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struction.” This council consists of 32 mem- 30 or 40 in number, who are paid in part by bers appointed annually, and is under the con- the state and partly by the students, whose attrol of the minister of public instruction. The tendance is voluntary, and the corporation of German universities were for the most part students. The administrative body of each unifounded on the model of that of Bologna. versity consists of a rector and senate elected by They concern themselves only with superior in the professors. The students only attend the struction, the rudiments of classical learning, or lectures and examinations, and do not board or what we term the collegiate course, being pur- lodge in college buildings.—The following table sued in the gymnasia. They all have the 4 fac- exhibits the condition in several important parulties of theology, law, medicine, and philoso- ticulars of the European universities in 1858–9. phy, the last comprehending the subjects usually France has now no universities, and is consecomprised under literature and science; and quently omitted, and the returns from Russia, some of them add a 5th faculty, that of admin- Spain, and Tuscany are so imperfect that we istrative and political sciences. Each university can give little more than their names, date of consists of two corporate bodies, the professors, organization, and number of students.
1848 Pesth (former
ly Buda)... 1465
28 29 200 1,019
15 189 91 557
In all these universities, beside a small matriculation fee, the students pay at the rate of 50 cents an hour per week for the lectures during the session. There is at Vienna an Evangelical theological faculty independent of the university, supported by the state, founded in 1818.
95 1,191 86
50 580 29
192 820 645 496
40 50 20 81 21 20
Pees for the entire course in any
faculty, from $21 to $49. Fees from $25 to $85 for a completo course in either faculty. Theology
is taught in seminaries. The theological seminaries in the provinces, and the Collegio RomaDo, the seminary of St. Apollinaro, and the college of St. Thomas in Rome, furnish the theological in. struction. None of these are con. nected with the universities. The fees at these universities are about $20 a year. A small entrance fee, and $63 on graduation.
826 64 532
9 86 72
4 63 51 162 814
5 90 159 495 255 1,876 86 23 194 72
186 111 95 424
1,550 254 377 1,122 178 181 603 180 819
e: :: :: :: :: : ఇండి -షేతలు: 8000-2:
Fees only on taking degrees, varying from $25 to $120.
1224 Palermo 1394 Catania
1415 Messina.. 1519 Pisa
1138 Prussia, Greifswalde... 1456 29 Breslau
1702 101 Königsberg... 1544 140 Halle
1691 361 Berlin
1809 821 Bonn
1815 54 230 German states Heidelberg 1397 98
Freiburg 1457 174
1419 85 Jena ..
1558 Leipsic.. 1-109 280 Tübingen
14771 174 1141
218 127 194 288 112 288 870 94 75 891 71 50 638 299 356 1,467
95 275 770 136 97 564
72 840 293 189 667 114 47 361 211 405 1,329 181 158 689
69 14 247 112 159 369 35
850 257 70
847 180 So 669
51 15 58 18 68 57147
SS 27 76 6 36
110 85 102 10 56
84 7 58 80109 12 62
50 32 88
Pees from $2 to 85 per session, ex. cept at Marburg and Leipsic, where the publio lectures are free; private lectures from 3 to $12.50 per session.
ECOS: : : :
414 474 226 754 511 183 469 115 82 82 127 190
48 28 21 22 15
81 184 42 7 7 26 62
27 44 84
47 Matriculation fee. 83: angeal fee for 60 all the classes in each faculty, 440
to $50. Theology is taugbt I ke43
inaries Eot connected with the mal48 versities.
Universities sapported by the state,
There is a small matriculatio fee and a graduation fee. The sil dette also par from $6.25 to $12.50 per
session for their lectures 51
Students pay $25 matrice stien, 61
and from $5 to $10 for lectares
Matriculation et Copenhagen, $5.50;
from $2.25 to $5.50 per course. 81
Public lectures free; private lec 46 tures, $1.50 to $3.00 per term, ma 82 trioolation, $6.60 to $6.75. 84 The faculties are not the same as is 117 other universities, they are judi 76 cial, historico-philological, ath79
ematical, and medical. In St Pe
tersburg there is also a facalty of 82
oriental languages. The Latrico 44 | lation fee is $5.20, and there is a 96) very small fee for private lectures 45 Students pay no fees.
