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omitted." The edition was published in 1793 in 15 vols., and until the appearance of that of Knight in 1838 maintained its reputation as the standard text, although in the edition of Malone, published posthumously by Boswell in 1821, some attempts were made to adhere to the early copies. Steevens's remaining productions are of little importance, if we except his anonymous contributions to the "St. James's Chronicle" and the "Critical Review," in which he attacked many of his literary contemporaries, for whom in private he professed admiration and esteem, in language surcharged with biting sarcasm. He was characterized by Johnson as "mischievous" rather than malignant. He appears in a less amiable light when foisting upon the mock commentators, Amner and Collins (names invented by himself), annotations he was ashamed to acknowledge as his own; or when appending the name of his rival, Malone, to a bitter attack upon Capell.

STEFFENS, HENRIK, a German author, born at Stavanger, Norway, May 2, 1773, died in Berlin, Feb. 13, 1845. He studied theology at Copenhagen, then devoted himself to the natural sciences, and became a disciple of Schelling. He was intrusted in 1800 with the revision of Schelling's writings on the philosophy of nature. He soon after enjoyed at Freiburg the friendship and instruction of Werner, and wrote his Geognostisch-geologische Aufsätze, afterward expanded in his Handbuch der Oryktognosie (3 vols., Halle, 1811-'19), in which nature is considered historically as a spiritual force representing itself in time. He lectured with applause in Copenhagen in 1802; accepted a professorship at Halle in 1804, where he wrote his Grundzüge der philosophischen Naturwissenschaft (Berlin, 1806); lived with friends in Holstein, Hamburg, and Lübeck from 1807 to 1809; was involved at Halle in the dangerous schemes of Prussian patriots for throwing off the French yoke; went to Breslau in 1811, where his addresses animated the people and especially the students in the war against Napoleon; and, having volunteered in the army, marched with it to Paris. He returned to Breslau, where he held the chair of physics and of the philosophy of nature, till in 1831 he was called to a similar professorship in Berlin. According to Michelet, "the totality of the school of Schelling is most manifestly set forth in his writings." In his Anthropologie (2 vols., Breslau, 1822) he carried abstract philosophy into the domain of physiology, treating the constitution of human nature in its relation to that of the universe. He discussed practical questions and the philosophy of politics and society in Ueber die Idee der Universitäten (1809), Die gegenwärtige Zeit und wie sie geworden (2 Tols., 1817), and especially the Caricaturen des Heiligsten (2 vols., 1819-21). He opposed in the interest of a philosophical pietism the evangelical union, and published the polemical treatise Von der falschen Theologie und dem wahren Glauben (1824), and the confession of

faith Wie ich wieder Lutheraner wurde (1831). He embodied his reminiscences in a series of novels, Walseth und Leith (1827), Die vier Norweger (1828), Malcolm (1831), and Die Revolution (1837). His heroes are chiefly Scandinavians, who travel southward, become involved in the events of the French revolution and in German theories, and bestow their admiration in turn upon the worship of genius, Moravian piety, Prussian heroism, Schelling's philosophy, and Werner's geology. His last work was an autobiography, Was ich erlebte (10 vols., 1840-'45). His Nachgelassene Schriften appeared with a preface by Schelling in 1846.

STEIN, CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED DANIEL, a German geographer, born in Leipsic, Oct. 14, 1771, died in Berlin, June 14, 1830. He was educated at the university of Leipsic, studied theology, but gave special attention to geography and statistics, and in 1795 became teacher of those branches at the gymnasium of the Grayfriars in Berlin, with which he was connected during the remainder of his life. His works, geographical, historical, and statistical, for schools, including an "Atlas of the Whole World" (25th ed., Leipsic, 1850), have obtained a wide popularity.

