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strong, concise, and only occasionally impas. Sullivan, (1774-1839), Matthew Carey (1760-
sioned; and his power, as Webster has observ- 1830), J. T. Buckingham, Martin Van Buren
ed, “consisted in the plainness of his proposi- (1782-1862), W. L. Marcy (1786–1857), Thomas
tions, the closeness of his logic, and in the Ritchie, Joseph Gales, Robert Walsh, Isaac Hill,
earnestness and energy of his manner.” His William Leggett (1802–'39), Amos Kendall,
literary remains exhibit unusual philosophical Calvin Colton, J. H. Hammond, Nathan Hale,
acumen and power of analysis. To the politi- David Hale, Richard Hildreth, Joshua Leavitt,
cal orators and statesmen of this period belong Morton McMichael, Hamilton Pleasants, T. R.
also John Quincy Adams (1769–1848), remark- R. Cobb, G. D. Prentice, W. C. Bryant, J. G.
able for the universality of his knowledge and Palfrey, Robert Barnwell Rhett, Joseph Chan-
his independence of judgment; John Randolph dler, James Gordon Bennett, J. D. B. De Bow,
of Roanoke (1793–1832), an eccentric but John Fletcher, George Fitzhugh, J. L. O'Sulli-
powerful and pointed speaker, and a master of van, Edwin Croswell, Thurlow Weed, J. W.
invective; Albert Gallatin (1761-1849); R. Y. Forney, Horace Greeley, Parke Godwin, H. J.
Hayne (1791–1839), the eloquent antagonist of Raymond, N. Paschall, B. Gratz Brown, C. H.
Webster; De Witt Olinton (1769–1828), Tris- Ray, James Brooks, Erastus Brooks, and many
tam Burgess (1770-1853), George McDuffie others. Under this head also come the com-
(1788–1851), Silas Wright (1795-1847), H. S. prehensive “Commentaries on the Constitution
Legaré (1797–1843); W. Ò. Preston (1794 of the United States," by Justice Story, the lec-
1860), and S. S. Prentiss (1808–250), whose tures on the same subject by W. A. Duer (1780–
productions represent the most ornate and 1858), and the “ Constitutional History of the
Horid school of American oratory; T. H. Ben- United States," by G. T. Ourtis. The most emi-
ton (1782-1858), whose "Thirty Years' View" nent writers on political economy are H. O. Ca-
and Abridgment of the Debates in Con- rey (born 1793), whose “Principles of Political
gress” afford invaluable materials to the his- Economy," “Credit System in France, England,
torian of national politics; A. H. Everett and the United States,” “The Past, the Present,
(1792–1847), J. R. Poinsett (1779-1851), Lewis and the Future," and numerous other works,
Cass (born 1782), Levi Woodbury (1789-1851), maintain protection doctrines in a clear, terse
Caleb Oushing (born 1800), John Sergeant style; President Francis Wayland (born 1796)
(1779-1852), W. H. Seward (1801), J. J. Crit- and Henry Vethake, the latter an advocate of free
tenden (1785), J. M. Hammond (1807), R. O. trade, who have published valuable text books
Winthrop (1809), H. A. Wise (1806), S. A. on the subject; Francis Lieber, A. H. Everett,
Douglas (1813–'61), and R. M. T. Hunter (1809). William Leggett, Beverly Tucker, Albert Gal-
The most accomplished orator of the period latin, John Bristed, Calvin Colton, Condy Ra-
with respect to rhetorical finish and elocution guet, Stephen Colwell, Francis Bowen, Alon-
is Edward Everett (born 1794), whose pro- zo Potter, E. C. Seaman, E. Peshine Smith,
ductions, including his oration on Washing. George Opdyke, W. M. Gouge, and William
ton, which has been delivered before public Maclure. The writers on social science and
assemblies in many parts of the country, are ethics comprise Francis Lieber, author of trea-
thoroughly American in tone, and possess a tises on “Liberty and Self-Government” and
permanent and intrinsic merit. Rufus Choate “Political Ethics;" G. H. Calvert, T. Sedgwick,
(1799-1859), in his forensic arguments and A. Gurowski, Bishop J. H. Hopkins, who have
occasional public addresses, exhibited not less discussed the subject generally. W. L. Garri-
rhetorical excellence and more fervor than son, Richard Hildreth, T. D. Weld, H. R. Help-
Everett; and Charles Sumner (born 1811) er, M. D. Conway, E. M. Stearns, T. String-
excels in strength and clearness of state- fellow, G. Fitzhugh, A. T. Bledsoe, and oth-
ment, ripe scholarship, and nobility of diction. ers have written on the institution of slavery;
Among the anti-slavery orators, to which class W. P. Foulke, L. Dwight, J. S. Gould, and
Mr. Sumner properly belongs, may be enumer- Miss Dorothea L. Dix, on prison discipline and
ated Wendell Phillips (born 1811), a vigorous kindred topics; and Mrs. C. H. Dall on the
and impulsive speaker, frequently rising to a rights of woman.-In no department has the
strain of impassioned eloquence; J. R. Giddings intellectual development of the country been
(1795), Cassius M. Clay (1810), Theodore Par- more conspicuous than in that of jurisprudence,
ker (1810-'60), Henry Ward Beecher (1813), R. and the treatises, digests, and reports emanat-
W. Emerson, Frederic Douglass (1817), and G. ing from American authors and jurists already
B. Cheever (1807), whose oratory in general fill several thousand volumes, and form a valu-
exhibits similar characteristics. The list of able addition to legal literature. The “Com-
occasional orators, in addition to the names of mentaries on American Law," by James Kent,
most of the foregoing, includes those of Joseph published in 1826–'30, are written with great
Story (1779-1845), James Kent (1763-1847), clearness and force of reasoning, and constitute
G. O. Verplanck (1786), Horace Binney (1780), the chief manual of general reference and ele-
T. S. Grimke (1786–1834), Orville Dewey mentary instruction. Of the numerous works
(1794), Horace Bushnell (1802), E. H. Chapin of Justice Story, those on equity jurispru-
(1814), H. B. Bascom (1796), G. S. Hillard dence, partnership, bailınents, and “The Con-
(1808), H. W. Bellows (1814), and many oth- fict of Laws," are well known everywhere; the