57 251 120 108
Belgium.. Brussels.. 1837
1916 Louvain.. 1426
82 Holland Leyden 1575 158
1834 84 Denmark.... Copenhagen.. 1479 Kiel..
1665 82 Sweden.. Upsal.. 1476 178 Lund
1669 84 Norway Christiania.. 1511 100 Russia.. Dorpat. 1032
1633 Greece. Athens. 1987
church lonian islands. Corfu..
1924 Spain... Salamanca 1240
1504 Granada 1581 Santiago.. 1532
Oviedo.. 1550 Portugal.. Coimbra 11290)
900 82 21 143 181 846 1,451 68 885
610 82 204
555 1,725 853 459
716 46 233 427
906 162 67 516
800 300 1,300 1,600 1.100 800 810 1,030
450 805 769
- Within a few years past efforts have been dissenters for educational purposes, but which made to attach a new signification to the term could not enjoy the privileges of the universiuniversity, or rather to apply it to organizations ties, and could not confer degrees upon their of a different character from those to which it graduates, in consequence of their scruples in had before been attached. The first experiment regard to subscription to the "thirty-nine ar: of this kind was the establishment of the uni- ticles." Lord Brougham and Thomas Campbell versity of London in 1836. It has no col- in 1825 attempted to remedy this by the organleges like Oxford and Cambridge, or rather ization of the London university (now (niverit has affiliated to it nearly all the colleges of sity college), a collegiate institution which rethe British empire. It has a senatus acade- quired no religious tests; but this produced some micus, composed of eminent scholars of all de- dissatisfaction, and King's college was foundnominations, and boards of examiners before ed by churchmen who desired to have theolwhom the candidate for a degree is rigidly ex- ogy included in the curriculum. Both these amined; if he passes these, it is of no conse- institutions are now dependent for their dequence where he has acquired his knowledge. grees on the university of London.- In the There are no degrees conferred in course, or United States there are properly speaking, no pro causa honoris. Beside a matriculation ex- universities. Several American colleges have, amination, other examinations sufficiently strict indeed, connected with them more or less and thorough to test the candidate's knowledge closely schools of theology, law, medicine, and precede each degree, two being required before physical science, or at least some of these conferring the bachelor's degree in arts, sci- faculties; but these are as often called colence, law, or medicine, and those who cannot leges as universities, while frequently instipass them are rejected without mercy. Since tutions of recent origin, and having a mere its organization every dissenting college, and faculty of the arts and a course of study not several church colleges in Great Britain and its above that of a well regulated high school, ascolonies, have sent their students to its examin- sume the name of university. We have no ing boards to obtain their degrees, and a con- university in the continental sense of an insti. siderable number of the students of Oxford and tution in advance of the gymnasium or college, Cambridge have preferred to pass its examina- and receiving only those who have completed tions. It has accomplished much good in ren- their course there; nor in the English sense of dering the educational movement freer
from a corporation enclosing within it and gorerned form and routine, and yet more thorough. and controlled by other corporations, with its There had existed for many years in England fellowships, its sinecure professorships, and its collegiate institutions founded and endowed by ancient and peculiar traditions; nor yet after
the model of the university of London. Still, 1840–43); De Viriville, Histoire des universithere are two classes of organizations in the tés en France (Paris, 1847); Sir W. Hamilton, United States claiming the name of university, “Discussions in Philosophy" (8vo., New York, which merit notice. The first are the state 1853); Von Raumer, “History of German Uniuniversities. In the newer states, grants of versities,” translated into English by Henry land were made by the general government for Barnard (Hartford, 1859); and E. T. Rogers, university purposes; and in Michigan, Wiscon- “Education in Oxford ” (London, 1861). sin, Iowa, Alabama, and Mississippi, and per
