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means as yet kept secret, imparted the stereo- flecting a ray, this power increasing from the
lyle calls the "Coleridgean legerdemain,” up and abandoned the study of law for literature. to faith in the church, in which he finally takes He left Russia in 1830, passed several years in orders. In 1830 he was married, and soon af- travel, and since 1843 has lived in Berlin. His ter, for the benefit of his health, went with his writings are lively, satirical, and aristocratic. wife to the island of St. Vincent in the West Several collections of his works have been Indies, where he resided 15 months on a sugar published. estate. In 1833, under the influence of his STERNE, LAURENCE, an English divine and former tutor, J. O. Hare, and of Coleridge, he author, born in Clonmel, Ireland, Nov. 24, resolved to enter holy orders, was ordained 1713, died in London, March 18, 1768. His deacon at Chichester in 1834, and at once parents were both English, and his father, Robecame curate of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, ger Sterne, a grandson of Dr. Richard Sterne, where his friend Hare was rector. At the end archbishop of York in the time of Charles II., of 8 months ill health compelled him to retire was a lieutenant in Handaside's regiment, the from the ministry, which he never resumed. movements of which, “from barrack to transHe removed to London, where he now first port, from Ireland to England,” young Laumet Carlyle, who soon filled the place of Men- rence followed until his 10th year, when he tor to him, which had before been held by was put to school at Halifax in England. HavColeridge. From this time literature was his ing been adopted by his kinsman, Mr. Sterne chief pursuit. Carlyle describes him as busy of Elvington, he was in 1733 admitted of Jesus but unproductive, roaming among his friends, college, Cambridge, where he was graduated a welcome illumination to all, his address in 1736; soon after which he took orders and everywhere pleasant and enlivening. His ill was presented, through the influence of his health continuing, in 1836 he went to the south uncle, the Rev. Jaques Sterne, to the living of France, and in the following year to Madei- of Sutton in Yorkshire, to which preferment ra; part of the years 1838 and 1839 he passed a few years later was added a prebend in York in Italy; visited Madeira again in 1840; and cathedral. In 1741 he was married after an in 1841 settled at Falmouth, from which he ardent courtship of several years, although he made frequent visits to London. Meantime he lived long enough to cordially hate his wife; had contributed to “Blackwood's Magazine" and about the same time, through her connechis delightful “Legendary Lore;" wrote for the tions, he obtained the living of Stillington, ad“Westminster Review," then under the charge joining Sutton. For nearly 20 years he purof John Stuart Mill; and was engaged on other sued the career of a rural incumbent, enjoying compositions, in prose and verse. For the pur- good health and amusing himself with “ books, pose of meeting him on his hasty visits to Lon- painting, fiddling, and shooting;" and during don, the Sterling club had been formed, among this period his only publications appear to have the members of which, beside his friends al- been two sermons, although he probably wrote ready mentioned, were Tennyson and Sir G. O. political paragraphs for the newspapers, and is Lewis. He published in 1839 a collection of said to have conducted for some time a periodiminor poems; in 1841" The Election," a poem cal electioneering paper in the whig interest. of English life and society; and in 1843 a In 1759 he published at York, under the pseudrama entitled “Strafford.” During the last donyme of "Mr. Yorick," the first two volumes named year both his wife and mother died, of “Tristam Shandy,” which were reprinted and his own health was rendered more pre- in London early in 1760. The 3d and 4th volcarious by the bursting of a blood vessel. He umes appeared in 1761, the 5th and 6th in retired in 1843 to the isle of Wight, and there 1762, the 7th and 8th in 1765, and the 9th in commenced a poem entitled “Cæur de Lion," 1767. Long before the completion of the work, which he did not live to complete. In 1848 the charm and the novelty of the style, abrupt a collection of his “Essays and Tales," from and exclamatory rather than continuous, the periodicals, was edited by Archdeacon Hare, whimsical digressions, the exquisite touches with a biography prefixed (2 vols.). The biog- of pathos and humor, and its many admirably raphy dwelt specially upon the religious as- conceived characters, had taken an extraordipects of his character, as a heroic truth-seek- nary hold upon the public, and Sterne took his or and a laborious curate. Mr. Carlyle, deem- place by the side of Fielding and Richardson ing this the least significant phase of his career, and Smollett as a great writer of prose fiction, holding that artistic admiration was his forte, He was extensively lionized in London, where and not devotion in any form, and condemning people were invited a fortnight in advance to his entrance into the church as a weak, false, dine with him; and Boswell has recorded unwise, and unpermitted step,” published in Johnson's remark that “the man, Sterne, had 1851 his own “Life of Sterling," one of his engagements for three months.” The erudition best productions and one of the most remarks which so greatly astonished the not very learned able of biographies. In 1851 "Twelve Letters readers who welcomed the appearance of “Trisby John Sterling” were edited by his relative, tam Shandy,” will however scarcely stand the Mr. Coningham.