The political writers comprise William “Elements of International Law” and “ History

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of the Law of Nations,” by Henry Wheaton, proportion of the Unitarian clergy have since have become standard works of reference in been graduated. Prominent among these were Europe; and the treatises of Edward Livings- Andrews Norton (1786-1853), author of a treston on penal law, of Simon Greenleaf on evi- tise on the “Genuineness of the Gospels;" Hendence, of Willard Phillips on insurance, of F. ry Ware, Henry Ware, jr., and William Ware, Wharton on criminal law, beside many by J. G. Palfrey, Jared Sparks, N. L. Frothingham, David Hoffman, St. George Tucker, J. K. An- James Walker, Orville Dewey, F. W. P. Greengell, John Bouvier, G. T. Curtis, L. S. Cush- wood, W. H. Furness, and G. W. Burnap. Of ing, W. A. and John Duer, F. Hilliard, Mur- somewhat later date are A. P. Peabody, Samuel ray Hoffman, Theophilus Parsons, Theodore Osgood, F. H. Hedge, G. E. Ellis, H. W. Bellows, Sedgwick, W. W. Story, and others, are A. A. Livermore, V. A. Bartol, A. B. Muzzey, and creditable to the legal learning of the country. J. F. Clarke. Distinguished from these is a new -The theological and religious writers of the rationalistic school of Unitarianism, chiefly repperiod comprise a numerous and able body, resented by Theodore Parker (1810-'60), whose whose works, devoted rather to practical illus- writings evince profound scholarship and logitration than to theoretical speculation, have in cal method, and furnish frequent examples of many instances become standard authorities on rhetorical beauty and force. On political and the subjects of which they treat, and, in view social questions he also wrote and spoke with of the multiplicity of sects from which they peculiar earnestness. The principal writers emanate, express unusually broad and catholic of the Protestant Episcopal denomination are views. In the department of biblical criticism Bishop C. P. McIlvaine, author of a treatise on American theologians are everywhere honor- the “Evidences of Christianity;” Bishop T. ably distinguished. Of Presbyterian writers, C. Brownell, author of commentaries on the the most eminent are Samuel Miller (1769–1850), “Book of Common Prayer;" Bishops Alonzo author, among other works, of several treatises Potter, George Burgess, J. M. Wainwright, J. on the distinguishing features of Presbyterian- H. Hopkins, and W. I. Kip; S. F. Jarvis, S. H.

