walseth und Leith (1827), Die vier the standard text, although in the edition of Norweger (1828), Malcolm (1831), and Die ReValone, published posthumously by Boswell in volution (1837). His heroes are chiefly Scan1821, some attempts were made to adhere to dinavians, who travel southward, become inthe early copies. Steevens's remaining produc- volved in the events of the French revolution tions are of little importance, if we except his and in German theories, and bestow their adanonymous contributions to the "St. James's miration in turn upon the worship of genius, Chronicle" and the “Critical Review,” in which Moravian piety, Prussian heroism, Schelling's he attacked many of his literary contempora- philosophy, and Werner's geology. His last ries, for whom in private he professed admira- work was an autobiography, Was ich erlebte (10 tion and esteem, in language surcharged with vols., 1840–45). His Nachgelassene Schriften biting sarcasm. He was characterized by John- appeared with a preface by Schelling in 1846. son as "mischievous" rather than malignant. STEIN, CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED DANIEL, a GerHe appears in a less amiable light when foist- man geographer, born in Leipsic, Oct. 14, 1771, ing upon the mock commentators, Amner and died in Berlin, June 14, 1830. He was eduCollins (names invented by himself), annota- cated at the university of Leipsic, studied thetions he was ashamed to acknowledge as his ology, but gave special attention to geography own; or when appending the name of his rival, and statistics, and in 1795 became teacher of Malone, to a bitter attack upon Capell.

those branches at the gymnasium of the GraySTEFFENS, HENRIK, a German author, born friars in Berlin, with which he was connected at Stavanger, Norway, May 2, 1773, died in during the remainder of his life. His works, Berlin, Feb. 13, 1845. He studied theology at geographical, historical, and statistical, for Copenhagen, then devoted himself to the nat- schools, including an · Atlas of the Whole ural sciences, and became a disciple of Schel- World" (25th ed., Leipsic, 1850), have obtained ling. He was intrusted in 1800 with the revi- a wide popularity. sion of Schelling's writings on the philosophy STEIN, Karl, baron von. See ALTENSTEIN. of nature. He soon after enjoyed at Freiburg STEIN, Ludwig, a German political econothe friendship and instruction of Werner, and mist, born in Eckernförde, Schleswig, Nov. 15, wrote his Geognostisch-geologische Aufsätze, af- 1813. He was the child of poor parents, and terward expanded in his Handbuch der Oryk- was educated at the expense of Frederic VI. tegnosie (3 vols., Halle, 1811-'19), in which na- of Denmark. His first work was a “ History ture is considered historically as a spiritual of Civil Process in Denmark” (Kiel, 1841); his force representing itself in time. He lectured second, Der Socialismus und Communismus des with applause in Copenhagen in 1802; accept- heutigen Frankreich (Leipsic, 1844), of which a ed a professorship at Halle in 1804, where he 2d edition, remodelled and considerably enwrote his Grundzüge der philosophischen Natur- larged, has appeared under the title of Goriesenschaft (Berlin, 1806); lived with friends schichte der socialen Bewegung in Frankreich in Holstein, Hamburg, and Lübeck from 1807 von 1789 bis auf unsere Tage (3 vols., Leipsic, to 1809; was involved at Halle in the danger. 1849–51). He has also published Französische ons schemes of Prussian patriots for throwing Staats- und Rechtsgeschichte (3 vols., Basel, off the French yoke; went to Breslau in 1811, 1846–8). In 1846 he was appointed professor where his addresses animated the people and of law in the university of Kiel, and joined in especially the students in the war against Na- a protest against the threatened infringement poleon; and, baving volunteered in the army, of the rights of Schleswig by the Danish crown. marched with it to Paris. He returned to In 1848 he was appointed by the provisional Breslau, where he held the chair of physics government of Schleswig envoy to Paris

