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struction.” This council consists of 32 mem- 30 or 40 in number, who are paid in part by bers appointed annually, and is under the con- the state and partly by the students, whose attrol of the minister of public instruction. The tendance is voluntary, and the corporation of German universities were for the most part students. The administrative body of each unifounded on the model of that of Bologna. versity consists of a rector and senate elected by They concern themselves only with superior in the professors. The students only attend the struction, the rudiments of classical learning, or lectures and examinations, and do not board or what we term the collegiate course, being pur- lodge in college buildings.—The following table sued in the gymnasia. They all have the 4 fac- exhibits the condition in several important parulties of theology, law, medicine, and philoso- ticulars of the European universities in 1858–9. phy, the last comprehending the subjects usually France has now no universities, and is consecomprised under literature and science; and quently omitted, and the returns from Russia, some of them add a 5th faculty, that of admin- Spain, and Tuscany are so imperfect that we istrative and political sciences. Each university can give little more than their names, date of consists of two corporate bodies, the professors, organization, and number of students.


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Cambridge 1109

Durham ...... 1833
St. Andrew's..[1411
Aberdeen..... 1494
Edinburgh 1582
Glasgow 1150
Dublin.. 1591
Queen's 1815


1843 Prague.

1848 Pesth (former

ly Buda)... 1465

Olmütz. 1581
Inuspruck. 1672
Lemberg 1784



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In all these universities, beside a small matriculation fee, the students pay at the rate of 50 cents an hour per week for the lectures during the session. There is at Vienna an Evangelical theological faculty independent of the university, supported by the state, founded in 1818.


95 1,191 86
30 312 20

28 288 27

50 580 29
556 829 1,56845
360 204 1,060 47

192 820 645 496






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Pees for the entire course in any

faculty, from $21 to $49. Fees from $25 to $85 for a completo course in either faculty. Theology

is taught in seminaries. The theological seminaries in the provinces, and the Collegio RomaDo, the seminary of St. Apollinaro, and the college of St. Thomas in Rome, furnish the theological in. struction. None of these are con. nected with the universities. The fees at these universities are about $20 a year. A small entrance fee, and $63 on graduation.

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826 64 532
175 161 698
20 13 65
23 26 81
26 80 120

9 86 72

4 63 51 162 814

5 90 159 495 255 1,876 86 23 194 72

186 111 95 424

1,550 254 377 1,122 178 181 603 180 819


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Fees only on taking degrees, varying from $25 to $120.

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Bologna.. 1119

Ferrara. 1891

1290 Macerata.

1290 Urbino

Camerino 1727


Cagliari. 1606

1766 Genoa.

1812 Naples

1224 Palermo 1394 Catania

1415 Messina.. 1519 Pisa

1333 Sienna..

1361 Florence.

1138 Prussia, Greifswalde... 1456 29 Breslau

1702 101 Königsberg... 1544 140 Halle

1691 361 Berlin

1809 821 Bonn

1815 54 230 German states Heidelberg 1397 98

Freiburg 1457 174
Würzburg 1403

Erlangen.. 1743 300

Göttingen.. 1787 184
Marburg 1527 78

1607 51

1419 85 Jena ..

1558 Leipsic.. 1-109 280 Tübingen

14771 174 1141

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218 127 194 288 112 288 870 94 75 891 71 50 638 299 356 1,467

95 275 770 136 97 564

72 840 293 189 667 114 47 361 211 405 1,329 181 158 689

69 14 247 112 159 369 35


850 257 70

847 180 So 669






51 15 58 18 68 57147

SS 27 76 6 36

45 47

110 85 102 10 56


84 7 58 80109 12 62


50 32 88


Pees from $2 to 85 per session, ex. cept at Marburg and Leipsic, where the publio lectures are free; private lectures from 3 to $12.50 per session.



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101 47
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414 474 226 754 511 183 469 115 82 82 127 190

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47 Matriculation fee. 83: angeal fee for 60 all the classes in each faculty, 440

to $50. Theology is taugbt I ke43

inaries Eot connected with the mal48 versities.