Edward Robinson (born 1794), best known Tyng, F. L. Hawks, J. S. Stone, A. C. Cose, by his researches in biblical geography; Albert S. H. Turner, G. T. Bedell, R. Á. Hallam, T. Barnes (1798), whose “Notes on the Gospels” W. Coit, F. D. Huntingdon, Calvin Colton, and commentaries on other portions of Scrip- G. C. Verplanck, A. H. Vinton, J. A. Spencer, ture are widely known in America and Eng- and Samuel Seabury. Among the Baptists

, land ; Nicholas Murray (Kirwan), author of the most noted are President Francis Wayseveral controversial publications ; S. Davies, land, William Hague, H. B. Hackett, H. J. Ashbel Green (1762-1848), Gardiner Spring Ripley, Baron Stow, Alvah Hovey, W. R. Wil. (1785), Charles Hodge (1797), James Richards liams, T. J. Conant, J. Belcher, R. Turnbull, (1793–1843), R. J. Breckinridge (1800), Archi- Richard Fuller, and J. B. Jeter; and among bald, J. W., and Joseph A. Alexander, T. H. the Methodists, Nathan Bangs, P. D. Gorrie, Skinner, I. S. Spencer, William Adams, Thomas John and Robert Emory, Stephen Olin, H. B. Smyth, Robert Baird, J. H. Thornwell

, and J. Bascom, D. D. Whedon, J. McClintock, Abel B. Walker. The Trinitarian Congregationalists Stevens, W. P. Strickland, D. Curry, James are represented by Moses Stuart (1780–1852), Floy, D. Wise, Osmyn Baker, Thomas Stockauthor of various scriptural commentaries, and ton, B. F. Tefft, and Alexander Green. The distinguished as a philologist ; Leonard Woods Roman Catholics are represented by Arch(1798-1854), Horace Bushnell (born 1802), Ed- bishops F. P. and P. R. Kenrick and John wards A. Park (1808), Lyman Beecher (1775), Hughes, the last two chiefly distinguished as Edward Beecher (1804), N. W. Taylor, Bennet controversial writers; Bishops J. England and Tyler, E. N. Kirk, Nehemiah Adams, Mark H. Spaulding; I. T. Hecker and 0. A. BrownHopkins, Nathan Lord, Joel Hawes, Leonard son, who has written several of his most notice. Bacon, G. B. Cheever, J. P. Thompson, T. C. able review articles on theological subjects. In Upham, J. Torrey, W. G. T. Shedd, Henry B. other denominations the prominent names are Smith, and George Punchard, author of a "His- George Bush, a follower of Swedenborg, and tory of Congregationalism,” &c. At about the author of a treatise on the “Doctrine of the Recommencement of this period a memorable con- surrection of the Body” and numerous commentroversy took place in New England between taries and miscellaneous writings; Philip Schaff, Samuel Worcester, representing the conserva- J. W. Nevin, and H. Harbaugh, of the