UNTERWALDEN, a canton situated near haps in some of the other states, a sufficient the centre of Switzerland, bounded N. by the portion of these lands has been sold to furnish lake of Lucerne, E. by the canton of Uri, S. by å fund for the partial endowment of such uni- Bern, and W. and N. W. by Lucerne; area, 298 versities. Though differing in minor particu- sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 24,810. It is divided lars from each other, they agree in being free into Upper and Lower Unterwalden (Unterfrom denominational control, and in making walden Obwalden and Unterwalden Nidwal. provision for eventual instruction in law, medi- den), the capital of the former being Sarnen, cine, physical science, and pedagogy, or the art and that of the latter Stanz. A great deal of of teaching; and they usually form the apex of a the surface is occupied by mountains, which system of which common schools are the base, traverse the country in different directions, and which proceeds upward through the gram- and attain heights ranging between 3,000 and mar school, high school or academy, and col. 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. The lege, to the university. Much of this is yet in remainder consists of 4 principal valleys, which theory only. The other organization has but have a general slope toward the lake on the a single example as yet; it is the university of N. frontier, into which the chief rivers, the the state of New York, existing only in a board Melch and the Aa, discharge nearly all the of regents, elected by the legislature on the drainage of the canton. There are several nomination of the governor. This board has a small lakes, and about 1 of the area of Lake general oversight of nearly all the colleges and Lucerne belongs to Unterwalden. The geoacademies of the state, requiring of them full logical formation is chalk, and the canton is and accurate reports of their professors or remarkable for a great number of caverns. teachers and students, the average attendance, Little of the land is level enough for agriculfinancial condition, studies pursued, and text tural purposes, but the pastures are excellent, books used; and certain observations on the ba- and the cattle fed upon them constitute the rometer and thermometer form a part of them. wealth of the country. There are extensive They apportion to these institutions their re- tracts of forests. Apples, pears, and chestnuts spective shares of the literature fund, and make are raised in great quantities in the valleys, but a full report of their doings to the legislature. the vine does not succeed well even in the They have also the power of conferring hono- most sheltered spots.—The inhabitants speak rary degrees, though they have used it sparingly. German, are nearly all Roman Catholics, and -The British colonies have several so called very few foreigners are found among them. universities, but they have no better claim to They are exceedingly simple in their habits. the title than those of the United States ; in Every male inhabitant over 20 years of age is all of them, the faculty of arts is the prominent entitled to a vote in appointing the principal faculty, and the others, if any exist, are only local officers. of secondary importance. The Spanish-Amer- UPAS TREE, an urtical exogen of the natuican states, both in North and South America, ral order of artocarpacem, which comprises both have universities modelled after those of Sala- trees and shrubs abounding in milky juices, manca and Seville; but the teaching in most which in some species is nutritious and wholeof them is not of a high order. In Brazil, the some, but in a few is of extreme virulence. present emperor has exerted himself to improve The artocarpads are scarcely different from the and elevate the character of university educa- urticals except in their lactiferous properties. tion, calling eminent scholars from abroad to In the genus antiaris, to which belongs the occupy the principal chairs, and introducing upas tree, the flowers are monæcious, both the latest discoveries in physical science. In barren and fertile being placed in pairs side by Asia, the nearest approach to the university is side in the axils of the leaves, the former confound in China. (See China, and EDUCATION.) sisting of a 3 or 4-divided calyx, and several of In Persia and Hindostan there are relics of the them collected in a hairy involucre with fleshy former intellectual culture of those countries, involute divisions, the latter singly situated, in the now neglected universities or schools of and having a simple germen enclosed in a calyx high art.