Universities sapported by the state,

There is a small matriculatio fee and a graduation fee. The sil dette also par from $6.25 to $12.50 per

session for their lectures 51

Students pay $25 matrice stien, 61

and from $5 to $10 for lectares

Matriculation et Copenhagen, $5.50;
at Kiel, $4.37; for private lectures,

from $2.25 to $5.50 per course. 81

Public lectures free; private lec 46 tures, $1.50 to $3.00 per term, ma 82 trioolation, $6.60 to $6.75. 84 The faculties are not the same as is 117 other universities, they are judi 76 cial, historico-philological, ath79

ematical, and medical. In St Pe

tersburg there is also a facalty of 82

oriental languages. The Latrico 44 | lation fee is $5.20, and there is a 96) very small fee for private lectures 45 Students pay no fees.

57 251 120 108

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Belgium.. Brussels.. 1837


1916 Louvain.. 1426

82 Holland Leyden 1575 158

Groningen 1614

1636 205

Switzerland... Basel.. 1459 45

1834 27

1834 84 Denmark.... Copenhagen.. 1479 Kiel..

1665 82 Sweden.. Upsal.. 1476 178 Lund

1669 84 Norway Christiania.. 1511 100 Russia.. Dorpat. 1032

Moscow 1755

Kharkov 1 503
St. Petersburg 1519
Helsingfors... 1828 59

1633 Greece. Athens. 1987



church lonian islands. Corfu..

1924 Spain... Salamanca 1240

Valladolid 1846

Saragossa. 1474

1504 Granada 1581 Santiago.. 1532

Oviedo.. 1550 Portugal.. Coimbra 11290)

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900 82 21 143 181 846 1,451 68 885

610 82 204


555 1,725 853 459

716 46 233 427

906 162 67 516

800 300 1,300 1,600 1.100 800 810 1,030

450 805 769



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- Within a few years past efforts have been dissenters for educational purposes, but which made to attach a new signification to the term could not enjoy the privileges of the universiuniversity, or rather to apply it to organizations ties, and could not confer degrees upon their of a different character from those to which it graduates, in consequence of their scruples in had before been attached. The first experiment regard to subscription to the "thirty-nine ar: of this kind was the establishment of the uni- ticles." Lord Brougham and Thomas Campbell versity of London in 1836. It has no col- in 1825 attempted to remedy this by the organleges like Oxford and Cambridge, or rather ization of the London university (now (niverit has affiliated to it nearly all the colleges of sity college), a collegiate institution which rethe British empire. It has a senatus acade- quired no religious tests; but this produced some micus, composed of eminent scholars of all de- dissatisfaction, and King's college was foundnominations, and boards of examiners before ed by churchmen who desired to have theolwhom the candidate for a degree is rigidly ex- ogy included in the curriculum. Both these amined; if he passes these, it is of no conse- institutions are now dependent for their dequence where he has acquired his knowledge. grees on the university of London.- In the There are no degrees conferred in course, or United States there are properly speaking, no pro causa honoris. Beside a matriculation ex- universities. Several American colleges have, amination, other examinations sufficiently strict indeed, connected with them more or less and thorough to test the candidate's knowledge closely schools of theology, law, medicine, and precede each degree, two being required before physical science, or at least some of these conferring the bachelor's degree in arts, sci- faculties; but these are as often called colence, law, or medicine, and those who cannot leges as universities, while frequently instipass them are rejected without mercy. Since tutions of recent origin, and having a mere its organization every dissenting college, and faculty of the arts and a course of study not several church colleges in Great Britain and its above that of a well regulated high school, ascolonies, have sent their students to its examin- sume the name of university. We have no ing boards to obtain their degrees, and a con- university in the continental sense of an insti. siderable number of the students of Oxford and tution in advance of the gymnasium or college, Cambridge have preferred to pass its examina- and receiving only those who have completed tions. It has accomplished much good in ren- their course there; nor in the English sense of dering the educational movement freer