German tive or orthodox Congregationalists, and W. E. Reformed, and S. S. Schmucker, of the Lutheran Channing in behalf of the Unitarians, who church; Hosea Ballou, E. H. Chapin, and T. thenceforth became an independent, and, in pro- Whittemore, of the Universalist denomination; portion to their numbers, an important sect. and T. Evans and S. M. Janney, members of the The writings of Channing had great influence in society of Friends. Many of the above, including moulding

the opinions now generally held by Brownson, Parker, Walker, and Wayland, have Unitarians in America, and contemporary with written on moral philosophy and metaphysics. him were a body of divines and scholars of con- The school of Locke is represented by Francis siderable literary culture, resident chiefly in Bowen, Frederic Beasley, and others; while Boston and its vicinity, and whose education Parker, Walker, James Marsh, and Emerson was acquired at Ilarvard college, where a large have borrowed more or less from the German

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idealists and the French eclectics. C. S. Henry Among these may be enumerated the “Crania and 0. W. Wight have made the philosophy of Americana," "Crania Ægyptica,” and other Cousin familiar to American readers; J. Marsh works by S. G. Morton (1799–1851); the “Bibhas expounded the doctrines of Coleridge; and lical and Physical History of Man,” by J. C. Samuel Tyler has produced, in his “ Discourse Nott (born 1804); the elaborate “Types of on the Baconian Philosophy," one of the most Mankind" and "Indigenous Races of the profound metaphysical disquisitions of the cen- Earth,” both profusely illustrated, by J. C. tury. Other contributors to this department Nott and G. Ř. Gliddon; the “Diversity of are Herman Hooker, Hubbard Winslow, Jo- Origin of Human Races,” by Louis Agassiz seph Haven, H. P. Tappan, Asa Mahan, T. O. (born 1807); the “Doctrine of the Origin of Upham, Henry James, Roswell Park, W. T. G. the Human Race,” by John Bachman; the Shedd, W. D. Wilson, Job Durfee, L. P. Hic- “Progress of Ethnology," by J. R. Bartlett; kok (whose systematic writings on the higher the “Races of Men and their Geographical branches of philosophy are among the ablest Distribution,” by Charles Pickering; and othspecimens of profound discussion), and George er works by Arnold Guyot, F. W. Redfield, T. Payne.—Under the head of philology may be Smyth, and A. Meigs. Intimately connected mentioned the two great dictionaries of the with this department are the works illustrating English language by Noah Webster (1758- the origin and antiquities of the aboriginal 1843) and Joseph E. Worcester (born 1784), tribes of America, the most important of which which have superseded all others in popular are the elaborate series by H. R. Schoolcraft, use in the United States ; the “Lectures on and more particularly his “Historical and the English Language" and other works by G. Statistical Information” previously mentioned; P. Marsh ; the “ Dictionary of Americanisms,” the “ American Antiquities and Researches into by J. R. Bartlett; and the writings of Goold the Origin of the Red Race," by A. W. BradBrown, W. S. Fowler, and others who have de- ford; the “Ancient Monuments of the Misvoted themselves particularly to the structure sissippi Valley," by E. G. Squier and E. H. and etymology of the English language. The ab- Davis; the "Aboriginal Monuments of the original languages of North America have been State of New York,” and the “Serpent Symtreated by John Pickering, Albert Gallatin, H. bol,” by E. G. Squier; and various writings by R. Schoolcraft, P. E. Duponceau, E. G. Squier, Albert Gallatin, J. L. Stephens, W. W. Turner, W. W. Turner, and Mrs. Eastman; and gram- G. Catlin, and others. The number of works mars and vocabularies of the most important devoted to travel and exploration is greatly in dialects have been prepared by missionaries and excess of that of either of the preceding peothers specially interested in the subject. In riods; and the contributions to geographical oriental literature the investigations of Amer- knowledge, particularly on the American conican philologists have been of great value; and tinent, have been numerous and important. to American scholars, and particularly mission- Among the works illustrating European travel aries, Europe is largely indebted for its knowl- and scenery may be mentioned Pleasant edge of a number of the languages of eastern Memories of Pleasant Lands," by Mrs. Sigour. Asia, Africa, and the Pacific islands. Among ney; "The Old World and the New," by Orthose who have gained eminence by their con- ville Dewey; "Letters from Abroad,” by Miss tributions to biblical philology are Edward Rob- Sedgwick; “A Year in Spain" and "Spain inson and Tayler Lewis