-See Du Boulay, Historia Universi- of several divisions and surmounted by a long tatis Parisiensis ; Anthony à Wood, “ History 2-parted style. The bohun upas (signifying and Antiquities of the University of Oxford;" poison tree) of the Malays, the ipo of Celebes T. Fuller,“ History of the University of Cam- and the Philippines, and antiar of the Javanese, bridge,” '&c.; H. Malden, “Origin of Univer- is the antiaris toricaria of Leschenault. It is sities and Academic Degrees" (12mo., London, a lofty tree, with a beautiful slender stem, 1835); T. Fritz, Esquisse d'un système complet which overtops the neighboring plants. It is d'instruction, &c. (3 vols. 8vo., Strasbourg, perfectly cylindrical, rising 60 to 80 feet with
out a branch, bears an elegant hemispherical and “Life, Explorations, and Public Services crown, and is usually entwined with many of John Charles Fremont” (Boston, 1856). climbers around its trunk. Its poisonous qual- UPHAM, Thomas CoGSWELL, D.D., an ities are attributed to a peculiar alkaloid resi- American author, born in Deerfield, N. H., dent in the juice, which when freshly drawn Jan. 30, 1799. He was graduated at Dartfrom the tree is a bitter gum resin, of a light mouth college in 1818, immediately entered hue if from the young branches, and dark yel- the theological seminary at Andover, and in low from the older stem, but both turn black 1821 became Prof. Stuart's assistant as teacher on drying. Its venomous properties can be of the Hebrew language. While thus engaged preserved for an indefinite time if it is excluded he prepared a translation of Jahn's “Biblical from the air; and they so pervade the entire Archæology," which has passed through numertree that linen spun from its tough fibres is acrid ous editions both in this country and in Eng. enough to produce painful itching if insufficient- land. In July, 1823, he was settled as colleague ly prepared.—Extraordinary fables, strength- pastor of the Congregational church in Rochesened by the narrative of Foersch, a surgeon in ter, N. H.; and since 1825 he has been professor the Dutch East India company's service in 1774, of mental and moral philosophy in Bowdoin attributed to this tree a most contagious efflu- college. In 1852 he visited Europe, the Holy vium, making the atmosphere around fatal to Land, and Egypt. Among his works are: animal and vegetable life, and rendering the “Ratio Disciplinæ, or the Constitution of Convalley in which it grew a scene of desolation. gregational Churches" (Portland, 1829); " EleWhen visited by Messrs. Deschamps and ments of Mental Philosophy" (2 vols. 12mo., Leschenault, the tree was found to fourish Portland, 1839), much on the same principles only where vegetation was most luxuriant, the with Dugald Stewart and Reid ; and “ Philpoisoned and desolate valley being situated in osophical and Practical Treatise on the Will" another part of the island, and consisting of a (12mo., New York, 1850). He has also writvolcanic basin filled at bottom with carbonic ten a series of treatises and memoirs on reliacid gas. These botanists experienced no un- gious experience, differing in some respects pleasant sensations from being in its vicinity from any other works of modern times on these for the purpose of studying its botanical char- subjects, and approximating in sentiment to acters or investigating its structure.- There the writings of Tauler, Gerson, and other mysare several species of antiaris, of which the tics of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. long-leaved (A. macrophylla) is found on the Their object is "to show that man, on acN. coast of New Holland, and others, whose knowledged and obvious principles of philosomilky juices are inert, in the tropics.
