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ple, and in 1831 returned to England, publish- of division. In 1840 he commanded the Aring a remarkable work entitled “ Observations gentine army which Rosas sent against Uruon European Turkey,” in which he attempted guay, from which his friend Oribe had been to prove that the Russian politics tended to the driven by Rivero. The latter finally suffered destruction of Turkey and the enfeeblement of a complete defeat from Urquiza on March 28, other powers, especially of England, and that 1845, in the battle of India Muerte, and the Turkey had within itself the elements of resis- victorious general was rewarded with the govtance and progress. Immediately afterward ernorship of Entre Rios. When in 1851 Rosas he made a long journey in Germany, Turkey, pretended to lay down the supreme power, Persia, and other portions of Asia, with a view Urquiza took him at his word, and a war was of studying the political and commercial influ- the consequence. The latter allied himself with ence of Russia. While in the East he publish- Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay, assembled an ed " Turkey and its Resources," and pamphlets army of 30,000 men, crossed the Parana in Jan. entitled " England and Russia,” “The Sultan 1852, routed the Argentine army at Monte CaMahmoud,” and “Mehemed Ali Pasha,” which seros Feb. 3, and by a coup d'état made himself excited much attention by their asserted ex- provisional dictator of the Argentine republic. posure of the designs of Russia. Returning to He called a new congress at Santa Fé in AuEngland, he labored constantly to impress his gust, which was to take definite steps for the views both upon the king and the people, and settlement of the country. A revolution in in 1835 was made by Lord Palmerston secretary Buenos Ayres in the mean time was succeeded of legation to Constantinople. In consequence by a counter revolution, with the aid of which of differences of opinion with Lord Ponsonby, he began the siege of Buenos Ayres. The dethe British ambassador, he resigned and re- fence was maintained with vigor, and by the turned to England in 1836, and began a sys- desertion of the squadron enforcing the blocktem of attacks upon Palmerston, whom he ade, he was at last forced to retire. In March, accused of a betrayal of British interests, and 1854, he was elected for 6 years president of of Russian tendencies. During the follow- the 13 other states composing the union; and ing year he published “Spirit of the East” he employed his power in an enlightened man(London, 1838), "Exposition of the Affairs of ner, reëstablishing commerce and navigation, Central Asia” (London, 1840), “Exposition of and declaring the Parana, the Paraguay, and the Boundary Differences between Great Brit- the Plata free to foreign powers. The war ain and the United States” (Glasgow, 1840), against Buenos Ayres was continued. In 1859 and other writings of temporary interest. When he mediated between the United States and the the oriental question threatened a breach be- republic of Paraguay, on occasion of the La tween England and France, he went to Paris, Plata naval expedition, and toward the close and in the daily press constantly attacked the of that year also succeeded in bringing back the policy of the British minister, a course which state of Buenos Ayres into the Argentine Coninjured him in his own country. While in federation. In the following year he was sucParis he published La crise, ou la France de- ceeded in the presidency by Dr. Santiago Dervant les quatre puissances (1840). Returning to qui, under whom he is now (1862) honorary England, he labored for some time ineffectu- commander-in-chief of the army and navy. ally to get into parliament, but in 1847 was URSA MAJOR. See BEAR, GREAT. elected for Stafford. The political agitations URSINUS, Fulvius, an Italian scholar, born which shortly afterward followed throughout in Rome, Dec. 2, 1529, died there, May 18, Europe preventing any consideration of east- 1600. He was an illegitimate son of a comern questions, he undertook in 1848 a jour- mander of the order of Malta, and rose to be a ney to Spain and northern Africa, and on his canon in the church of St. John Lateran. He return published “The Pillars of Hercules, a was librarian successively to Cardinal RainuNarrative of Travels in Spain and Morocco” (2 tius and Cardinal Alexander Farnese, and revols., London, 1850). In 1852 he was not re- ceived an annual pension of 200 ducats. His elected, but continued to labor none the less works are very numerous, and consist of comearnestly to diffuse his ideas that the English mentaries on and editions of the ancient writers, ministry had a secret understanding with Rus- and dissertations on antiquarian subjects. sia, and was bent upon the ruin of Turkey; and URSINUS, ZACHARIAS, a German theologian, his conduct became so extravagant, that he was born in Breslau, July 18, 1534, died in Neuconsidered . monomaniac. His partisans are stadt, March 6, 1583. He was educated at now very fer, and he rarely appears in public Wittenberg, early gained the friendship of Melife. His latist works are: “ Progress of Rus- lanchthon, went with him to Worms, and after sia in the We. t, South, and North" (1853), and studying at Paris returned to Wittenberg, “Recent Events in the East” (1854).