, both also distinguished Revisited,” by A. S. Mackenzie; “Pencillings as Greek scholars; Moses Stuart, S. H. Turner, J. by the Way," by N. P. Willis; "The Pilgrim W. Gibbs, B. B. Edwards, G. R. Noyes, George in the Shadow of Mont Blanc," by G. B. Bush, T. J. Conant, and H. B. Hackett. În Cheever; “Six Months in Italy," by G. S. Hilother branches of oriental philology the chief lard; “Views a-Foot” and other works by works are the “Burmese Dictionary," by Ado- Bayard Taylor (born 1825), one of the most niram Judson; the “English and Chinese Vo- active and entertaining of modern travellers; cabulary,” by S. Wells Williams; and the “Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands," by Mrs. “Grammar and Dictionary of the Karen Lan- Stowe; “Hungary in 1851” and “The Norse guage," by F. Mason; beside the writings of Folk,” by C. L. Brace; and many by W. O. W. W. Turner, Professors W. D. Whitney Bryant, William Ware, Caleb Cushing, H. T. and E. E. Salisbury_of Yale college, J. G. Cheever, J. T. Headley, Calvin Colton, Pliny Palfrey, E. Riggs, W. W. Greenough, and Miles, Benjamin Silliman, S. I. Prime, Horace Charles Kraitsir, several of whom have con- Greeley, H. T. Tuckerman, J. A. Dix; R. Santributed important papers to the “ Journal derson, Mrs. Kemble, Mrs. Octavia W. Le of the American Oriental Society.” Among Vert, Miss A. O. Johnson, and others. The miscellaneous philological writers may be enu- most noticeable books upon the East are the merated 0. A. Goodrich, Professor Schele de two series of “ Biblical Researches in the Holy Vere, and Horatio Hale, author of the “ Eth- Land,” by Edward Robinson, the result of an nography and Philology of the United States extended tour in the East, and which are reExploring Expedition " under the command of garded by biblical scholars everywhere as of Capt. Wilkes.—The contributions to ethnology the highest value; “Travels in Egypt, Arabia comprise some of the most costly works which Petræa, and the Holy Land," by J. L. Stephens; have yet appeared from the American press. “The Land and the Book," by W. M. Thomson;


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“The Pathways and Abiding Places of Our Marcy; to Texas and New Mexico, by J. R. Lord,” by J. M. Wainwright; “Nile Notes of Bartlett; to Utah, by Capt. Howard Stansbury; a Howadji” and “The Howadji in Syria,” by to Arizona and the Gila river, by Lieut. Col. W. G. W. Curtis; “Boat Life Egypt and Nubia" H. Emory; to the southern hemisphere, by Lieut. and “Tent Life in the Holy Land," by W. C. J. M. Gilliss; to Japan, by Commodore M. L. Prime; “Yusef,” by J. Ross Bro vne; “The Perry; to the Rio de La Plata, by Lieut. T. S. Middle Kingdom,” by S. Wells Williams;