phy and religion, can gradually but surely rise UPPAM, CHARLES WENTWORTH, an American above the propensities and sins of a perverted clergyman and author, born in St. John, New self hood, and not only be brought into harBrunswick, May 4, 1802. He was graduated at mony with himself in his own interior and Harvard college in 1821, and in 1824 completed subjective nature, but into relations of perfect a course of theological stu at the Cambridge peace and union with God himself and with divinity school. The same year he was settled all that is right and good in the universe." as colleague pastor with the Rev. John Prince The titles of these treatises are: “ Principles of the first church in Salem. In Dec. 1844, he of the Interior or Hidden Life" (12mo., New resigned and quitted the ministry. He next York, 1848); “Life of Faith" (1848); “Treaedited the “Christian Register" for a year, spent tise on Divine Union” (Boston, 1851); another year in visiting the counties and towns ligious Maxims" (Philadelphia, 1854); "Life of the state as lecturer for the Massachusetts of Madame Catharine Adorna" (Boston, 1856); board of education, and was mayor of the city and “Life and Religious Opinions of Madame of Salem for a year. He was a member of the Guyon, together with some account of the Per33d congress (1854—5) from the 6th district of sonal History and Religious Experience of Massachusetts, of the Massachusetts house of Archbishop Fénélon” (2 vols. 12mo., New representatives in 1849, 1859, and 1860, and York, 1856). Beside these, he has written of the state senate in 1850, 1851, and 1858, and “Manual of Peace” (8vo., New York, 1836); presided over that body in the last mentioned “Outlines of Imperfect and Disordered Mental year. Mr. Upham has been a frequent con- Action” (18mo., New York, 1840); "Amertributor to the “North American Review,” ican Cottage Life, a Series of Poems" (16mo., “ Christian Examiner," “Hunt's Merchants? Portland, 1852); "Letters, Æsthetic, Social, Magazine,” Herring and Longacre's “ National and Moral, written from Europe, Egypt, and Portrait Gallery,” and other periodicals and Palestine" (8vo., Philadelphia, 1857); and an reviews, and, beside several occasional orations, essay, in a volume with essays by other authors pamphlets, &c., has published the following on the same subject, on a congress of nations books: “Letters on the Logos" (Boston, 1828); (8vo., Boston, 1840). “Lectures on Witchcraft, comprising a History UPOLU, See NAVIGATORS' ISLANDS. of the Salem Delusion, 1692" (Boston, 1831); UPSAL, or UPSALA, a læn or district of Swe“Life of Sir Henry Vane" (in Sparks's “ Amer- den, province of Svealand, bounded N. by the ican Biography,” Boston, 1835); “Prophecy gulf of Bothnia, E. by Stockholm, S. by Lake as an Evidence of Christianity” (Boston, 1835); Mælar, separating it from Södermanland, and
W. by Westeras and Gefleborg; area, 2,095 sq. he removed to his patrimonial residence in
right, the Kizil, Tanalik, Sakmara, and BolUPSHUR, a N. E. co. of Texas, bounded N. shoy Tchegan; and on the left, the Suyunduk, by Big Cypress bayou and S. by Sabine river; Or, Ilek, Ulva, and Grashi. In its upper porarea, 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 10,645, of whom tion the river is obstructed by rapids, and flows 3,794 were slaves. The surface is nearly level through a mountainous country; lower down, and well timbered, and the soil fertile. The it passes through wide steppes or saline plains, productions in 1850 were 90,495 bushels of In- one of which lying between this river and the dian corn, 26,736 lbs. of butter, and 673 bales Volga is called the Uralian steppe. Toward of cotton. There were 131 pupils attending winter the river near its mouth abounds with public schools. Capital, Gilmer.
fish. The navigation of the Ural is of very UPSHUR, Abel Parker, an American ju- little importance. The inhabitants upon its rist and statesman, born in Northampton co., banks are mostly Cossacks. A line of forts has Va., accidentally killed at Washington, D. O., been erected along its shores as a defence Feb. 28, 1844. He was graduated at Nassau against the Bashkirs and Kirgheez. Hall, Princeton, N. J., in 1807, studied law in URAL MOUNTAINS, the chain of moun. the office of William Wirt at Richinond, Va., tains forming the N. E. boundary of Europe, was admitted to the bar in 1810, and practised and separating European Russia from Siberia. his profession in Richmond till 1824, when of very moderate height and breadth, the chain