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Lossing, W. H. Fry, Mrs. H. F. Lee, Thomas of man, he shaped his government, laws, and Hastings, and Lowell Mason, who have devoted penalties with express reference to these emerthemselves to sculpture, painting, and music. gencies, and adapted the spiritual forces to the Rural architecture and landscape gardening final overcoming of all evil; that being alhave been illustrated by A. J. Downing (1815- mighty, he can convert and save a world of '52) in a number of gracefully written treatises sinners as easily as he converted and saved and essays; and Samuel Sloan, 0. Vaux, G. Saul of Tarsus or Matthew the publican, and Wheeler, T. W. Walter, R. Upjohn, M. Field, without any more violation of "free agency" and others have published general works on in the one case than in the other. They also architecture. Of the numerous works pro- believe in the perfection of the divine justice; duced on agricultural and horticultural subjects and affirm, on this ground, that God would not may be cited “European Agriculture and Ru- impose on finite beings a law infinite in its deral Economy,” by II. Colman; the “Farmer's mands and penalties; but that, being perfectly Companion” and “Farmer's Instructor," by just, he will deal with every man according to Jesse Buel; E. Ruffin's “Calcareous Manures;" his works, whether good or bad. II. They R. L. Allen's “ American Herd Book” and uniformly reject the doctrine of the Trinity, “ American Farm Book;" R. Buist's “Ameri- giving to Christ the second place, and making can Flower Garden Directory;" Downing's him subordinate to the Father. They beliere “Fruit and Fruit Trees of America ;” “The that he is gifted with spirit and power abore Fruit Garden,” by P. Barry; the “Fruit Trees all other intelligences; that he is “God mani. of America,” by C. M. Hovey; the “ Muck fest in the flesh," i. e., that God has displayed Manual,” by S. L. Dana; H. S. Randall's in him the brightness of his glory and the er“Sheep Husbandry;" L. T. Smith's “American press image of his person, as in no other being Farmer's Hand-Book ;" beside many valua- tabernacled in flesh; that he was sent of God ble publications by J. S. Skinner, O. L. Flint, to be the Saviour of the world, and that he J. J. Mapes, D. J. Browne, T. Bridgman, W. will actually save it, because God would not Gaylord, L. Tucker, II. S. Olcott, and others. offer, nor would Christ accept, a mission which The useful manuals of Mrs. Hale, Miss O. E. both knew would end in failure; therefore, Beecher, and Miss Leslie represent the con- they say, the work of redemption will be tributions to domestic economy. J. R. Snow- thorough and universal. III. They beliere den and W. C. Prime are the principal writers that man was and is created upright, but liable on numismatics ; E. Jarvis, L. Shattuck, J. to sin ; that transgression comes not out of Chickering, and J. D. B. De Bow represent any original corruption of heart, transmitted the statisticians; James Renwick and Thomas from Adam, but out of ignorance and unbeliet; Ewbank the writers on mechanics ; H. W. that all men are formed, as Adam was, in the Herbert has a unique reputation as a writer on moral image of God; and that this image, field sports in America; and C. E. Lester has though it may be disfigured by sin, can never been a prolific miscellaneous author. Among be wholly lost. Faith and regeneration remove the miscellaneous literature of the period may the stains and defilements of sin, and renew be classed the numerous volumes of " Collec- or reform the soul in the divine likeness, IV, tions" and "Memoirs” illustrating the national They believe the new birth to be that thorough history, published by the historical societies of change of heart which takes place when a man, the several states, particularly by those of wrought upon by divine grace, forsakes his sins, Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania. or turns from his former life of worldliness and The “Archæologia Americana," or transac- indifference toward God and the Saviour, and tions of the American antiquarian society, form is drawn into fellowship with the Holy Spirit
, also a valuable contribution to the archæologi- and, thus quickened into new spiritual vitality, cal literature of the country. Lastly, the foun- consecrates himself to a life of active goodness dations of American bibliography have been and piety. This new birth is not supernatural, laid by the valuable works of Isaiah Thomas, but the result of appointed means suitably im. 0. A. Roorbach, G. P. Putnam, Nicholas Trüb- proved. The Holy Spirit blesses the use of ner, Herman Ludewig, H. Ternaux, H. Ste- these means, and moves upon the heart of the vens, O. Rich, and E. B. O'Callaghan. The pe- sinner, encouraging, comforting, assisting, saneriodical literature of the country is treated un- tifying. They do not believe in instantaneous der that head, and also under NewSPAPERS. regeneration, though they allow that there may