. Havand of the philosophy of nature, till in 1831 he ing been deprived of his professorship, he rewas called to a similar professorship in Berlin. ceived the chair of political economy in the According to Michelet, “the totality of the university of Vienna, where he has since reschool of Schelling is most manifestly set forth sided. He is now engaged upon a comprehenin his writings.” In his Anthropologie (2 vols., sive work entitled System der StaatswissenBreslan, 1822) he carried abstract philosophy schaften. He is a zealous free-trader. into the domain of physiology, treating the STELLIO (Daud.), a genus of iguanian lizconstitution of human nature in its relation to ards, characterized by a triangular, flattened that of the universe. He discussed practical head, covered with numerous small spinous questions and the philosophy of politics and plates; body depressed, the scales having insociety in l'eber die Idee der Universitäten (1809), termixed some larger and rougher plates; a The gegenwärtige Zeit und wie sie geworden (2 longitudinal fold on each side between the legs; Tols., 1817), and especially the Caricaturen des no femoral pores, and no dorsal or caudal Heiligaten (2 vols., 1819_21). He opposed in crest; anal pores distinct; tail with large keelthe interest of a philosophical pietism the ed and spiny scales arranged in whorls; incievangelical union, and published the polemical sors 4 above, canines 2 above and none below, treatise Von der falschen Theologie und dem and cheek teeth triangular; no teeth on palate; takren Glauben (1824), and the confession of tongue thick and fleshy. "The common stellio


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(S. vulgaris, Daud.), the lacerta stellio of Lin- STENTOR, a Grecian herald in the Trojan næus, the hardun of the Arabs, is about a foot war. Homer describes him as “great-hearted, long, of which the tail is not quite one half; brazen-voiced Stentor, who was accustomed to the color is olive, shaded and spotted with black shout as loud as 50 other men." Hence the above and olive yellow below. It is common name has been applied proverbially to loudin the Levant, and especially in Egypt, where voiced persons. its excrements were formerly collected and STEPHANUS OF BYZANTIUM, the author of used in making cosmetics; it is a very active the geographical lexicon called Edvika, flourishanimal, feeding on insects, and living in ruins, ed probably in the beginning of the 6th centuclefts of rocks, and holes in the ground. Ac- ry. There is scarcely another ancient author cording to Cuvier, Mohammedans always kill of whom so little is known, neither the age in it, thinking that it purposely insults them by which he lived nor any incidents of his life havbowing its head in imitation of their motions ing been preserved; and his work, probably during prayers. The stellio of the ancients the earliest dictionary of geography ever writwas undoubtedly a species of gecko, and proba- ten, exists only in an abridgment made by Herbly the Pt. Hasselquistii (Dum. & Bibr.). (See molaus. A few fragments of the original are GECKO, vol. viii. p. 119.)

still extant. The title of the work has been STENDHAL. “See BEYLE.