where in 1558 he was rector of the Elizabeth URQUIZA, Justo José DE, ex-president of gymnasium. On account of his views in rethe Argentine onfederation, born in the state gard to baptism and the Lord's supper, he beof Entre Rios about 1800. He is of mixed came involved in controversies with the LuSpanish and Ini ian blood, and during the war theran divines, and was called the sacramenwhich raged in I Plata attached himself to the tarian. In 1560 he resigned on account of party of Rosas, r sing to the rank of general these disputes, and went to Zürich, and thence
VOL. XV. -54
to Heidelberg, where he became a professor in tion of Paris counted in France 45 houses. the collegium sapientiæ. In 1562, by order of Other French congregations were founded at the elector palatine, he drew up the celebrated Bordeaux (1617), Dijon (1619), Lyons (1620), Heidelberg catechism, which the German Cal- and elsewhere. All the Ursuline contents are vinists afterward adopted as the exposition of placed under the jurisdiction of the diocesan their creed. Ursinus was forced to write two bishop, and their mutual coherence is so loose, defences of it, one against the Lutheran divines, that many convents do not even know to and the other against the representations of which of the numerous congregations they bethe princes of the empire. He was subse- long. They have not abandoned the primary quently employed in various offices by the elec- object of the original association, the nursing tor, which he was obliged to give up on the of the sick and the poor; but they are now death of the latter in 1577, the new elector be- mainly devoted to the instruction of girls. In ing a strong Lutheran. He then retired to 1860 they had 16 houses in Italy, 410 in France, Neustadt, and taught theology and logic in the 21 in Belgium and Holland, 37 in Germany, 2 gymnasium of that city. Some of his works in Switzerland, 8 in Hungary and Transylwere translated into English. The best edition vania, 1 in Greece, 7 in the British islands, 2 in is that of Heidelberg (3 vols. fol., 1612). Spain, 1 in Prussian Poland, 1 in Algeria, 1 in
URSULA, a saint of the Roman Catholic Guiana, and 17 in North America, viz. : at church, and, according to the legend, a daugh- Morrisania, near New York; Cleveland, Toleter of a Christian prince of Britain. Having do, Fayetteville, and Ohio City, O.; Spring. been demanded in marriage by a pagan prince, field and Alton, Ill. ; Columbia, S. C.; Saranand fearing by a refusal to bring ruin upon her nah and Augusta, Ga.; New Orleans, La.; parents and country, she seemingly consented, San Antonio and Galveston, Tex.; Louisville, but obtained a delay of 3 years, and a grant Ky.; St. Louis, Mo.; and at Quebec and Trois of 11 triremes and 10 noble companions, each Rivières, Canada. as well as herself attended by 1,000 virgins. URUGUAY, or BANDA ORIENTAL DEL VecShe passed the 3 years with her virgins in nauti- GUAY, a republic of South America, bounded cal exercises; and when the day fixed for her N. and N. E. by Brazil, E. and S. E. by the Atmarriage arrived, a sudden wind arose at their lantic ocean, S. by the Rio de la Plata, and W. prayer, and wafted them to the mouth of the by the Uruguay, these two rivers separating it Rhine, and thence to Basel. Here they left their from the Argentine Confederation. It lies bevessels, and made on foot a pilgrimage to Rome. tween lat. 30° 5' and 34° 56' S., and long: 53° 10° On their return they fell in unexpectedly at and 58° 20' W.; extreme length 350 m., breadth Cologne with an army of Huns, by whom they 320 m.; area, 72,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1859, were massacred, Ursula having refused an offer 217,429. It is divided into 13 departments, of marriage from the prince. Their corpses viz., Montevideo, Guadalupe (formerly Canewere buried by the people of Cologne, and a lones), San José, Florida, Colonia del Sacrachurch was afterward erected in their honor, mento, Soriano, Paysandu, Salto, Tacuarembo, in which bones supposed to be those of Ursula Cerro Largo, Maldonado, Minas, and Durazno. and her companions are still exhibited. The The chief towns are Montevideo, the capfirst traces of this legend, which was gradually ital, Maldonado, and Colonia del Santo Sacraenlarged, are met with in the 9th century. mento. To the N. of Cape Santa Maria the