UNIVERSALISTS, a religious denomina- be a turning point in the life of every man, when tion, holding the final destruction of evil, and his attention is specially directed to religion. the restoration of all souls through Jesus Christ. Conversion is only the commencement of reliThe following statement will probably repre- gious effort. V. They teach that salvation is not sent the belief of the great majority of Univer- shelter nor safety, nor escape from present or salists of the present day. I. They believe that future punishment. It is inward and spiritual, God is infinite in all his perfections, creating and not from any outward evil
, but deliverance man with the fixed purpose that the existence from error, unbelief, sin, the tyranny of the flesh he was about to bestow should prove a final and its hurtfol lusts, into the liberty and blessed and everlasting blessing; that, foreseeing all ness of a holy life, and supreme love to God and the temptations, transgressions, and struggles man. This is an important doctrinal and prac
tical point with Universalists, and is constantly therefore all suffering must have a beneficent enforced in their preaching and writings. They element in it, all punishment must be tempourge on all to seek salvation, not from the tor- rary and end in good.—The Universalists bements of a future hell, but from the present lieve that traces of their main doctrine may be captivity of sin. In reply to the objection found in the earliest Christian writings. Some that millions die in sin, in pagan ignorance of the Gnostic sects held to the final purificaand unbelief, they answer that no one is wholly tion of those who died in sin, as the Basilidians, saved in this life, but that all men are saved, Valentinians, &c. The famons "Sibylline Orin a greater or less degree, after death; and acles” (A. D. 150) teach explicitly the doctrine assert that the power of Christ over the soul of the final restoration of the lost. As this does not cease with the death of the body, but work was written expressly to convert the that he continues the work of enlightenment pagans to Christianity, Universalists affirm that and redemption till he surrenders the kingdom this is conclusive as to what was regarded as to the Father, which does not take place till Christianity 50 years after the death of the aposafter the resurrection is complete. VI. The tle John. They profess to find the same belief resurrection is not merely a physical but a taught in the writings of Clement of Alexandria moral and spiritual change. It is not only (200); Origen (203-254); Marcellus, bishop of clothing the soul with an incorruptible body, Ancyra in Galatia (330); Titus, bishop of Bosbut it is an anastasis, a raising up, an exaltation tra (364); Gregory, bishop of Nyssa in Cappaof the whole being into the power and glory of docia (372); Didymus the Blind (370), presithe heavenly; for, “as we have borne the im- dent of the catechetical school of Alexandria; age of the earthy, we shall also bear the image Diodorus, bishop of Tarsus (378); Theodore, of the heavenly." It is a change, they say, by bishop of Mopsuestia (394); and Fabius Mariwhich we become as the angels, and “
us Victorinus (362–392). Notwithstanding that dren of God, being (or, because we are) children Universalism, as such, was specially and forof the resurrection.' It must, therefore, be mally condemned by the second general council something more than clothing the soul in a of Constantinople in 553, the doctrine survived, spiritual body. It is, beside this, growth in and occasionally appeared in strength; as among spiritual strength and power, in knowledge, in the Albigenses and Waldenses in the 12th cenholiness, in all the elements and forces of the tury, the Lollards of Germany in the 14th, the divine life, until we reach a point of perfectness “Men of Understanding" in the 15th, and some and blessedness described by the term heaven. of the Anabaptist sects in the 16th. When the This resurrection or lifting up of the soul into reformation began in England, this doctrine the glorified life of the angels, is the work of rose with it, and was defended with such zeal the Lord Jesus Christ. The end of his media- and success that, in preparing the “ Articles of torial reign, the completion of his saving work, Faith" for the national church, it was thought and the final surrender of his kingdom back to necessary to introduce