test of modern criticism; and it has been STERNBERG, ALEXANDER Von, baron, a shown by Dr. Ferriar in his “Illustrations of German novelist, born near Revel, in Esthonia, Sterne" (1798), that the quaint imagery and the April 22, 1806. 'He was educated at Dorpat, quainter conceits and fancies scattered through
the book, were largely borrowed from Rabe- in principle, a bad husband, a faithless lover,
travelled in Greece. Suidas says that his name a free pardon from government. While abroad was originally Tisias, but was changed to Stesi- he published several works on currency, and chorus because he was the first to establish a in 1767 produced his “ Inquiry into the Princhorus for singing to the harp. By some he ciples of Political Economy” (2 vols. 4to.), the has been called the inventor of choral poetry. first considerable English work on the subject. He wrote in the Doric dialect, intermixed with (See POLITICAL ECONOMY, vol. xiii. p. 449.) epic. His poems were chiefly on heroic sub- Among his remaining works are: “ The Prinjects, although he wrote many on themes more ciples of Money applied to the Present State of purely lyrical. He was the first of the Greek the Coin of Bengal,” “ A Plan for introducing poets who composed erotic poems. Fragments an Uniformity of Weights and Measures," &c. only of his writings are now
extant. The best A complete edition of his works was edited by collection is that of O: F. Kleine, entitled Ste- his son, Sir James Steuart (6 vols. 8vo., 1805). sichori Himerensis Fragmenta, with a disserta- STEUBEN. I. A S. W.co. of New York, bortion on his life and poetry (8vo., Berlin, 1828). dering on Pennsylvania and drained by the Che
STETHOSCOPE. See AUSCULTATION. mung, Canisteo, Tioga, and Conhocton rivers;
STETTIN, a town of Prussia, capital of the area, 1,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 66,689. The province of Pomerania, and of the administra- surface is broken and the soil generally very tive district of its own name, situated on the fertile. The productions in 1855 were 307,604 left bank of the Oder, 76 m. N. E. from Berlin; bushels of wheat, 711,307 of oats, 292,689 of pop. in 1858, 53,094. The river is crossed by Indian corn, 255,938 of potatoes, 297,289 of aptwo bridges, and the town is defended by walls, ples, 58,749 tons of hay, 1,976,129 lbs. of butter, a citadel, and several forts and outworks. It 336,334 of wool, 113,653 of honey, and 112,287 is entered by 5 principal and several smaller of maple sugar. There were 9 furnaces, 2 car gates, 2 of the former being highly ornament- factories, 42 grist mills, 238 saw mills, 15 shined. The town is old, but it contains several gle factories, 7 newspaper offices, 105 churches, fine squares, and is generally well built. The and 341 schools. Iron ore and superior buildancient castle of Stettin, which was the resi. ing stone are found. There are 2 or 3 small dence of the dukes of Pomerania, contains a lakes, and Crooked lake is partly within
the collection of northern antiquities, and in the county. It is traversed by the Erie, the Bufchapel attached to it is the ducal vault. Wool- falo, New York, and Erie, and the Blossburg len, linen, cotton, sugar, anchors, &c., are man- and Corning railroads, and the Chemung and ufactured. The value of the imports in 1854 other canals. Considerable lumber is exwas $12,295,800, and of the exports $6,571,550. ported. Seats of justice, Bath and Corning. In 1858 the total value of the imports was II. A N. E. co. of Indiana, bordering on Ohio $17,000,000. The number of vessels entered and Michigan, and intersected by the St. Join 1858 was 3,007, tonnage 541,978; and 58,572 seph's and Pigeon rivers; area, 314 sq. m.; tons of shipping was registered in the port.- pop. in 1860, 10,374. The surface is prairio In the year 830 a large village and a temple to and woodland, and the soil fertile. the Wendish idol Trigloff occupied the present ductions in 1850 were 101,190 bushels of Insite of Stettin. The temple was destroyed and dian corn, 73,141 of wheat, 38,734 of oats, and rebuilt several times, and when Christianity 5,389 tons of hay. There were 4 churches, and was introduced about the beginning of the 13th 1,600 pupils in public schools. Capital, Angola. century a large treasure was found in it. Stet- STEUBEN, FREDERIO WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, tin has belonged at different times to Denmark, baron, an officer of the American revolution, Sweden, and Prussia.