URSULINES, a monastic order in the Ro- coast is low and sandy, but S. and W. of it man Catholic church, founded in 1537 by An- and on the estuary of the Rio de la Plata it is gela Merici of Brescia (canonized May 24, more bold and broken, having several fine bays 1807). The foundress designed it to be only a and harbors. A few small islands lie off the religious association or sisterhood for nursing shore, the largest of which is about 2 m. in the sick, supporting the poor, and gratuitously circumference. The most important streams instructing poor girls. Every member of the of the interior are the Rio Negro and its nuassociation was to be permitted to remain in merous tributaries, and the Arapey, Daiman, the bosom of her family, and the rule might be Yaguaron, and Sebollati. In the E. part of the changed according to the exigency of circum- country there are two lakes, the largest of stances. Soon after the death of Angela which lies partly in Brazil. In the neighborMerici the wearing of a common dress was in- hood of these lakes a low sandy tract extends troduced, and 30 years later the association inland for about 50 m.; but the greater part began to spread beyond the diocese of Brescia of the surface consists of an elevated table land into other parts of Italy. Gradually the mem- penetrated by many fertile valleys along the S. bers began in many places to live together in coast. The surface of this table land consists one house, to choose superiors, and to take of extensive plains traversed by occasional simple vows; in this case they assumed the ranges of low hills, the whole being almost name of Congregate Ursulines. The order destitute of trees. Potters' earth and umber of “Ursuline nuns,” which adopted the rule are found, copper ore is procured near Cape of St. Augustine, and took solemn vows, was Maria, and mines of gold and silver are said to first organized in 1604 by Madeleine de Ste. have been formerly worked. The climate is Beuve at Paris, and confirmed by the pope and remarkably mild and healthy, but during the king in 1612. In a short time this congrega- winter months a good deal of rain falls in the
lower part of the country. Severe frosts occa- out with Brazil till 1826. A treaty of peace sionally occur on the table land, but very little was concluded in 1828, through the intervention snow falls, and cattle are consequently enabled of Great Britain, by which the N. part of the to find subsistence at all seasons. A great deal country, known as the Seven Missions, was of the land is rich and fertile, but agriculture ceded to Brazil, and the S. portion was deis much neglected. Wheat, maize, barley, rice, clared an independent state, under the title of peas, beans, flax, hemp, and cotton are all Republica del Uruguay Oriental. Internal disraised; and the vine, peach, sugar cane, and sensions soon broke out, and Rosas, the presinumerous kinds of fruit trees thrive remarkably dent of Buenos Ayres, was asked for assistance well. Timber is only found on the banks of by Oribe, one of the unsuccessful candidates the principal rivers. The pastures are excel- for the presidency of Uruguay. Some troops lent, and the wealth of the inhabitants consists were sent, and the war continued for a long in their flocks and herds. Great numbers of time with very little advantage on either side. horses and horned cattle run wild on the plains, Brazil, being at last induced to interfere, sent and large flocks of sheep are kept, the wool of to the governments of England and France to which is of superior quality. Among the wild request their help in compelling the combatanimals are included the tapir, deer, ounce, ants to lay down their arms. Both these powmonkey, paca, rabbit, and fox; and large packs ers sent some ships of war to the Rio de la of wild dogs frequent the plains. There are Plata in 1845, and blockaded Montevideo, the many kinds of birds, and water fowl frequent former till 1848 and the latter till 1849, when the lakes. The manufactures are of little im- they made treaties with the ruler of Buenos portance, being confined to a few coarse arti- Ayres. The Argentine