from a corporation enclosing within it and gorerned form and routine, and yet more thorough. and controlled by other corporations, with its There had existed for many years in England fellowships, its sinecure professorships, and its collegiate institutions founded and endowed by ancient and peculiar traditions; nor yet after

the model of the university of London. Still, 1840–43); De Viriville, Histoire des universithere are two classes of organizations in the tés en France (Paris, 1847); Sir W. Hamilton, United States claiming the name of university, “Discussions in Philosophy" (8vo., New York, which merit notice. The first are the state 1853); Von Raumer, “History of German Uniuniversities. In the newer states, grants of versities,” translated into English by Henry land were made by the general government for Barnard (Hartford, 1859); and E. T. Rogers, university purposes; and in Michigan, Wiscon- “Education in Oxford ” (London, 1861). sin, Iowa, Alabama, and Mississippi, and per

UNTERWALDEN, a canton situated near haps in some of the other states, a sufficient the centre of Switzerland, bounded N. by the portion of these lands has been sold to furnish lake of Lucerne, E. by the canton of Uri, S. by å fund for the partial endowment of such uni- Bern, and W. and N. W. by Lucerne; area, 298 versities. Though differing in minor particu- sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 24,810. It is divided lars from each other, they agree in being free into Upper and Lower Unterwalden (Unterfrom denominational control, and in making walden Obwalden and Unterwalden Nidwal. provision for eventual instruction in law, medi- den), the capital of the former being Sarnen, cine, physical science, and pedagogy, or the art and that of the latter Stanz. A great deal of of teaching; and they usually form the apex of a the surface is occupied by mountains, which system of which common schools are the base, traverse the country in different directions, and which proceeds upward through the gram- and attain heights ranging between 3,000 and mar school, high school or academy, and col. 10,000 feet above the level of the sea. The lege, to the university. Much of this is yet in remainder consists of 4 principal valleys, which theory only. The other organization has but have a general slope toward the lake on the a single example as yet; it is the university of N. frontier, into which the chief rivers, the the state of New York, existing only in a board Melch and the Aa, discharge nearly all the of regents, elected by the legislature on the drainage of the canton. There are several nomination of the governor. This board has a small lakes, and about 1 of the area of Lake general oversight of nearly all the colleges and Lucerne belongs to Unterwalden. The geoacademies of the state, requiring of them full logical formation is chalk, and the canton is and accurate reports of their professors or remarkable for a great number of caverns. teachers and students, the average attendance, Little of the land is level enough for agriculfinancial condition, studies pursued, and text tural purposes, but the pastures are excellent, books used; and certain observations on the ba- and the cattle fed upon them constitute the rometer and thermometer form a part of them. wealth of the country. There are extensive They apportion to these institutions their re- tracts of forests. Apples, pears, and chestnuts spective shares of the literature fund, and make are raised in great quantities in the valleys, but a full report of their doings to the legislature. the vine does not succeed well even in the They have also the power of conferring hono- most sheltered spots.—The inhabitants speak rary degrees, though they have used it sparingly. German, are nearly all Roman Catholics, and -The British colonies have several so called very few foreigners are found among them. universities, but they have no better claim to They are exceedingly simple in their habits. the title than those of the United States ; in Every male inhabitant over 20 years of age is all of them, the faculty of arts is the prominent entitled to a vote in appointing the principal faculty, and the others, if any exist, are only local officers. of secondary importance. The Spanish-Amer- UPAS TREE, an urtical exogen of the natuican states, both in North and South America, ral order of artocarpacem, which comprises both have universities modelled after those of Sala- trees and shrubs abounding in milky juices, manca and Seville; but the teaching in most which in some species is nutritious and wholeof them is not of a high order. In Brazil, the some, but in a few is of extreme virulence. present emperor has exerted himself to improve The artocarpads are scarcely different from the and elevate the character of university educa- urticals except in their lactiferous properties. tion, calling eminent scholars from abroad to In the genus antiaris, to which belongs the occupy the principal chairs, and introducing upas tree, the flowers are monæcious, both the latest discoveries in physical science. In barren and fertile being placed in pairs side by Asia, the nearest approach to the university is side in the axils of the leaves, the former confound in China. (See China, and EDUCATION.) sisting of a 3 or 4-divided calyx, and several of In Persia and Hindostan there are relics of the them collected in a hairy involucre with fleshy former intellectual culture of those countries, involute divisions, the latter singly situated, in the now neglected universities or schools of and having a simple germen enclosed in a calyx high art.-See Du Boulay, Historia Universi- of several divisions and surmounted by a long tatis Parisiensis ; Anthony à Wood, “ History 2-parted style. The bohun upas (signifying and Antiquities of the University of Oxford;" poison tree) of the Malays, the ipo of Celebes T. Fuller,“ History of the University of Cam- and the Philippines, and antiar of the Javanese, bridge,” '&c.; H. Malden, “Origin of Univer- is the antiaris toricaria of Leschenault. It is sities and Academic Degrees" (12mo., London, a lofty tree, with a beautiful slender stem, 1835); T. Fritz, Esquisse d'un système complet which overtops the neighboring plants. It is d'instruction, &c. (3 vols. 8vo., Strasbourg, perfectly cylindrical, rising 60 to 80 feet with