born in Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 15, 1730, STEUART, Sir JAMES, a Scottish political died near Utica, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1794. He was economist, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 10,1713, died educated at the Jesuit colleges of Neisse and Nov. 26, 1780. He completed his education at Breslau, and when only 14 years old served as the university of Edinburgh, and in 1734 was a volunteer under his father, who was an ofadmitted to the Scottish bar, at which however ficer in the army of Frederic the Great, and he rarely practised. Although of a whig fam- was at the siege of Prague. In 1747 he was ily, he became, through intercourse on the appointed a cadet in an infantry regiment, becontinent with several exiled adherents of the came an ensign in 1749, and a lieutenant in old pretender, imbued with Jacobite doctrines; 1753. In 1757 he distinguished himself at the and having declared for the young pretender in battles of Prague and Rossbach, in 1758 was 1745, he was sent by him on a mission to the appointed an adjutant-general, and was in the court of France, where he was residing at the battles of Kay and Kunersdorf, in the latter of time of the battle of Culloden. The conse- which he was wounded. On the capitulation of quence was a compulsory absence from Great Treptow in 1761, he was sent to St. Petersburg Britain for nearly 18 years. He resided during as a prisoner of war, but released shortly after the greater part of this period at Angoulême, ward. In 1762 he was appointed adjutant-genand employed his leisure in those studies which eral in the king's staff, and had charge of the were afterward embodied in his books. In quartermaster's department. He was a member 1763 he was permitted to return to Scotland, of Frederic's select academy of young officers where he passed the remainder of his life, al- who were under his special instruction; and afthough it was not until 1771 that he obtained ter the siege of Schweidnitz, in which he parti
cipated, the king presented him with a valuable STEUBENVILLE, a city and the capital of lay benefice. At the close of the 7 years' war Jefferson co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, 22 m. N. Steuben retired from the army and devoted from Wheeling, Va., 35 m. W. from Pittsburg, himself to travel, accompanying the prince of Penn., and 141 m. E. from Columbus ; pop. in Hohenzollern-Hechingen to a number of the 1860, 6,154. It stands on an elevation on the courts of Europe. That prince appointed him right bank of the river, is well laid out and in 1764 grand marshal, and general of his substantially built, is surrounded by a rich guard. Steuben was on terms of intimacy and farming and stock-growing country, and is the friendship with a number of the European lit- centre of an important trade. It has 2 cotton erary characters and noblemen of his time. In factories, 3 woollen factories, a paper mill, an 1777, while on a visit to France, the count St. extensive rolling mill, a glass factory, 2 iron Germain solicited him to come to America; founderies, & brass foundery, copperas esand Steuben, after frequent interviews with the tablishments, machine shops, á coal and carAmerican commissioners, finally decided to bon oil refinery, an extensive white lead manacquiesce. He arrived at Portsmouth, N. H., ufactory, a distillery, and a number of large Dec. 1, 1777, and immediately wrote to con- flouring mills. It has 2 banks, 1 daily and 3 gress and to Gen. Washington, tendering his weekly newspapers, 12 churches