a special condemnation God, does not take place till after this anasta- in an article afterward omitted. Some of the sis, or till this uplifting of all the dead and liv- most eminent members of this church have seeming into "the image of the heavenly” is com- ed to sanction the doctrine: Archbishop Tillotpleted. VII. On the subject of rewards and son, Dr. Barnet in his De Statu Mortuorum, punishments, the Universalist belief is substan- Bishop Newton, Dr. Henry More, William Whistially, that holiness, piety, love of God and man, ton, David Hartley in his “ Observations on are their own reward, make their own heaven Man," and others. Among the dissenters who bere and hereafter; and that in the nature of believed and defended it were Soame Jenyns, things no other reward is possible. If men love Jeremy White, chaplain to Oliver Cromwell and God with all their hearts, and trust in him, they author of "The Restoration of All Things," find, and are satisfied with, the present heaven and William Law, author of the “Serious Call" which love and faith bring with them. They and " Christian Perfection.” The English Unihold the same doctrine respecting punishment: tarians generally believe the doctrine. Unithat it is consequential, not arbitrary—the nat- versalism prevails extensively in Germany. It ural fruit of sin; that it is for restraint, cor- is freely accepted also in the French Protestant rection, and discipline; and that God loves as church. It began to attract attention in Amertruly when he punishes as when he blesses, ica about the middle of the 18th century, but never inflicting pain in anger, but only because it was not till the arrival of the Rev. John he sees that it is needed, as medicine is, to pre- Murray in 1770 that it made much progress. vent a greater evil. They affirm that the law Since that period it has spread with great rais made for the good of man, and of course that pidity. The published “Register" of the dethe penalty cannot be such as to defeat the ob- nomination for 1862 gives a United States con
ject of the law. Transgression brings misery vention, composed of 23 state conventions, in or punishment, which is designed to correct their turn composed of 87 local associations, repand restore to obedience, because obedience resenting 1,279 societies owning 998 churches, is happiness. They maintain that pain or- with a ministry of 724 preachers. They have dained for its own sake, and perpetuated to all under their patronage 11 institutions of learneternity, is proof of infinito malignity; but ing, including 3 colleges and 8 academies, and God, they say, is infinitely beneficent, and support 17 periodicals. There are also various state missionary, tract, and Sunday school soci- which attracted thousands of students from all eties, actively engaged in promoting the knowl- parts of Europe. The numerous schools of Paris edge and practice of the faith. A general pub- and its vicinity, some of them connected with lishing house is in course of establishment, after monasteries and others independent, taught the model of the Methodists. Relief funds also, the trivium, grammar, logic or dialectics, and for the benefit of aged and destitute ministers, rhetoric, and the quadrivium, music, arithmeare in progress, one of which, in the state of tic, geometry, and astronomy. Of these 7 New York, already has a permanent fund of studies, but few went beyond the tritium ; $15,000. St. Lawrence university, N. Y., with and those who attained the whole were réthe theological school, has property amounting garded as prodigies of learning. (See EDUCAto $100,000, and a valuable library of 5,000 TION.) The great influx of students rendered volumes, mostly purchased in Germany. Tufts an organization for their government and discollege, Mass., opened in 1854, has funds and cipline necessary, and toward the end of the real estate of not less value than $300,000, and 12th century they seem to have been incorpoa library of 10,000 volumes. The ecclesiastical rated as a body of teachers. It is probable government of the denomination is representa- that at first there were several of these organitive and congregational, the associational or- zations, for the faculty of arts had assumed a ganizations being chiefly for mutual counsel and regular form of self-government before 1169, assistance. - See Ancient History of Univer- and in that year the rights of the chancellor salism,” by the Rev. Hosea Ballou (12mo., Bos- of Notre Dame were exercised in reference to ton), and the “Modern History," by the Rev. the faculty of theology. There are in existence Thomas Whittemore (12mo., Boston, 1830; new two decretals of Pope Alexander III., of about ed., vol. i., 1860).