STEIN, KARL, baron von. See ALTENSTEIN. STEIN, LUDWIG, a German political economist, born in Eckernförde, Schleswig, Nov. 15, 1813. He was the child of poor parents, and was educated at the expense of Frederic VI. of Denmark. His first work was a "History of Civil Process in Denmark" (Kiel, 1841); his second, Der Socialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreich (Leipsic, 1844), of which a 2d edition, remodelled and considerably enlarged, has appeared under the title of Geschichte der socialen Bewegung in Frankreich von 1789 bis auf unsere Tage (3 vols., Leipsic, 1849-'51). He has also published Französische Staats- und Rechtsgeschichte (3 vols., Basel, 1846-'8). In 1846 he was appointed professor of law in the university of Kiel, and joined in a protest against the threatened infringement of the rights of Schleswig by the Danish crown. In 1848 he was appointed by the provisional government of Schleswig envoy to Paris. Having been deprived of his professorship, he received the chair of political economy in the university of Vienna, where he has since resided. He is now engaged upon a comprehensive work entitled System der Staatswissenschaften. He is a zealous free-trader.

STELLIO (Daud.), a genus of iguanian lizards, characterized by a triangular, flattened head, covered with numerous small spinous plates; body depressed, the scales having intermixed some larger and rougher plates; a longitudinal fold on each side between the legs; no femoral pores, and no dorsal or caudal crest; anal pores distinct; tail with large keeled and spiny scales arranged in whorls; incisors 4 above, canines 2 above and none below, and cheek teeth triangular; no teeth on palate; tongue thick and fleshy. The common stellio

(S. vulgaris, Daud.), the lacerta stellio of Linnæus, the hardun of the Arabs, is about a foot long, of which the tail is not quite one half; the color is olive, shaded and spotted with black above and olive yellow below. It is common in the Levant, and especially in Egypt, where its excrements were formerly collected and used in making cosmetics; it is a very active animal, feeding on insects, and living in ruins, clefts of rocks, and holes in the ground. According to Cuvier, Mohammedans always kill it, thinking that it purposely insults them by bowing its head in imitation of their motions during prayers. The stellio of the ancients was undoubtedly a species of gecko, and probably the Pt. Hasselquistii (Dum. & Bibr.). (See GECKO, vol. viii. p. 119.)

STENDHAL. See BEYLE. STENOGRAPHY, a method of abbreviating ordinary writing by the use of signs, now almost universally superseded by phonography or phonetic shorthand. (See PHONOGRAPHY.) Some writers assert that Xenophon used it for reporting the conversations of Socrates, but it is uncertain whether any system had been invented prior to the time of Cicero, whose freedman Tiro is said to have by this means reported some of Cato's speeches. It was extensively practised during the early period of the Roman empire, but was entirely abandoned in the dark ages. In England the first attempt at stenographic writing dates from 1602, at which time John Willis's alphabetic system was published, though a system of characters representing words had appeared in 1588, invented by Timothy Bright. Several other writers followed Willis, the most famous of whom was Rich, whose system, amended by Dr. Doddridge, has come down to our own time. In 1682 Mason published a better and simpler alphabet, which was the most popular for a century. Its modification by Thomas Gurney (1753), known as Gurney's shorthand, has been employed by his descendants as parliamentary reporters up to the present day. The systems of Byrom (1767), Taylor (1786), Mavor (1789), and Lewis (1815) have each had their advocates, and were in general use till 1837, when Pitman's phonography was published. About 100 works were issued on the subject in England between 1602 and 1830. In France, Conin de Perpeau's Sténographie and Grosselin's Vocabulaire sténographique were the most popular systems. The fundamental principle of these various systems, differ as they might in other respects, was that they represented, by the position of their characters, every letter of the alphabet, and the additional sounds of the double consonants ch, sh, th, &c., while phonography deals only with the actual sounds, and analyzes these, arranging them according to their mutual relations. The shorthand writers had also characters to represent prepositions and terminations, arbitrary signs to indicate words of frequent recurrence, and other methods of abbreviation, by omissions and the like.

STENTOR, a Grecian herald in the Trojan war. Homer describes him as "great-hearted, brazen-voiced Stentor, who was accustomed to shout as loud as 50 other men." Hence the name has been applied proverbially to loudvoiced persons.