, and a female services as a volunteer, and expressing the seminary, which enjoys a high reputation and strongest sympathy with the cause of the colo- usually has about 150 pupils. The seminary nies. Shortly afterward he proceeded to York, building is a handsome structure, erected at å Penn., where congress was in session, was di- cost of $40,000. The river division of the rected to join the army under Washington, and Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad passes through during the winter arrived at Valley Forge. the city, and it is the present terminus of the On May 5, 1778, he was appointed inspector- Steubenville and Indiana railroad. Abundance general with the rank of major-general, and of excellent coal is found in the neighborhood. by his excellent management greatly improved STEVENS, ABEL, LL.D., an American clerthe condition of the continental troops. In gyman, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1816. Jane following he was at the battle of Mon. He studied at the Wilbraham academy, Mass., mouth. He prepared a manual for the army, and the Wesleyan university, Middletown, which was approved by congress in 1779, and Conn. In 1834 he was settled as pastor of a introduced the most thorough discipline; and Methodist church in Boston; in 1837 he travmuch of the success of the revolution is to be elled in Europe, and corresponded extensively attributed to his sagacious and rigid regula- with American journals. After his return, he tions. He was a member of the court martial was stationed about 3 years in Providence, R. I. on the trial of Major André. In 1780 he was He next removed to Boston in 1840, and took placed in command of the troops in Virginia, editorial charge of “Zion's Herald," a religious and in January following was active in harass- newspaper; in 1852 he removed to New York, ing the British forces under Benedict Arnold. and was appointed editor of the “National The next summer he was attached to Gen. La- Magazine;" in 1855 he revisited Europe; and on fayette's division, and took an important part his return in 1856 was elected editor of the in the siege of Yorktown. He was distin- " Christian Advocate and Journal.” Dr. Steguished for his generosity and kindness of vens has published "Memorials
of the Introducheart, and was frequently known to share his tion of Methodism into New England," “Melast dollar with the suffering soldiers. At va- morials of the Progress of Methodism in the rious times he contributed most of his clothing Eastern States," « Church Polity," “ The and camp equipments to the men, and labored Preaching required by the Times," i Sketches unceasingly to promote their comfort and wel- and Incidents, a Budget from the Saddle Bags fare. After the war, in the impoverished con- of an Itinerant," "The Great Reform," and a dition of the country, congress was tardy in “History of the Religious Movement of the rewarding him for his services, and he experi- Eighteenth Century called Methodism” (3 enced much annoyance and vexatious delay in vols., New York, 1859–’62). About 100,000 securing an appropriation for his pay and to volumes of his works have been issued. reimburse him for personal expenses incurred STEVENS, GEORGE ALEXANDER, an English in providing the soldiers with clothing and author, born in London in the early part of the arms. In 1790 congress voted him a life annu- 18th century, died in 1784. He commenced ity of $2,500. Several of the states passed res- life as a strolling actor, and gradually acquired olutions acknowledging his eminent services, some reputation as a writer of burlesques and and voted him tracts of land. New York of comic songs. In 1760 he published a novel, presented him with 16,000 acres near Utica, “The History of Tom Fool," and a few years forming a township called from him Steuben, later produced an entertainment entitled “A on which he settled and passed the remainder Lecture on Heads,"_which he gave with reof his life, giving portions of the land to his markable success. He also published a volaids, and leasing the remainder to settlers. His ume of “Songs, Comic and Satirical” (1772); hfe has been written by Francis Bowen in and after his death appeared “The Adventures Sparks's “ American Biography," and by Fried- of a Speculist, compiled from the Papers of rich Kapp (New York, 1860).
G. A. Stevens, with his Life, a Preface, and