1180 and 1182, relative to the charging of fees UNIVERSITY (Lat. universitas), a corpora- by the chancellor for licenses to teach. The tion consisting of the teachers or teachers and first mention of the rector or head of the unistudents of one or more departments of knowl- versity is in an ordinance of Philip Augustus edge, and other persons who have become in 1200, though he does not give the name of associated with them as patrons or otherwise, university to the organization; that was first which corporation has been empowered by the done in 1215 by Pope Innocent III., who by constituted authorities to confer degrees in his decretal of that date regulated its organizaone or more faculties. The term university tion and institutions. As thus regulated, all had no reference originally to education. It the students and professors were divided into is used by Cicero and other Latin writers to 4 nations, viz.: the French nation, including express the idea of completeness. In the code the French, Italians, Spaniards, Greeks, de.; of Justinian it is used to designate a corpora- the nation of Picardy, which included the N. tion or corporate body, as we sometimes use E. of France and the Netherlands; the nation the word college at the present day. Thus of Normandy; and the English nation, which there were in Rome in the 7th and 8th centu- included not only the inhabitants of the Britries “universities” of tailors, bakers, &c. Its ish isles and Brittany, but Germans, Poles, &c. first application to academical institutions was Each nation elected a procurator (the Germans made in the 13th century, and grew out of this subsequently elected two, and were responvery idea of a corporation with which it had sible only to them) from their own numbecome identified. There were schools and ber, whose duty it was to defend the rights seminaries of learning in great numbers before and privileges of the nation, convene and preand after the Christian era, some of them, such side in its meetings, admit new members, and as the schools of Athens, Alexandria, Edessa, see that all the statutes were observed. Each and Tarsus, doubtless answering in many re- nation had its own buildings and church and spects to the modern university; but none of its great and small seal, was divided into prorthem assumed that name, and none were in inces, and each province into dioceses, and existence during the dark ages to which it was independent in regard to its own affairs. could have been applied prior to the 12th cen- The 4 nations, at first voting collectively, electtury. There were indeed schools of consider- ed a rector; but the predominance of the able note, in most instances connected with French nation gave so much dissatisfaction, monasteries or cathedrals, at Oxford, Cam- that eventually he was elected by the 4 procu, bridge, Paris, Bologna, and other cities of Eu- rators. The rector and procurators constituted rope, from the 7th or 8th century, at times four- the council of the university, in which its orishing, and at other times abandoned. There dinary powers of government and legislation was also the great educational movement were vested. There was however a higher among the Saracens, who for several centuries officer than these, who was the fountain and had their schools deserving the name of univer- source of all honor, and by whose authority sities, in Arabia, Syria, Persia, Egypt, Morocco, alone degrees could be conferred or licenses to and Spain.—Theuniversity of Paris, the first dis- teach granted. This was the chancellor, who, tinctive university, grew out of the popularity if the university was in an episcopal city, was of the lectures and teachings of William of usually the bishop of the diocese. In Paris, Champeaux, Abelard, and Peter Lombard, the the university being partly in the diocese of great masters of the scholastic philosophy, Paris, and partly in the abbey lands of St.
Geneviève, there were two chancellors; the declared a master of arts, and was at liberty to abbot of St. Geneviève was chancellor of the commence his career of teaching. In order faculty of arts, while the bishop of Paris was however to become a full master, he must offer chancellor of the other 3 faculties and of the himself as a candidate to the company of masuniversity at large. To the 4 nations already ters of the university, to be admitted as a socius mentioned were added in 1259 a faculty of or fellow with them. To attain to the doctor's theology, under the patronage and influence degree in divinity, the master must have stud. of the Dominican and Franciscan friars, and ied 9 years, 2 of which must have been passed soon afterward separate faculties of medicine in the study of the Bible and 2 in Peter Lomand canon law; and from 1281 the university bard's “ Book of Sentences." For the doctorconsisted of 7 bodies instead of 4, viz., 4 na- ate in law or medicine a shorter time was suffitions and 3 faculties, represented in the gov- cient. The degree of doctor was conferred ernment by 4 procurators and 3 deans. To jointly by the chancellor and faculty, who exthe faculties only doctors, i. e., teachers, could acted a solemn oath of the candidate to mainbelong; the bachelors and scholars, whether tain their teachings and privileges.