made a subject of controversy. The original STENOGRAPHY, a method of abbreviating dictionary was full of valuable material for the ordinary writing by the use of signs, now al- history of ancient places and of quotations most universally superseded by phonography from ancient writers. There have been nuor phonetic shorthand. (See PHONOGRAPHY.) merous editions of the epitome, of which the Some writers assert that Xenophon used it for most useful is that of A. Westermann (8vo., reporting the conversations of Socrates, but it is Leipsic, 1839). It has been translated into uncertain whether any system had been invent- German by S. O. Schirlitz. ed prior to the time of Cicero, whose freedman STEPHEN, Saint, the first martyr of the Tiro is said to have by this means reported Christian church. He was, as appears from some of Cato's speeches. It was extensively his name, a Hellenist by birth, and one of the practised during the early period of the Roman 7 deacons in the Christian congregation of empire, but was entirely abandoned in the dark Jerusalem, who, upon the complaint of the ages. In England the first attempt at steno- Hellenists that their widows were neglected, graphic writing dates from 1602, at which time had been chosen by order of the apostles to John Willis's alphabetic system was published, superintend every thing connected with the though a system of characters representing relief of the poor. The Jews charged him words had appeared in 1588, invented by Tim- with having spoken against the law and the othy Bright. Several other writers followed temple, against Moses, and against God, and Willis, the most famous of whom was Rich, by order of the sanhedrim he was stoned. whose system, amended by Dr. Doddridge, has Before his death he addressed his persecutors come down to our own time. In 1682 Mason at length, and he died praying that those who published a better and simpler alphabet, which put him to death might be forgiven. (Acts was the most popular for a century. Its modi- vi. and vii.) No information is given respectfication by Thomas Gurney (1753), known as ing the time of his death, but it is believed to Gurney's shorthand, has been employed by his have been in the year 36 or 37. He is annually descendants as parliamentary reporters up to the commemorated by the Roman Catholic church present day. The systems of Byrom (1767), Tay- on Dec. 26. İor (1786), Mavor (1789), and Lewis (1815) have STEPHEN, the 4th king of England of the each had their advocates, and were in general Anglo-Norman line, born in 1105, died Oct. 25, use till 1837, when Pitmau's phonography was 1151. His father was Stephen, count of Blois, published. About 100 works were issued on and his mother was Adela, or Adelicia, the 4th the subject in England between 1602 and 1830. or 5th daughter of William the Conqueror; and In France, Conin de Perpeau's Stenographie Stephen was their 3d son and 6th child. He and Grosselin's Vocabulaire sténographique were early became a favorite of Henry I., his materthe most popular systems. The fundamental nal uncle, who knighted him in his youth, and principle of these various systems, differ as they gave him the earldom of Mortagne in Normanmight in other respects, was that they repre- dy, beside bestowing upon him several valuable sented, by the position of their characters, estates in England. He procured his marevery letter of the alphabet, and the additional riage to Matilda, heiress to the count of Bousounds of the double consonants ch, sh, th, &c., logne, as early as 1114, by which Stephen while phonography deals only with the actual became possessed of that title and property. sounds, and analyzes these, arranging them ac- When, in 1120, William, the heir of Henry I., cording to their mutual relations. The short- and so many other members of the king's famhand writers had also characters to represent ily and household, were lost by the foundering prepositions and terminations, arbitrary signs of the White ship, Stephen was saved from the to indicate words of frequent recurrence, and same fate by leaving the vessel in consequence other methods of abbreviation, by omissions of finding that she was too crowded for safety. and the like.

Henry employed him in various ways, and

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never abated his attachment to him, which country. The cause of the empress Matilda was originated in the circumstance that Adela, Ste- early taken up by a party in England, headed phen's mother, had been the king's most at- by her natural brother Robert, earl of Gloutached sister, rendering him important services cester; and on Sept. 30, 1139, Matilda landed when it was not supposed that he would ever in England. The war was waged with various reign. She had recommended her son, who fortune, but Stephen was defeated and made was then a child, to her brother's protection, prisoner, Feb. 2, 1141, at the battle of Lincoln. and Henry accepted and discharged the trust. The greater portion of the country submitted Stephen was the second person of the laity who to the victors; but Matilda's arrogance was so took the oath to support Henry's daughter, the offensive that a reaction speedily took place. empress, as queen of England and duchess of Her brother was defeated and captured in Normandy, should her father die without issue Sept. 1141, and was exchanged for Stephen. male. This oath was not thought to be bind- At the battle of Wilton, July 1, 1143, Gloucesing, as it was not possible for a woman to dis- ter was victorious, and the king preserved his charge the duties of the kingly office accord- freedom only by flight. The war raged for ing to feudal ideas of those duties, the most years, and the condition of England was made prominent regal attribute being command in most deplorable. In 1153 Henry, son of the war. The widowed empress, too, had married empress Matilda, arrived in England at the a Frenchman-Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of head of a considerable force, and defeated SteAnjou—and the marriage was in direct viola- phen at Malmesbury. He was about to prosetion of the king's assurance, which was thought cute his advantages, when the leading men on to have cancelled the obligation on the other both sides interposed to bring about a peace. side. It is asserted that Henry changed his This was found a less difficult task than had mind just before his death, and released those been anticipated, in consequence of the sudden who had sworn to support Matilda from their death of the king's eldest son, Eustace. By oath. Theobald, count of Blois, Stephen's eld- the treaty of Winchester, Nov.'7, 1153, it was est brother, was regarded by many Normans settled that Stephen should remain king of as the proper person to succeed Henry; but England for life, and that he should be sucwhile they were deliberating, Stephen bad ceeded by Henry; and that Stephen's son Wilhastened to England, and had there been liam should retain all his possessions acquired crowned, Dec. 22, 1135. The archbishop of by marriage or otherwise, and all those which Canterbury believed that Henry had expressed his father had held in Normandy, England, an intention to leave-his dominions to Stephen, and elsewhere, before he became king. Stephen whom the people loved because of his popular did not survive the making of this treaty quite manners. He was, says Lappenberg, " distin- one year, dying after a brief illness. His reign guished for kindness, courtly manners, an ami- was the most miserable time ever known in able serenity of character, and a condescension England. The country was covered with castles, which had long gained him the hearts of many many hundreds of which were erected at this ainong all conditions of people. On the other period; and it was devastated by the foreign hand, he often proved himself imprudent and soldiery, the king himself employing numerous rash, and on his fairest promises no reliance mercenaries, principally from Flanders and could be placed. In short, he exhibited, in all Brittany. Stephen was the last of the Angloits traits, a complete specimen of the accom- Norman kings of England, the throne passing plished Norman knight of those days, who, al- on his death to the house of Plantagenet, in though capable of enacting many parts excel- the person of Henry II. lently well, was nevertheless but ill qualified STEPHEN I., king of Hungary. See Hun to rule over a kingdom.” Stephen confirmed GARY, vol. ix. p. 357. to the English the immunities and good laws STEPHEN, king of Poland. See POLAND, of Henry I., and also the laws and customs of vol. xiii. p. 430. Edward' the Confessor. He obtained peace STEPHEN, SIR JAMES, a British statesman with Scotland by making cessions to King Da- and author, born in London in 1789, died in vid, from whom he obtained acknowledgment Coblentz, Sept. 15, 1859. He was graduated and homage. At a meeting of barons and at Trinity hall, Cambridge, in 1812, and soon prelates at Oxford, he produced a letter from after called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He the