out a branch, bears an elegant hemispherical and “Life, Explorations, and Public Services crown, and is usually entwined with many of John Charles Fremont” (Boston, 1856). climbers around its trunk. Its poisonous qual- UPHAM, Thomas CoGSWELL, D.D., an ities are attributed to a peculiar alkaloid resi- American author, born in Deerfield, N. H., dent in the juice, which when freshly drawn Jan. 30, 1799. He was graduated at Dartfrom the tree is a bitter gum resin, of a light mouth college in 1818, immediately entered hue if from the young branches, and dark yel- the theological seminary at Andover, and in low from the older stem, but both turn black 1821 became Prof. Stuart's assistant as teacher on drying. Its venomous properties can be of the Hebrew language. While thus engaged preserved for an indefinite time if it is excluded he prepared a translation of Jahn's “Biblical from the air; and they so pervade the entire Archæology," which has passed through numertree that linen spun from its tough fibres is acrid ous editions both in this country and in Eng. enough to produce painful itching if insufficient- land. In July, 1823, he was settled as colleague ly prepared.—Extraordinary fables, strength- pastor of the Congregational church in Rochesened by the narrative of Foersch, a surgeon in ter, N. H.; and since 1825 he has been professor the Dutch East India company's service in 1774, of mental and moral philosophy in Bowdoin attributed to this tree a most contagious efflu- college. In 1852 he visited Europe, the Holy vium, making the atmosphere around fatal to Land, and Egypt. Among his works are: animal and vegetable life, and rendering the “Ratio Disciplinæ, or the Constitution of Convalley in which it grew a scene of desolation. gregational Churches" (Portland, 1829); " EleWhen visited by Messrs. Deschamps and ments of Mental Philosophy" (2 vols. 12mo., Leschenault, the tree was found to fourish Portland, 1839), much on the same principles only where vegetation was most luxuriant, the with Dugald Stewart and Reid ; and “ Philpoisoned and desolate valley being situated in osophical and Practical Treatise on the Will" another part of the island, and consisting of a (12mo., New York, 1850). He has also writvolcanic basin filled at bottom with carbonic ten a series of treatises and memoirs on reliacid gas. These botanists experienced no un- gious experience, differing in some respects pleasant sensations from being in its vicinity from any other works of modern times on these for the purpose of studying its botanical char- subjects, and approximating in sentiment to acters or investigating its structure.- There the writings of Tauler, Gerson, and other mysare several species of antiaris, of which the tics of the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries. long-leaved (A. macrophylla) is found on the Their object is "to show that man, on acN. coast of New Holland, and others, whose knowledged and obvious principles of philosomilky juices are inert, in the tropics.