—The uniof arts, theology, law, or medicine, were still versity of Paris was the model of most of those included in the 4 nations. The great influx of in France, and of the English universities. students led to the establishment of colleges, The university of Bologna can boast as early at first merely hostels, in which free board and and perhaps even an earlier origin, some wrilodging were furnished to a certain number of ters endeavoring to maintain a connection beindigent students, but subsequently places of tween it and a school established there in 433 instruction also. (See College.) They have by Theodosius II. and revived by Charlemagne. been mostly confined to France and Great It would appear that the arts were taught Britain. The academical degrees conferred there in the 11th century, and perhaps there by the universities seem rather to have origi- may have been teachers of law also; but the nated from the necessities of the case than to university first attained prominence and its have been the result of any deliberate purpose designation early in the 12th century, from the of the officers of any particular university. celebrity of Irnerius, the great teacher of RoThe term bachelor (bachelier) in French origin- man law of that century. It was the most ally signified a young man, and was perhaps celebrated law school of Europe for several derived from bacilla, a little staff or stick, be- centuries; and though it possessed other faculcause the young soldiers on first entering the ties, the greater reputation of its legal faculty army exercised with small sticks instead of caused them to be regarded as subordinate. weapons. It was applied to those who had In 1220 its schools were attended by 10,000
just passed through the curriculum of study, students, and in the 14th century the number whether in the arts, theology, medicine, or law, had increased to 13,000. In this university because they were now to be disciplined for the the students and teachers were divided into actual conflict of life by practice in teaching. citramontanes, or natives of Italy, and ultraThe terms master and doctor were originally montanes, or foreigners; and these were subdisynonymous, and both implied persons actually vided into nations, of which there were 17 in engaged in teaching; after a time, master was the former and 18 in the latter. Each nation confined to those who taught the arts, and doc- had its presiding officer, called a “counsellor," tor to those who gave instruction in theology, except the German nation, which had instead medicine, or law. The title professor was 2 procurators. The counsellors formed the given to one who professed to teach a particu- governing power of the university, and elected lar subject. There was also a distinction of re- the rector and syndic, the former however regents and non-regents (Lat. rego, to rule or in- ceiving also the vote of his predecessor and of struct). The object of acquiring an education electors from the university at large. The in the beginning was to be able to impart in- leading distinction between the university of struction, and every bachelor, master, or doc- Paris and that of Bologna was that in the fortor was obliged to devote a certain period, call- mer the masters or teachers (doctores) coned a necessary regency, to teaching, after which stituted the privileged corporation, to the exhe might if he chose become a non-regent. clusion of the scholars; while in the latter The student in the university, at the end of 2 students formed the university, and elected the years, became a determiner, that is, he put him- academical officers whom the masters and self upon repeated trials to determine whether teachers were bound to obey. The rector poshe could become a bachelor; if he passed the sessed more power than at Paris, and the examinations after 3} years' study, he was con- chancellors, of whom there were two, only ducted by the rector to the chancellor, who conferred the degrees and honors. The rector crowned and blessed him; he then assumed possessed supreme civil jurisdiction in all cases the round hat, and became a bachelor. After relating to the students, and usually might ex34 years' more study and repeated examinations, ercise criminal jurisdiction also, if he chose to he was if found worthy presented to the chan- do so. In 1362 there were in Bologna 4 unicellor as qualified to receive a license to teach versities : 2 of law, which however were often the 7 liberal arts; he was then invested with reckoned as one; one of medicine, the arts, the master's bonnet, and publicly and solemnly and scholars of theology; and one of doctors