pope expressing approval of his election to was appointed counsel in the colonial departthe throne. A charter was framed, by which ment of the public service, and in 1824 counsel the old privileges of all classes were confirmed, to the board of trade. He held both offices and certain abuses that had happened in the until 1834, when he was promoted to be assispreceding reign were removed. The reign of tant under secretary, He was subsequently Stephen was a period of constant war and tù- made permanent under secretary, and retired mult. He was involved in contests with the from office in 1847, when he was knighted. In Welsh, who inflicted defeat and loss on the 1849 he was elected regius professor of modNormans. In the war that was renewed with ern history in the university of Cambridge, an Scotland in 1138, the English gained the great appointment which he held at the time of his battle of the standard, Aug. 22. Revolts broke death. For a number of years he was an acout, at different times, in various parts of the tive contributor to the “ Edinburgh Review;"

VOL. XV.-6

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and a collection of " Essays on Ecclesiastical but after the publication of his great work, the Biography,” first published in that periodical, Thesaurus Linguæ Græcæ, the costliness of has passed through several editions. He also which confined it to a limited number of purpublished his collegiate course of “Lectures on chasers and involved the printer in pecuniary the History of France” (2 vols., 1851), of which embarrassments, he led a nomadic life, travel3 editions have appeared, and some occasionalling from city to city, exploring libraries, and lectures. A memoir of him is in preparation collecting an immense amount of material for by his son Fitzjames Stephen.