provinces of Corrientes cles for domestic use. The commerce of the and Entre Rios joined Rosas, and the war concountry is also comparatively insignificant, tinued till 1851, when Oribe was defeated and few of the natural products finding their way his patron shortly afterward deposed. Peace abroad. The exports consist of jerked and salted was now secured, and treaties were entered beef, tallow, hides, horns, and hair; and the into with foreign states, one concluded in Jan. imports of manufactured articles, lumber, flour, 1859 with Brazil and the Argentine Confederasugar, cordage, and agricultural implements tion securing the independence and neutrality from the United States. During the year 1858, of the state; but internal discord still prevailed, 936 vessels of an aggregate of 186,699 tons en- and has kept the affairs of the country in a tered, and 922 vessels of an aggregate of 183,- most disorganized condition down to the pres230 tons cleared from the ports of the republic. ent time. Bernardo Prudencio Berro is now In the same year the value of the exports to president, having been elected for 4 years in the principal countries with which trade is March, 1860. carried on was as follows: Great Britain and URUGUAY, a river of South America, which her colonies, $1,176,375; France, $1,018,340; rises on the W. slope of a range of hills in the Brazil, $981,330 ; Sardinia, $714,425; United N. part of the province of Rio Grande do Sul, States, $650,115; Spain, $501,700; and Buenos Brazil
, about lat. 28° S., long. 50° W. After Ayres, $272,340.-In theory the government flowing N. W. for about 100 m., it is joined on of Uruguay resembles that of the United States, the right by the Pelotas, by which name it is but in practice it has degenerated into a mere sometimes known in this part of its course, and military despotism, and the president, who is then assumes a W. direction until it is joined usually some successful general, in reality pos- from the N. by the Repiri, which separates sesses absolute power. According to the budget Brazil from the state of Corrientes in the Arfor 1860, the revenues and expenditures for 18 gentine Confederation. Its course is now S. S. months were each estimated at $3,579,802. W. for perhaps 250 m., during which it receives The total public debt in the same year amounted the Ibicni, Arapey, and other important affluto about $25,000,000.—The territory included ents, and separates Brazil and Uruguay on the in the republic of Uruguay was originally set- left from the Argentine Confederation on the tled by a Spanish colony from Buenos Ayres, right. From the town of Belen in Uruguay, at but the possession of it afterward caused a war the mouth of the Arroyo-Arapey, its direction between Spain and Portugal, during which it is almost due S. for 400 m., when it unites with was in turn several times occupied by both. the Parana to form the Rio de la Plata, in lat. The contest was finally decided in favor of 34o S., long. 61° 40' W. The most considerable Spain, and the country attached to the vice- of all its tributaries is the Rio Negro, which royalty of Buenos Ayres, and known as the joins it from Uruguay, 50 m. above its mouth. district of Banda Oriental. When the war of Its whole length is 800 m. It is navigable by independence began, Banda Oriental took the sailing barks to a point 40 m. below the Ibicui, side of Buenos Ayres, but shortly afterward the N. boundary of the republic of Uruguay. separated from that republic. The Brazilians, There is here a cataract, above which the river seeing the country in an unsettled state, and is sable by lar canoes to the mouth of fearing lest its revolutionary doctrines should the Pelotas. Its banks are extremely fertile, and spread into their territory, took possession of produce cotton and maté or Paraguay tea, but it in 1821. Buenos Ayres protested against they are little cultivated. this proceeding, but war did not actually break USBECKS. See Turks.
USES. The word usus was employed in the ing to the rules of law or equity, in conformity Roman civil law, and there meant a right to with the provisions in the instrument creating take so much of the fruit or profit of a thing the use. If the cestuy que use of land be maras was needed for sustenance; while usufructus ried, his widow has no dower, nor the husband had a larger meaning, including a qualified of a cestuy que use a tenancy by courtesy, because right of possession. In the law of England the cestuy que use has no seisin, nor can lie and the United States, the word use has a pre- bring an action at láw respecting it. The sicise meaning, which is similar to that of the sin is in the feoffee-to-use, and while his legal fulei commissum of the Roman law. It means estate is subject to all legal incidents at law, a confidence reposed in one who has the prop- equity will subject all these legal incidents to erty (or to whom it is given) in possession, that the equitable requirements of the use.—Trusts he will hold it for the use or benefit of another, and uses are often spoken of together, and from who is called in Norman French the cestuy the article on Trusts their similarity, or analque use.