beside Page; to the Amazon, by Lieuts. W. L. Herndon others by Bayard Taylor, W. Colton, Horatio and L. Gibbon; and to the Dead sea, by Lieut. Southgate, Stephen Olin, S. I. Prime, and R. W. F. Lynch. The chief arctic explorers are B. Minturn. Books of maritime adventure or Elisha Kent Kane (1820–57), whose narratives travel may be represented by W. S. W. Rusch- of the two Grionell expeditions in search of Sir enberger's “ Voyage round the World” and John Franklin are among the most interesting “Three Years in the Pacific;" R. II. Dana, jr.'s works of their class yet produced; and I. I. "Two Years before the Mast;" Walter Col- Hayes, author of “An Arctic Boat Journey." ton's “Deck and Port," and other works; H.T. –The wide field of natural history has been Cheever's “Island World of the Pacific;" H. A. explored during this period with results highly Wise's “Los Gringos;" and Charles Nordhoff's creditable to the sagacity and industry of “Man-of-War Life," and other highly graphic American philosophers. The most important narratives of a similar character. Of works work in this department, and the most costly relating to the United States and its territories, ever published in the country, is the “Birds the most important are Irving's “ Astoria” and of America,” by John James Audubon (1780– “Tour on the Prairies,” which in point of 1851), remarkable for the vivacity of its destyle and interest are not inferior to any thing scriptive passages and its splendid illustrations, he wrote; Timothy Flint's “Residence and American zoology has been further treated by Wanderings in the Valley of the Mississippi;" Charles Lucien Bonaparte, Thomas Nuttall

, J. the various narratives of travel on the upper P. Giraud, and John Cassin, who have written Mississippi by Schoolcraft; Bayard Taylor's on ornithology; by Louis Agassiz, whose pub“El Dorado;" the accurate and graphic "Jour- lications on comparative embryology, ichthyolney in the Seaboard Slave States," "Journey ogy, the geographical distribution of animals

, through Texas," and " Journey in the Back and analogous subjects, are of the highest orCountry,” by F. L. Olmsted; and many by der of merit; by J. E. Holbrook, author of the George Catlin, G. W. Kendall, J. T. Headley, most complete work on North American herT. B. Thorpe, H. Greeley, O. W. Webber, petology yet published; by Thomas Say, T. M. F. Parkman, and others. The geography and Harris, and J. L. Le Conte, who have written antiquities of Central America have been elab- on entomology; and by Zadoc Thompson, A. orately described by J. L. Stephens in his A. Gould, B. S. Barton, T. A. Conrad, J. D. “ Travels in Central America " and “Inci- Dana, Isaac Lea, Jeffries Wyman, J. Bachman, dents of Travel in Yucatan;" by E. G. Squier J. E. De Kay, J. D. Godman, V. G. Audubon, S. in his “Nicaragua” and “Notes on Central Kneeland, jr., and a number of others, who America;" and by B. M. Norman in his have illustrated various branches of the sub“Ruined Cities of Yucatan." Among other ject. The most eminent writers on botany works relating to the American hemisphere are are Asa Gray, author of several valuable eleF. F. IIolton's “New Granada;" O. S. Stew- mentary works and manuals ; John Torrey, art's “ Brazil and La Plata ;" “ Brazil and the who is now preparing in conjunction with Brazilians,” by D. P. Kidder and J. C. Fletch- Gray the most complete American flora yet er; John Bigelow's " Jamaica in 1850;" R. B. undertaken; Amos Eaton, Stephen Elliot, ThoKimball's "Letters from Cuba” and “Cuba mas Nuttall, A. B. Strong, Jacob Bigelow, D. and the Cubans;" W. H. Hurlburt's “Gan J. Browne, and Alphonso Wood; on geology, Eden, or Pictures of Cuba ;" and F.S. Cozzens's President Edward Hitchcock, Samuel Maclure, Acadia.” A peculiar and important class of W. B. and II. D. Rogers, J.G. Percival, Ebenezer books of travel has resulted from the explora- Emmons, T. Sterry Hunt, C. T. Jackson, D. D. tions undertaken at various times by the United Owen, J. D. Whitney, J. W.Forster, W. C. States government, with a view of adding to Redfield, O. H. Hitchcock, J. T. Hodge