of theology. In Bologna originated the prac- OXFORD, UNIVERSITY OF.) The university of tice of conferring a double doctorate, of both Durham, organized in 1833, is in its main fealaws, the civil and canon law, perpetuated tures a copy of Oxford and Cambridge in little. in our degree of LL.D., and in the J.U.D. It has one college and two balls, and is under (juris utriusque doctor) of the German univer- the general patronage of the bishop of Durham. sities. The practice of paying fixed salaries to Of the university of London, as embracing enprofessors also originated in Bologna, where tirely new principles, we shall speak further they were paid as early as 1279.- Before the on. In 1856 an act of parliament was passed, year 1500 there were in Europe 64 universi- which looked to a thorough reorganization of ties, viz.: 15 in France, of which, after that of the two ancient universities, the abolition of Paris, those of Montpellier, Toulouse, and Or- sinecures, the greater efficiency of the teaching leans were the most celebrated, the first as a faculties, and the throwing open of fellowships school of medicine, and the last two of law; and scholarships to general competition. The 19 in Italy, one of them, at Salerno, being prob- changes brought about by this law are still in ably the earliest in Europe, dating from the progress. The Scottish universities, though not 10th century, though for a long time having so largely endowed and comprising fewer colonly a medical faculty, and those of Padua leges, were organized much on the Paris model, Ferrara, and Pisa also having a high reputa- except that the students were not required to tion; 15 in Germany, the Netherlands, and reside in the college buildings. St. Andrew's Switzerland, including those of Vienna, Pragne, is the oldest, having been founded in 1411, and Heidelberg, Cologne, Erfurt, Leipsic, Louvain, had formerly 3 colleges, St. Salvator, St. LeonBasel, Ingolstadt, and Tübingen; 9 in Spain ard's, and St. Mary's. The first two were conand Portugal, including Salamanca, Coimbra, solidated in 1747, and the act of parliament in Valladolid, Saragossa, and Alcala ; 2 in England, relation to Scottish universities in 1858 requires Oxford and Cambridge; one in Poland, at Cra- that the two remaining shall be consolidated. cow; one in Hungary, at Buda; one in Den- Glasgow university was founded in 1450: that mark, at Copenhagen; and one in Sweden, at of Aberdeen in 1494, with two colleges, King's Upsal.—The English universities, being founded and Marischal, now consolidated; and that of on the model of that of Paris, present in their Edinburgh in 1582, by James VI. of Scotland. early history not many items of general interest. The organization of the 4 Scottish universities Colleges and halls were early established in is now uniform and assimilated to the new both, though halls were more frequent in the régime of the English. They are governed by former; the colleges were at first mere endow- a chancellor, vice-chancellor, and rector, with ments for the support of a certain number of the 3 courts, the senatus academicus, university masters and indigent scholars; the halls were court, and general council; the first consists at Oxford boarding houses in which the students of the principal and faculties; the second of lived, choosing a graduate of respectable char- the rector, the principal, the lord provost of acter as their principal. These hostelries were Edinburgh, and 5 assessors nominated respeclicensed by the university. About the middle tively by the chancellor, the rector, the senatus of the 16th century the universities experienced academicus, the general council, and the autheir greatest depression; the number of stu- thorities of the city; and the general council of dents actually in attendance was very small, and the masters, fellows, and scholars. In Ireland the halls were unoccupied. From the 'ruin there are two universities: the university of which then befell them the halls have never Dublin, or Trinity college, properly a college recovered; and it having been the policy of the with university privileges; and the Queen's heads of the university to discountenance them, university, in which the colleges of Belfast, there are now but 6 halls at Oxford, while there Cork, and Galway are placed under one gorare 19 colleges, and only one hall or hostel at erning board.—The French revolution broke up Cambridge, with 17 colleges. In Oxford, from all the old universities of France, but left the the commencement of the 15th century, it was colleges (lycées) in existence, and the endowrequired that the students must be members of ments for a portion of the higher faculties. In some college or hall under a responsible head. 1808 Napoleon attempted to consolidate the In Cambridge there has been greater liberty in entire educational system of France under one this respect, and even at the present time organization, which he called the university of nearly 100 of the students are not resident in France. The whole country was divided into the colleges. The study of Greek was not pur- 17 districts, each under its own academy, and sued at Oxford until the time of Cardinal all subordinate to the central university. Each Wolsey, who founded 7 lectureships, one of academy had its faculties and institutions of them of the Greek language. The business of higher instruction, embracing letters, sciences, teaching, originally the function of the univer- medicine, law, and theology; its organizations sities, was assumed by the colleges as early as of secondary instruction, consisting of imperithe 16th century. The organization of the uni- al lyceums, communal colleges, and gymnasia; versities, and their connection with the colleges, and its schools of primary instruction, answerare very similar, though different names are ing to our common schools. This university given to many of the officers in the two insti- remained till 1848, when it was merged in the tutions. (See CAMBRIDGE, UNIVERSITY OF, and “Superior (now Imperial) Council of Public In