A Roman magistrate (a prætor) was ogy, will be seen. They are however different charged with the enforcement of these fidei in important particulars; but the rules of law commissa, and was called commissarius. When which define this difference are so nice and uses became common in England, the chancel- technical, and still open to so much question, lor, under whose jurisdiction they passed, had that our space does not permit us to present much the same duty to perform as the Roman them with sufficient fulness to be useful. commissarius; and indeed Lord Bacon calls USHANT (Fr. Ouessant), the chief island of this magistrate a Roman chancellor.–Uses a cluster of 7, known collectively as ales d'Oues. were invented in England to avoid and defeat sant, situated about 15 m. from the coast of the statutes of mortmain (see Trust); and to France, off the W. coast of the department of protect those statutes against uses, the statute Finistère, of which they form a canton, and of 27 Henry VIII., commonly called the statute 28 m. W. N. W. from Brest; extreme length 5 of uses, was enacted. This statute provided m., breadth 3 m.; pop. 2,271. The shores of that any person or corporation entitled to a Ushant are bold and rocký, and landing is only use in fee simple, fee tail, or otherwise, should practicable in a few places. The formation is stand seized and possessed of the land itself, in almost entirely granitic, and the soil is fertile, the like estate which they had in the use; the the surface being covered with excellent meadintention being to subject a conveyance to the ows and pasture lands, upon which horses and use of any one, and the property and the cestuy sheep are reared. The inhabitants are princique use, to the same legal restraints and liabili- pally occupied in fishing, and paganism was said ties as if the conveyance had been made direct- to linger among them till the 17th century. The ly to the cestuy que use.
This statute was said, lighthouse on Ushant is situated in lat. 48° 28' in legal phraseology, “to execute the use.” It N., long. 5° 3' W. Off Ushant the British fleet was intended to prevent conveyances to use, under Sir Edward Hawkes gained a complete by making them of no effect where they vio- victory over the French under Admiral Conflans lated the statutes of mortmain, and of no more in 1759; and an indecisive action took place be. effect than a direct conveyance where they did tween the English under Admiral Keppel and not. Still such uses as the law permitted, or the French under Count d'Orvilliers in 1778. as courts of equity could protect, were found USHER (Fr. huissier), a public officer haring to be exceedingly convenient, and became com- charge of the door of a court or hall, and hence mon; and courts of equity retained their hold one whose business it is to introduce strangers upon them, the person to whom the convey- and perform other similar duties. There are ance was made being considered as having the various officers of this kind attached to the legal estate, subject to the rules of law and the royal household in England, including the gen. jurisdiction of courts of law, while the cestuy tleman usher of the black rod, who attends in que use has an equitable estate subject to the the house of peers during the sessions of parliarules and the courts of equity. This is now ment, and 12 or more gentleman ushers. There the prevailing condition of the law of uses in is also an usher of the exchequer, who attends England and in the United States. But the the barons and other officers of that court. The whole system of law and of equity in regard to term is also applied to an under or assistant uses has become as intricate and extensive as master in a school. it is important. Here we can do no more than USHER, James, an Irish prelate, born in indicate the principal rules of this system.– Dublin, Jan. 4, 1580, died in Reigate, Surrey, There can be no use, unless: 1, there is a per- March 21, 1656. He was educated at Trinity son capable in law of taking it; 2, a person college, Dublin, being one of the first 3 stucapable in law of being seized of the property dents admitted. He began the study of theology to the use of the other; 3, an express declara- in 1598, took the degree of M.A. in 1600, was tion of use, or a consideration and a transfer or ordained priest in 1601, and soon after received contract from which the court will imply a use; the appointment of “Sunday afternoon preachand 4, sufficient estate or property or interest er before the state" in Christ church, Dublin. to sustain a use. Then, if a use exists which He was chosen professor of divinity in his college the courts can recognize, it is descendible, or in 1607, and in the same year was made chanheritable, or devisable, or transferable accord- cellor of the cathedral of St. Patrick. In 1620