, James the general stock of geographical knowledge, Hall, Joseph Leidy, H. C. Lea, and W. . or of developing the resources of its own ter- Mather, of whom the last four are also disritory. The most elaborate of these is the tinguished as palæontologists; and on miner: “Narrative of the United States Exploring Ex- alogy, Professor J. D. Dana, author of a well pedition around the World," by Capt. Charles known " Treatise on Mineralogy," P. CleveWilkes, in 5 volumes; and of not less impor- land, L. C. Beck, and C. U. Shepard. The tance to the cause of geographical science are writers on chemistry include Benjamin Silthe narratives of exploration among the Rocky liman and Benjamin Silliman, jr., Robert Hare, mountains and in Oregon and California by Col. C. T. Jackson, J. W. Draper, Joseph Henry, John Charles Fremont, for which he received E. N. Horsford, John Torrey, E. L. Youmans, the gold medal of the royal geographical society and Campbell Morfit; and in other branches of Great Britain; and the reports of expeditions of natural science the most noted names are M. to the Red river of Louisiana, by Capt. R. B. F. Maury, author of the " Physical Geography

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of the Sea” and other works, W. O. Redfield, tion,” by Horace Mann (1796–1859); “ National J. P. Espy, and John Brocklesby, distinguish- Education in Europe," by Henry Barnard; ed as meteorologists; J. W. Bailey, an emi- “ The Theory and Practice of Teaching," by D. nent microscopist; A. D. Bache, the superin- P. Page;