STEPHANUS OF BYZANTIUM, the author of the geographical lexicon called Evika, flourished probably in the beginning of the 6th century. There is scarcely another ancient author of whom so little is known, neither the age in which he lived nor any incidents of his life having been preserved; and his work, probably the earliest dictionary of geography ever written, exists only in an abridgment made by Hermolaus. A few fragments of the original are still extant. The title of the work has been made a subject of controversy. The original dictionary was full of valuable material for the history of ancient places and of quotations from ancient writers. There have been numerous editions of the epitome, of which the most useful is that of A. Westermann (8vo., Leipsic, 1839). It has been translated into German by S. C. Schirlitz.

STEPHEN, SAINT, the first martyr of the Christian church. He was, as appears from his name, a Hellenist by birth, and one of the 7 deacons in the Christian congregation of Jerusalem, who, upon the complaint of the Hellenists that their widows were neglected, had been chosen by order of the apostles to superintend every thing connected with the relief of the poor. The Jews charged him with having spoken against the law and the temple, against Moses, and against God, and by order of the sanhedrim he was stoned. Before his death he addressed his persecutors at length, and he died praying that those who put him to death might be forgiven. vi. and vii.) No information is given respecting the time of his death, but it is believed to have been in the year 36 or 37. He is annually commemorated by the Roman Catholic church on Dec. 26.


STEPHEN, the 4th king of England of the Anglo-Norman line, born in 1105, died Oct. 25, 1154. His father was Stephen, count of Blois, and his mother was Adela, or Adelicia, the 4th or 5th daughter of William the Conqueror; and Stephen was their 3d son and 6th child. He early became a favorite of Henry I., his maternal uncle, who knighted him in his youth, and gave him the earldom of Mortagne in Normandy, beside bestowing upon him several valuable estates in England. He procured his marriage to Matilda, heiress to the count of Boulogne, as early as 1114, by which Stephen became possessed of that title and property. When, in 1120, William, the heir of Henry I., and so many other members of the king's family and household, were lost by the foundering of the White ship, Stephen was saved from the same fate by leaving the vessel in consequence of finding that she was too crowded for safety. Henry employed him in various ways, and


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never abated his attachment to him, which originated in the circumstance that Adela, Stephen's mother, had been the king's most attached sister, rendering him important services when it was not supposed that he would ever reign. She had recommended her son, who was then a child, to her brother's protection, and Henry accepted and discharged the trust. Stephen was the second person of the laity who took the oath to support Henry's daughter, the empress, as queen of England and duchess of Normandy, should her father die without issue male. This oath was not thought to be binding, as it was not possible for a woman to discharge the duties of the kingly office according to feudal ideas of those duties, the most prominent regal attribute being command in war. The widowed empress, too, had married a Frenchman-Geoffrey Plantagenet, count of Anjou-and the marriage was in direct violation of the king's assurance, which was thought to have cancelled the obligation on the other side. It is asserted that Henry changed his mind just before his death, and released those who had sworn to support Matilda from their oath. Theobald, count of Blois, Stephen's eldest brother, was regarded by many Normans as the proper person to succeed Henry; but while they were deliberating, Stephen had hastened to England, and had there been crowned, Dec. 22, 1135. The archbishop of Canterbury believed that Henry had expressed an intention to leave his dominions to Stephen, whom the people loved because of his popular manners. He was, says Lappenberg, "distinguished for kindness, courtly manners, an amiable serenity of character, and a condescension which had long gained him the hearts of many among all conditions of people. On the other hand, he often proved himself imprudent and rash, and on his fairest promises no reliance could be placed. In short, he exhibited, in all its traits, a complete specimen of the accomplished Norman knight of those days, who, although capable of enacting many parts excellently well, was nevertheless but ill qualified to rule over a kingdom." Stephen confirmed to the English the immunities and good laws of Henry I., and also the laws and customs of Edward the Confessor. He obtained peace with Scotland by making cessions to King David, from whom he obtained acknowledgment and homage. At a meeting of barons and prelates at Oxford, he produced a letter from the pope expressing approval of his election to the throne. A charter was framed, by which the old privileges of all classes were confirmed, and certain abuses that had happened in the preceding reign were removed. The reign of Stephen was a period of constant war and tumult. He was involved in contests with the Welsh, who inflicted defeat and loss on the Normans. In the war that was renewed with Scotland in 1138, the English gained the great battle of the standard, Aug. 22. Revolts broke out, at different times, in various parts of the VOL. XV.-6