King James nominated him to the see of England, in the reign of Henry VIII., interest Meath ; in 1623 he was made a member of the at 10 per cent. was made lawful; in the time Irish privy council; and in Jan. 1624, he was of James I. it was reduced to 8 per cent. ; dur. raised to the archbishopric of Armagh and the ing the commonwealth it was 6 per cent., and primacy of the Irish church. In 1640 he visit- this was again enacted by 12 Charles II. ; the ed England, and during his absence his house statute of 12 Anne reduced it to 5 per cent. at Armagh was destroyed by the rebels (1641), The act 3 and 4 William IV. exempted from and with it he lost nearly every thing he pos- the operation of the usury laws bills having sessed. In the state of the country it was more than 3 months to run. After several thought needless to return to his archbishop- modifications in the reign of Victoria, the act ric, and Charles I. conferred upon him the 17 and 18 Victoria, ch. 90, repealed all laws bishopric of Carlisle, to be held in commendam. then in force relating to usury, providing only In 1647 he was chosen preacher to the society that the rights and remedies of persons in reof Lincoln's Inn, and preached regularly in the spect to acts previously done, should not be chapel during term time for nearly 8 years. affected by the statute.--In the United States, He was buried in Westminster abbey by order the usury laws differ in different states, and of Cromwell. His principal works are: De are not perhaps precisely the same in any two. Ecclesiarum Christianarum Successione et Statu In Louisiana 5 per cent. is the legal rate; in (London, 1613); “Emanuel, or a Treatise on New York, South Carolina, Georgia, Michigan, the Incarnation of the Son of God” (Dublin, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, it is 7 per cent.; in 1638); Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquita- Alabama, Florida, and Texas, 8 per cent. ; in tes (Dublin, 1639); De Romanæ Ecclesiæ Sym- California, Kansas, and Oregon, 10 per cent.; bolo (London, 1647); Dissertatio de Macedonum in all the other states it is 6 per cent. But the et Asianorum Anno Solari (1648); Annales Ve- statutes vary exceedingly as to the legal effects teris et Novi Testamenti (2 vols. fol., 1650–'54); of usury. In some, the parties may agree on Epistola ad Ludovicum Capellum de Varian- what rate they will, and the legal rate takes tibus Textus Hebraici Lectionibus (1652); “The effect only in the absence of agreement; in Reduction of Episcopacy to the Form of the others, the whole contract is avoided by a Synodical Government in the Ancient Church” reservation or agreement for more than the (1658); and Chronologia Sacra (1660). A com- legal rate. Regarding these as extremes, in plete edition of his works has been published much the greater number the penalty for usury by the Dublin university in 17 vols.
lies between them. In some states the legal USQUEBAUGH (Irish, uisge, water, and rate takes effect when there is no agreement, brigh, life), the Irish name for distilled spirit, but the parties may agree for more up to a cerwhence the modern word whiskey. It is now tain definite limit.— There are many ways in applied to a liquor compounded of brandy, rai- which the usury laws may be evaded, and sins, cinnamon, and other spices.
courts watch contracts liable to this abuse USUMASINTA RIVER. See GUATEMALA. with great strictness. Some principles may be
USURY. Originally this word meant any gathered from the adjudications, which may be taking of money for the use of money; and regarded as prevalent, if not universal. Thus, he was therefore a usurer who, lending money, to constitute usury, there must be substantially required in repayment any thing more than the a loan, and a usurious intent in both parties, in amount which he lent. This was once con- one to give and in the other to take usurious sidered a great moral wrong, and the greater interest. But the contract need not be, in form, the more was taken. For many ages, however, a loan; and whether it is so in fact, is a questhis opinion, if it has not ceased to exist, has tion for a jury. Property may be sold for whatlost much of its practical or legal force. It is no ever price the parties agree upon; but if the longer deemed more wrong to take pay for the sale be in fact a mere cover for the usury, it use of money than for the use of a house, or a does not protect it. Negotiable paper may be horse, or any other property. But the linger- sold like other paper. The cases on this subing influence of the former opinion, together ject are numerous, nice, and perhaps conflictwith the fact that the nature of money makes ing; but it may be stated as a general rule, it easier for the lender to oppress the borrower, that if it is in fact the promissor who sells, has caused nearly all Christian nations to fix and the buyer buys even through an agent, by law the rate of compensation for the use of but with knowledge that he buys of the money. If compensation be taken within this promissor, it is in fact and in law a loan from limitation of law, it is called interest; but if the buyer, and may therefore be usurious. Even more be taken than the law allows, this is, in if a statute declares a usurious contract "void," the present meaning of the word, usury. (See in the most emphatic language, the law looks INTEREST.) The opinion that money should be upon it rather as "voidable;" and therefore no borrowed and repaid, or bought and sold, upon one can make the objection of usury but the whatever terms the parties should agree to, borrower and the parties in privity of interest like any other property, has of late years gained and contract with him. So, if one borrows ground almost everywhere; and where usury stock, agreeing to replace it with the dividends laws are in force, this opinion has perhaps ex- received in the mean time, or if he agrees to reerted some influence upon adjudication. In place it, or the money it sells for, with interest