phy and religion, can gradually but surely rise UPPAM, CHARLES WENTWORTH, an American above the propensities and sins of a perverted clergyman and author, born in St. John, New self hood, and not only be brought into harBrunswick, May 4, 1802. He was graduated at mony with himself in his own interior and Harvard college in 1821, and in 1824 completed subjective nature, but into relations of perfect a course of theological stu at the Cambridge peace and union with God himself and with divinity school. The same year he was settled all that is right and good in the universe." as colleague pastor with the Rev. John Prince The titles of these treatises are: “ Principles of the first church in Salem. In Dec. 1844, he of the Interior or Hidden Life" (12mo., New resigned and quitted the ministry. He next York, 1848); “Life of Faith" (1848); “Treaedited the “Christian Register" for a year, spent tise on Divine Union” (Boston, 1851); another year in visiting the counties and towns ligious Maxims" (Philadelphia, 1854); "Life of the state as lecturer for the Massachusetts of Madame Catharine Adorna" (Boston, 1856); board of education, and was mayor of the city and “Life and Religious Opinions of Madame of Salem for a year. He was a member of the Guyon, together with some account of the Per33d congress (1854—5) from the 6th district of sonal History and Religious Experience of Massachusetts, of the Massachusetts house of Archbishop Fénélon” (2 vols. 12mo., New representatives in 1849, 1859, and 1860, and York, 1856). Beside these, he has written of the state senate in 1850, 1851, and 1858, and “Manual of Peace” (8vo., New York, 1836); presided over that body in the last mentioned “Outlines of Imperfect and Disordered Mental year. Mr. Upham has been a frequent con- Action” (18mo., New York, 1840); "Amertributor to the “North American Review,” ican Cottage Life, a Series of Poems" (16mo., “ Christian Examiner," “Hunt's Merchants? Portland, 1852); "Letters, Æsthetic, Social, Magazine,” Herring and Longacre's “ National and Moral, written from Europe, Egypt, and Portrait Gallery,” and other periodicals and Palestine" (8vo., Philadelphia, 1857); and an reviews, and, beside several occasional orations, essay, in a volume with essays by other authors pamphlets, &c., has published the following on the same subject, on a congress of nations books: “Letters on the Logos" (Boston, 1828); (8vo., Boston, 1840). “Lectures on Witchcraft, comprising a History UPOLU, See NAVIGATORS' ISLANDS. of the Salem Delusion, 1692" (Boston, 1831); UPSAL, or UPSALA, a læn or district of Swe“Life of Sir Henry Vane" (in Sparks's “ Amer- den, province of Svealand, bounded N. by the ican Biography,” Boston, 1835); “Prophecy gulf of Bothnia, E. by Stockholm, S. by Lake as an Evidence of Christianity” (Boston, 1835); Mælar, separating it from Södermanland, and


W. by Westeras and Gefleborg; area, 2,095 sq. he removed to his patrimonial residence in
m.; pop. in 1858, 91,377. The sea coast ex- Northampton co. In 1826 he was appointed a
tends about 20 m., and has several small in- judge in the general court of Virginia, in 1829
dentations and the large bay of Loftsa. The was a member of the convention to revise the
principal river is the Dal, on the confines of constitution of the state, and after the reorgan-
Getleborg, and there are numerous lakes. The ization of the judicial system under the new
surface consists of undulating plains; the soil is constitution was again elected a judge in the
fertile in the S., and the scenery very beautiful, general court, and continued to fill that posi-
but in the N. a great deal of it is barren, and tion till he was called in 1841 by President
the country has a bleak appearance. Iron ore Tyler to the post of secretary of the navy. On
is abundant, and is extensively worked, the the resignation of Mr. Webster in 1843 he was
metal produced, especially that of Danemora, transferred to the office of secretary of state,
being of very superior quality. Sufficient grain which he filled till his death, caused by the ex-
is raised for the consumption of the population, plosion of a monster cannon on board the U.S.
and considerable quantities of cattle are ex- steamer Princeton, which he was visiting in
ported.-Upsal, the capital, is situated on the company with the president and the other
Fyrisa or Sala, near its junction with one of members of the cabinet. Judge Upshur pub-
the N. creeks of Lake Mælar, 39 m. N. N. W. lished a number of essays, reviews, addresses,
from Stockholm; pop. 5,000. It stands in an &c., and two more considerable works, viz.: á
extensive undulating plain about 300 feet above review of Story on the constitution, and “An
the level of the sea, and the river is crossed by Inquiry into the Nature and Character of our
two stone bridges. There is a large square in Federal Government."
the centre of the town, and the streets are UPSON, a of Georgia, bounded S. W.
broad and well laid out. The cathedral, built by Flint river and intersected by Potato creek;
between 1258 and 1435, is one of the finest area, 384 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 9,910, of whom
Gothio buildings of N. Europe. It is of brick, 4,888 were slaves. The surface is hilly and
and contains many interesting monuments, the soil generally fertile. The productions in
among others those of Gustavus I. and Linnæus. 1850 were 343,017 bushels of Indian corn,
In former times the kings of Sweden were 68,709 of sweet potatoes, and 7,443 bales of
crowned here. The university of Upsal, found-cotton. There were 3 cotton factories, 4 grist
ed in 1476, has faculties of law, philosophy, mills, 4 saw mills, 21 churches, and 650 pupils
theology, and medicine, and is governed by a attending public schools. Capital, Thomaston.
chancellor, assisted by 31 professors, and at- URAL, formerly Yaik, a river of Russia,
tended by nearly 1,500 students. It has a libra- forming the boundary between Europe and