country. The cause of the empress Matilda was early taken up by a party in England, headed by her natural brother Robert, earl of Gloucester; and on Sept. 30, 1139, Matilda landed in England. The war was waged with various fortune, but Stephen was defeated and made prisoner, Feb. 2, 1141, at the battle of Lincoln. The greater portion of the country submitted to the victors; but Matilda's arrogance was so offensive that a reaction speedily took place. Her brother was defeated and captured in Sept. 1141, and was exchanged for Stephen. At the battle of Wilton, July 1, 1143, Gloucester was victorious, and the king preserved his freedom only by flight. The war raged for years, and the condition of England was made most deplorable. In 1153 Henry, son of the empress Matilda, arrived in England at the head of a considerable force, and defeated Stephen at Malmesbury. He was about to prosecute his advantages, when the leading men on both sides interposed to bring about a peace. This was found a less difficult task than had been anticipated, in consequence of the sudden death of the king's eldest son, Eustace. By the treaty of Winchester, Nov. 7, 1153, it was settled that Stephen should remain king of England for life, and that he should be succeeded by Henry; and that Stephen's son William should retain all his possessions acquired by marriage or otherwise, and all those which his father had held in Normandy, England, and elsewhere, before he became king. Stephen did not survive the making of this treaty quite one year, dying after a brief illness. His reign was the most miserable time ever known in England. The country was covered with castles, many hundreds of which were erected at this period; and it was devastated by the foreign soldiery, the king himself employing numerous mercenaries, principally from Flanders and Brittany. Stephen was the last of the AngloNorman kings of England, the throne passing on his death to the house of Plantagenet, in the person of Henry II.

STEPHEN I., king of Hungary. See HUN➡ GARY, vol. ix. p. 357.

STEPHEN, king of Poland. See POLAND, vol. xiii. p. 430.

STEPHEN, SIR JAMES, a British statesman and author, born in London in 1789, died in Coblentz, Sept. 15, 1859. He was graduated at Trinity hall, Cambridge, in 1812, and soon after called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn. He was appointed counsel in the colonial department of the public service, and in 1824 counsel to the board of trade. He held both offices until 1834, when he was promoted to be assistant under secretary. He was subsequently made permanent under secretary, and retired from office in 1847, when he was knighted. In 1849 he was elected regius professor of modern history in the university of Cambridge, an appointment which he held at the time of his death. For a number of years he was an active contributor to the "Edinburgh Review;"

and a collection of "Essays on Ecclesiastical Biography," first published in that periodical, has passed through several editions. He also published his collegiate course of "Lectures on the History of France" (2 vols., 1851), of which 3 editions have appeared, and some occasional lectures. A memoir of him is in preparation by his son Fitzjames Stephen.

STEPHENS, or STEPHANUS (Fr. Estienne or Étienne), the name of a French family of printers who flourished during the 16th and 17th centuries. HENRY, the founder of the family (born in Paris about 1460, died in 1520), established a printing house in Paris in 1502. He published mathematical and theological works, distinguished for the accuracy with which they were printed. His 3 sons, FRANCIS, ROBERT (born in Paris in 1503, died in Geneva in 1559), and CHARLES (born in Paris in 1504 or 1505, died in 1564), were largely engaged in printing. Robert, a man of great learning and industry, in his 20th year published an edition of the Latin New Testament, with some corrections by himself which excited the hostility of the doctors of the Sorbonne. At his house, which was the resort of the most eminent literary men of the day, Latin was the ordinary language of conversation, even among the children and servants, to whom it was taught by his wife, a woman of rare accomplishments. For many years scarcely a month passed in which some work, generally edited and corrected by himself, did not issue from his press. He is said to have publicly posted proof sheets of his works, with the offer of a premium for the detection of errors. In 1531 he began the publication of his Dictionarium, seu Thesaurus Lingua Latina, which he successively improved in 2 subsequent editions. His editions of the Bible and notes brought him into trouble with the Sorbonne, from which however he was protected during the life of Francis I., who had appointed him royal printer. After the king's death the Sorbonne caused the sale of his Bibles to be prohibited, and to insure his safety the printer retired to Geneva, where he died, it is said, in the Calvinistic faith. He published at least 11 complete editions of the Bible, in Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and French, beside many separate editions of the New Testament; and 382 other works, mostly of the first importance, came from his press. He first introduced the existing division of the New Testament into verses. Charles, the younger brother of Robert, devoted himself to physical sciences, and for some years practised medicine. He succeeded to his brother's business when the latter retired to Geneva, and was subsequently appointed printer to Henry II. His publications, scientific and classical, are numerous.-HENRY, Son of Robert (born in Paris in 1528, died in 1598), was esteemed one of the most learned men of his time. He spoke Latin with fluency while a child, and throughout his life was a profound student of Greek literature. His establishments were successively in Paris and Geneva;