works which he was projecting, and which STEPHENS, or StephaNUS (Fr. Estienne or he published wherever he happened to be. Étienne), the name of a French family of print- Among others of the family were Paul, son of ers who flourished during the 16th and 17th the preceding (born in Geneva in 1566, died centuries. Henry, the founder of the family there in 1627), who succeeded his father in the (born in Paris about 1460, died in 1520), es- management of the printing establishment at tablished a printing house in Paris in 1502. Ho Geneva, which he conducted for many years; published mathematical and theological works, and Anthony his son (born in Geneva in 1592, distinguished for the accuracy with which they died at the Hôtel Dieu in Paris in 1674), who were printed. His 3 sons, Francis, Robert for 50 years conducted a printing house in Paris (born in Paris in 1503, died in Geneva in 1559), with much energy, but died in great poverty. and CHARLES (born in Paris in 1504 or 1505, STEPHENS, ALEXANDER H., an American died in 1564), were largely engaged in printing. statesman, born in Taliaferro co., Ga., Feb. Robert, a man of great learning and industry, 11, 1812. He was graduated at Franklin colin his 20th year published an edition of the lege, Athens, Ga., in 1832, studied law, was Latin New Testament, with some corrections admitted to the bar in 1834, and rapidly obby himself which excited the hostility of the tained a large and lucrative practice at Crawdoctors of the Sorbonne. At his house, which fordsville. In 1836 he was elected a member was the resort of the most eminent literary of the lower house in the legislature of Georgia, men of the day, Latin was the ordinary lan- was reëlected for 5 successive terms, and exguage of conversation, even among the children erted himself with success to secure legislative and servants, to whom it was taught by his aid for the system of internal improvements. wife, a woman of rare accomplishments. For In 1839 he was a delegate to the commercial many years scarcely a month passed in which convention at Charleston, S. O., and defended some work, generally edited and corrected by the measures proposed by the Georgia delegates himself, did not issue from his press. He is against the assaults of those from South Carosaid to have publicly posted proof shoets of his lina; and in 1842 he was elected to the state works, with the offer of a premium for the de- senate, where he actively sustained the meastection of errors. In 1531 he began the publi- ures of the whig party. In 1843 he was electcation of his Dictionarium, seu Thesaurus Lin- ed to congress by over 3,000 majority, though guæ Latince, which he successively improved in his party had previously been in a minority of 2 subsequent editions. His editions of the Bi- more than 2,000, and held his seat till 1859. ble and notes brought him into trouble with He supported Mr. Clay for the presidency in the Sorbonne, from which however he was 1814, though differing from him on the quesprotected during the life of Francis I., who had tion of the annexation of Texas, in favor of appointed him royal printer. After the king's which he made one of his earliest speeches death the Sorbonne caused the sale of his Bibles during his first term in congress. The authorto be prohibited, and to insure his safoty the ship of the resolutions for its annexation was *printer retired to Geneva, where he died, it is indeed due to him, conjointly with the Hon. said, in the Calvinistic faith. He published at Milton Brown of Tennessee. In Feb. 1847, he least 11 complete editions of the Bible, in He- submitted a series of resolutions in relation to brew, Greek, Latin, and French, besido many the Mexican war, which afterward formed the separate editions of the New Testament; and platform of the whig party. He opposed the 382 other works, mostly of the first importance, Clayton compromise in 1818, and took a leadcame from his press. He first introduced the ing part in effecting the adjustment known as existing division of the New Testament into the compromises of 1850. The passage of the verses. Charles, the younger brother of Robert, Kansas and Nebraska act of 1854 in the house devoted himself to physical sciences, and for of representatives was in great measure due to some years practised medicine. He succeeded his efforts, as chairman of the committee on terto his brother's business when the latter retired ritories. After the breaking up of the whig to Geneva, and was subsequently appointed party Mr. Stephens united with the democrats, printer to Henry II. His publications, scientific and was a prominent champion of the measand classical, are numerous.—Henry, son of ures of Mr. Buchanan's administration. At Robert (born in Paris in 1528, died in 1598), the close of the 35th congress Mr. Stephens was esteemed one of the most learned men of declined to be again & candidate. During his time. He spoke Latin with fluency while the presidential canvass of 1860 he sustained a child, and throughout his life was a profound Messrs. Douglas and Johnson, and in numerous student of Greek literature. His establish- public addresses denounced those who advoments were successively in Paris and Geneva; cated a dissolution of the Union in case of Mr.

Lincoln's election, and in an address before the the state of New York. He was a director state convention called after that event vigor- of the “Ocean Steam Navigation Company, ously opposed the secession of Georgia. On which established the first American line of Feb. 9, 1861, he was nevertheless elected by transatlantic steamships, and went to Europe the confederate congress at Montgomery, Ala., as the representative of the company on the provisional vice-president of the confederate trial trip of its first vessel, the Washington. In states, and was inaugurated on the 18th of the 1849 he was elected vice-president of the Pansame month. On April 22 he made a speech ama railroad company, negotiated the contract at Richmond, Va., in justification of the seces- for the right of way with the government of sion movement, and in July visited the princi- New Granada, was chosen president of the pal cities of the southern seaboard states to urge company, and during the winter of 1851-2 the taking of the cotton loan. In November personally superintended the construction of he was elected permanent vice-president of the the road, which was nearly completed before southern confederacy.