ry containing about 100,000 volumes and some Asia. It takes its rise in the district of Troitzk,
rare MSS., a very large collection of interesting in the Asiatic portion of the government of
objects of natural history, a collection of coins, Orenburg, in the S. part of the Ural mountains.
a chemical laboratory, and an observatory. Its source is about 1,720 feet above the sea,
The society of sciences was established in and it flows at first S. past Verkho Uralsk,
1719, and has published several valuable vol. · Magnitnaya, and Kizilsk, bends W. near Orsk,
umes of “Transactions.". The palace of Gus- passes Orenburg, and turning S. E. flows past
tavus is in a ruinous condition, but a part of it Uralsk, thence S., washing the base of the forts
is occupied by the governor; and the house in Tchegannoy, Kalmykova, and Saraitchik, and
which Linnæus lived is still standing. Upsal discharges its waters into the Caspian sea by
is the see of an archbishop, the residence of a several mouths, near Guriev, about lat. 47°
governor, and the seat of several courts. The N. Its length is variously estimated at from
* Mora stones," at which the Swedes elected 1,500 to 1,800 m., and it drains a territory of
their kings between 1140 and 1520, lie about 6 83,200 sq. m. Its principal affluents are, on the
m. S. E. from Upsal.

right, the Kizil, Tanalik, Sakmara, and BolUPSHUR, a N. E. co. of Texas, bounded N. shoy Tchegan; and on the left, the Suyunduk, by Big Cypress bayou and S. by Sabine river; Or, Ilek, Ulva, and Grashi. In its upper porarea, 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 10,645, of whom tion the river is obstructed by rapids, and flows 3,794 were slaves. The surface is nearly level through a mountainous country; lower down, and well timbered, and the soil fertile. The it passes through wide steppes or saline plains, productions in 1850 were 90,495 bushels of In- one of which lying between this river and the dian corn, 26,736 lbs. of butter, and 673 bales Volga is called the Uralian steppe. Toward of cotton. There were 131 pupils attending winter the river near its mouth abounds with public schools. Capital, Gilmer.

fish. The navigation of the Ural is of very UPSHUR, Abel Parker, an American ju- little importance. The inhabitants upon its rist and statesman, born in Northampton co., banks are mostly Cossacks. A line of forts has Va., accidentally killed at Washington, D. O., been erected along its shores as a defence Feb. 28, 1844. He was graduated at Nassau against the Bashkirs and Kirgheez. Hall, Princeton, N. J., in 1807, studied law in URAL MOUNTAINS, the chain of moun. the office of William Wirt at Richinond, Va., tains forming the N. E. boundary of Europe, was admitted to the bar in 1810, and practised and separating European Russia from Siberia. his profession in Richmond till 1824, when of very moderate height and breadth, the chain

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