but after the publication of his great work, the Thesaurus Linguæ Græcæ, the costliness of which confined it to a limited number of purchasers and involved the printer in pecuniary embarrassments, he led a nomadic life, travelling from city to city, exploring libraries, and collecting an immense amount of material for works which he was projecting, and which he published wherever he happened to be.Among others of the family were PAUL, son of the preceding (born in Geneva in 1566, died there in 1627), who succeeded his father in the management of the printing establishment at Geneva, which he conducted for many years; and ANTHONY his son (born in Geneva in 1592, died at the Hôtel Dieu in Paris in 1674), who for 50 years conducted a printing house in Paris with much energy, but died in great poverty.

STEPHENS, ALEXANDER H., an American statesman, born in Taliaferro co., Ga., Feb. 11, 1812. He was graduated at Franklin college, Athens, Ga., in 1832, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1834, and rapidly obtained a large and lucrative practice at Crawfordsville. In 1836 he was elected a member of the lower house in the legislature of Georgia, was reelected for 5 successive terms, and exerted himself with success to secure legislative aid for the system of internal improvements. In 1839 he was a delegate to the commercial convention at Charleston, S. C., and defended the measures proposed by the Georgia delegates against the assaults of those from South Carolina; and in 1842 he was elected to the state senate, where he actively sustained the measures of the whig party. In 1843 he was elected to congress by over 3,000 majority, though his party had previously been in a minority of more than 2,000, and held his seat till 1859. He supported Mr. Clay for the presidency in 1844, though differing from him on the question of the annexation of Texas, in favor of which he made one of his earliest speeches during his first term in congress. The authorship of the resolutions for its annexation was indeed due to him, conjointly with the Hon. Milton Brown of Tennessee. In Feb. 1847, he submitted a series of resolutions in relation to the Mexican war, which afterward formed the platform of the whig party. He opposed the Clayton compromise in 1848, and took a leading part in effecting the adjustment known as the compromises of 1850. The passage of the Kansas and Nebraska act of 1854 in the house of representatives was in great measure due to his efforts, as chairman of the committee on territories. After the breaking up of the whig party Mr. Stephens united with the democrats, and was a prominent champion of the measures of Mr. Buchanan's administration. At the close of the 35th congress Mr. Stephens declined to be again a candidate. During the presidential canvass of 1860 he sustained Messrs. Douglas and Johnson, and in numerous public addresses denounced those who advocated a dissolution of the Union in case of Mr.

Lincoln's election, and in an address before the state convention called after that event vigorously opposed the secession of Georgia. On Feb. 9, 1861, he was nevertheless elected by the confederate congress at Montgomery, Ala., provisional vice-president of the confederate states, and was inaugurated on the 18th of the same month. On April 22 he made a speech at Richmond, Va., in justification of the secession movement, and in July visited the principal cities of the southern seaboard states to urge the taking of the cotton loan. In November he was elected permanent vice-president of the southern confederacy.