his death. STEPHENS, ANN SOPHIA (WINTERBOTHAM), STEPHENSON, a N. W. co. of Illinois, boran American authoress, born in Derby, Conn., dering on Wisconsin, and intersected by the in 1813. She was married in 1832 to Edward Pecatonica river; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in Stephens of Plymouth, Mass., and in 1835 com- 1850, 11,666; in 1860, 25,113. The surface is menced her literary career as editress of the undulating and the soil fertile. The produc“Portland Magazine” and the "Portland Sketch tions in 100 were 228,267 bushels of wheat, Book," of which city her husband had become 302,285 of Indian corn, 227,310 of oats, 16,023 a resident. In 1837 she removed to New York, tons of hay, 288,567 lbs. of butter, and 18,404 and soon became an active contributor to the of wool. There were 3 newspaper offices, and " Ladies' Companion,” “Graham's Magazine," 1,800 pupils attending public schools. Lead is

, and a variety of similar periodicals, in which found. It is traversed by the Illinois central occupation she has continued to the present and the Galena and Chicago railroads. Capitime. Her most elaborate work, “Fashion and tal, Freeport. Famine" (New York, 1854), has had consider- STEPHENSON, GEORGE, the founder of the able popularity at home and abroad, having railway system of Great Britain, and perfecter appeared in three French versions in Paris. of the locomotive engine, born in Wylam, Among her other works are “Mary Derwent," Northumberland, June 9, 1781, died at Tapwhich gained a prize of $400 offered by one of ton park, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, Aug. the periodicals; the “ Heiress of Greenhurst," 12, 1848. His father, a worthy and indus* The Old Homestead," and two books on nee- trious man, was fireman of the pumping endlework. She has been the editress of several gine at Wylam colliery, and by his utmost exliterary magazines, for which she has written ertions was barely able to provide food and much in verse, but has published no collection clothing for his family, much less to send them of her poems.

to school. George, tho 2d of 6 children, conSTEPHENS, JOHN LLOYD, an American sequently grew up without the slightest knowltraveller and author, born in Shrewsbury, N. edge of books, and at 9 years of age was emJ., Nov. 28, 1805, died in New York, Oct. 10, ployed at two pence a day to look after the 1832. He was graduated at Columbia college, cows of a neighbor, to which succeeded other New York, in 1822, studied law, and practised kinds of farm work. It was, however, bis his profession in New York for 8 years. He highest ambition to follow his father's occupathen spent two years in foreign travel, and in tion; and at the age of 14, being known as a 1837 published his “Incidents of Travel in steady, intelligent boy, with a taste for mechanEgypt, Arabia Petræa, and the Holy Land,” ics evinced in the construction of miniature followed in the succeeding year by “Incidents engines and windmills, he was appointed asof Travel in Greece, Turkey, Russia, and Po- sistant fireman at the Dewley Burn colliery, land.” both in 2 vols. 12mo. The lively style whither the family had removed. For several and great descriptive power of these works years he continued to be employed at various procured them a very large circulation both in collieries as fireman, and afterward as plugman, America and Europe. In 1839 he was appoint- and gradually acquired so complete a knowled by President Van Buren special ambassador edge of the engine as to be able to take it apart to Central America, explored the ancient re- and make any ordinary repairs. At 18 he was mains of that country, and on his return pub- still ignorant of reading, and even of the letters lished " Incidents of Travel in Central Ameri- of the alphabet; but within two years, partly ea, Chiapas, and Yucatan” (2 vols. 8vo., New by attending small night schools resorted to by York, 1841); and in 1842 he again visited Yu- the colliers' children, partly by his own percatan, and published "Incidents of Travel in Yu- severance, he was able to read, write, and catan” (2 vols. 8vo., 1843). These works were cipher with tolerable facility. In 1802 he was illustrated by his fellow-traveller, Mr. Cather- married, but became a widower within two wood, and the last two named are of special years, and removed in 1805 with his infant son, value as contributions to American antiquities. Robert, to Killingworth colliery, where his litIn 1846 Mr. Stephens was elected a member of tle earnings were speedily absorbed by the dethe convention for revising the constitution of mands which his father's poverty imposed upon

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