“ The Student's Manual," by John tendent of the United States coast survey; Todd; " University Education," by Chancellor Joseph Henry, who has made important dis- H. P. Tappan: “ The School and Schoolmascoveries in electro-magnetism ; Samuel For- ter," by Bishop Alonzo Potter and G. B. Emerry and Lorin Blodgett, climatologists; and S. son; beside others by F. A. P. Barnard, William d. Walker, B. A. Gould, G. P. Bond, 0. M. Russell, Barnas Sears, G. F. Thayer, W. A. AlMitchel, Denison Olmsted, J. M. Gilliss, Han- cott, W. O. Woodbridge, Hubbard Winslow, A. nah M. Peterson, Maria Mitchell, W. A. Norton, B. Alcott, W. H. McGuffey, J. S. Hart, and S. G. and Elias Loomis, distinguished chiefly as as- Howe. Under this head may also be included the tronomers. The most eminent mathemati- “Five Years in an English University," by O. A. cian whom the country has yet produced is Bristed. The general excellence and enormous Nathaniel Bowditch (1773–1838), author of a production and sale of school books are perhaps translation, with a commentary, of Laplace's the most remarkable features of American literMécanique céleste, and of the well known ature. It will suffice here to mention the Latin “Practical Navigator,” now in almost universal lexicons of F. P. Leverett and E. A. Andrews; use. Other writers on mathematics are Ben- the Latin and Greek grammars and elementary jamin Peirce, Charles Davies, O. H. Davis, and books of Andrews, O. C. Felton, Charles AnThomas Hill. Many of the above named have thon, J. McClintock, J. Hadley, J. R. Boise, been contributors to the reports and publica- A. Crosby, A. Harkness, E. A. Sophocles, P. tions of the Smithsonian institution, or have Bullions, and S. H. Taylor; and the editions of participated in the scientific labors of the Unit- classical authors by President T. D. Woolsey, ed States exploring expedition and similar un- Anthon, Felton, H. S. Frieze, T. A. Thacher, dertakings.—Of the numerous works on medi- Tayler Lewis, J. J. Owen, J. L. Lincoln, C. S. cine and surgery produced during this period, Wheeler, and O. K. Dillaway. English grammar it will suffice to mention the “ Treatise on the and composition have been treated by Samuel Practice of Medicine," by G. B. Wood; “ Dis- Kirkham, Goold Brown, J. Greenleaf, P. Bulpensatory of the United States,” by G. B. Wood lions, W. H. Wells, Allan Weld, R. G. Parker, and F. Bache; “ Elements of Medical Jurispru- and G. P. Quackenbos; and the spelling books dence," by J. B. and T. Romeyn Beck; “Ele- of Noah Webster, O. W. Sanders, and S. Town ments of Pathological Anatomy,” by S. D. have had a prodigious circulation. The chief Gross; Materia Medica and Therapeutics," writers of mathematical text books are Daniel by J. Eberle; “The Principles of Surgery,” Adams, Warren Colburn, O. W. Hackley, 0. by W. Gibson; “The Elements of Medicine," Davies, E. Loomis, G. R. Perkins, T. Sherwin, by S. H. Dickson; the treatises on “Midwife. B. Greenleaf, F. Emerson, D. Leach, W. M. Gilry” and “Diseases of Females," by W. P. lespie, W. D. Swan, and J. F. Stoddard; and of Dewees; the treatise on “Obstetrics,” by O. school geographies, atlases, etc., W. O. WoodD. Meigs; the “Human Physiology” and “Dic- bridge, Mrs. Emma Willard, Jesse Olney, J. E. tionary of Medical Science,” by R. Dunglison; Worcester, R. C. Smith, S. A. Mitchell, F. “ American Medical Botany” and “Nature in McNally, and Miss S. S. Cornell.—Among Disease," by Jacob Bigelow; “Letters to a works on the science of war may be menYoung Physician," by James Jackson; and tioned those on military tactics by Lieut. “Surgical Observations on Tumors,” by J. O. Gen. Winfield Scott (born 1786) and W. J. Warren; beside which there are many of rep- Hardee; A. Mordecai's “ Artillery for the utation by D. Hosack, J. W. Francis, S. G. Mor- United States Land Service;" D. H. Mahan's ton, J. W. Draper, S. Forry, J. Bell, P. Earle, works on civil engineering, fortifications, &c.; 0. W. Holmes, G. S. Bedford, Horace Green, H. W. Halleck's “ Elements of Military Art and O. A. Harris, W. E. Horner, P. S. Physick, O. Science;" J. A. Dahlgren's “System of Boat Wistar, Martyn Paine, Valentine Mott, J. Pan- Armament” and “Shells and Shell Guns ;" coast, L. V. Bell, W. W. Sanger, A. Brigham, O. B. Stuart's “Naval Dry Docks of the L. M. Lawson, T. D. Mitchell, T. D. Mütter, United States;" J. G. Barnard's “Notes on Sea Bennet Dowler, J. A. Swett, Daniel Drake, Coast Defence;" J. H. Ward's “Elementary Charles Caldwell, H. H. Smith, E. Parrish, Course of Instruction in Ordnance and Naval J. King, A. Stillé, Winslow Lewis, G. Hay- Gunnery;" De Hart's “Constitution and Pracward, J. W. Smith, P. Townsend, W. W. Ger- tice of Courts Martial;" Col. H. L. Scott's “Dichard, J. R. Cox, P. F. Eve, S. F. Condie, J. tionary of Military Science;" beside many by O. Dalton, and W. H. Van Buren. The prin- J. G. and B. J. Totten, E. L. Vielé, W. N. Jeffers, cipal writers of the homeopathic school are jr., H. D. Grafton, J. G. Benton, and others. 0. Hering, E. E. Marcy, J. C. Peters, J. H.-Comparatively few authors have written on Pulte, and O. J. Hempel.—The theory of edu- the fine arts; the most prominent are W. Duncation has occupied a large share of the at- lap, author of a “ History of the Arts of Detention of American writers during this period; sign in America ;" J. J. Jarves, author of “ Art and among many valuable works on the subject Hints” and “Art Studies ;" Washington Allston, may be mentioned the “Lectures on Educa- Horatio Greenough, H. T. Tuckerman, B. J.

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