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STEPHENS, ANN SOPHIA (WINTERBOTHAM), an American authoress, born in Derby, Conn., in 1813. She was married in 1832 to Edward Stephens of Plymouth, Mass., and in 1835 commenced her literary career as editress of the "Portland Magazine" and the "Portland Sketch Book," of which city her husband had become a resident. In 1837 she removed to New York, and soon became an active contributor to the "Ladies' Companion," "Graham's Magazine,' and a variety of similar periodicals, in which occupation she has continued to the present time. Her most elaborate work, "Fashion and Famine" (New York, 1854), has had considerable popularity at home and abroad, having appeared in three French versions in Paris. Among her other works are "Mary Derwent," which gained a prize of $400 offered by one of the periodicals; the "Heiress of Greenhurst," "The Old Homestead," and two books on needlework. She has been the editress of several literary magazines, for which she has written much in verse, but has published no collection of her poems.

STEPHENS, JOHN LLOYD, an American traveller and author, born in Shrewsbury, N. J., Nov. 28, 1805, died in New York, Oct. 10, 1852. He was graduated at Columbia college, New York, in 1822, studied law, and practised his profession in New York for 8 years. He then spent two years in foreign travel, and in 1837 published his "Incidents of Travel in Egypt, Arabia Petræa, and the Holy Land," followed in the succeeding year by "Incidents of Travel in Greece, Turkey, Russia, and Poland." both in 2 vols. 12mo. The lively style and great descriptive power of these works procured them a very large circulation both in America and Europe. In 1839 he was appointed by President Van Buren special ambassador to Central America, explored the ancient remains of that country, and on his return published "Incidents of Travel in Central Ameriea, Chiapas, and Yucatan" (2 vols. 8vo., New York, 1841); and in 1842 he again visited Yucatan, and published "Incidents of Travel in Yueatan” (2 vols. 8vo., 1843). These works were illustrated by his fellow-traveller, Mr. Catherwood, and the last two named are of special value as contributions to American antiquities. In 1846 Mr. Stephens was elected a member of the convention for revising the constitution of

the state of New York. He was a director of the "Ocean Steam Navigation Company," which established the first American line of transatlantic steamships, and went to Europe as the representative of the company on the trial trip of its first vessel, the Washington. In 1849 he was elected vice-president of the Panama railroad company, negotiated the contract for the right of way with the government of New Granada, was chosen president of the company, and during the winter of 1851-2 personally superintended the construction of the road, which was nearly completed before his death.

STEPHENSON, a N. W. co. of Illinois, bordering on Wisconsin, and intersected by the Pecatonica river; area, 550 sq. m.; pop. in 1850, 11,666; in 1860, 25,113. The surface is undulating and the soil fertile. The productions in 1860 were 228,267 bushels of wheat, 302,285 of Indian corn, 227,310 of oats, 16,023 tons of hay, 288,567 lbs. of butter, and 18,404 of wool. There were 3 newspaper offices, and 1,800 pupils attending public schools. Lead is found. It is traversed by the Illinois central and the Galena and Chicago railroads. Capital, Freeport.

STEPHENSON, GEORGE, the founder of the railway system of Great Britain, and perfecter of the locomotive engine, born in Wylam, Northumberland, June 9, 1781, died at Tapton park, near Chesterfield, Derbyshire, Aug. 12, 1848. His father, a worthy and industrious man, was fireman of the pumping engine at Wylam colliery, and by his utmost exertions was barely able to provide food and clothing for his family, much less to send them to school. George, the 2d of 6 children, consequently grew up without the slightest knowledge of books, and at years of age was employed at two pence a day to look after the cows of a neighbor, to which succeeded other kinds of farm work. It was, however, his highest ambition to follow his father's occupation; and at the age of 14, being known as a steady, intelligent boy, with a taste for mechan ics evinced in the construction of miniature engines and windmills, he was appointed assistant fireman at the Dewley Burn colliery, whither the family had removed. For several years he continued to be employed at various collieries as fireman, and afterward as plugman, and gradually acquired so complete a knowledge of the engine as to be able to take it apart and make any ordinary repairs. At 18 he was still ignorant of reading, and even of the letters of the alphabet; but within two years, partly by attending small night schools resorted to by the colliers' children, partly by his own perseverance, he was able to read, write, and cipher with tolerable facility. In 1802 he was married, but became a widower within two years, and removed in 1805 with his infant son, Robert, to Killingworth colliery, where his little earnings were speedily absorbed by the demands which his father's poverty imposed upon

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