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means as yet kept secret, imparted the stereoscopic effect, or relief, to copies of flat surfaces, such as paintings and engravings.-Several instruments have been invented for the purpose of exhibiting a large number of views in succession, usually involving the revolution of an endless band carrying holders, in which the slides or views are previously placed, and by which they are brought successively into suitable position. Prof. H. W. Dove, by covering slides with printed lines, each one repeated, for one eye commencing evenly, and for the other every alternate line being set in or indented, has secured a perfect imitation of the effect of a double-refracting crystal. He has accordingly proposed to detect spurious bank notes which are copies of the genuine, by observing any suspected note alongside of one known to be genuine in the stereoscope; if the former be spurious, slight misplacements of words or lines, inappreciable to the unaided eye, will distinctly show the double-refractive effect, by an apparent projection of such out of the plane of the paper. Copies of prints or drawings may in like manner be known from the originals; with genuine duplicate notes or prints the effect is not observed. Other applications have been proposed, though not yet probably to any great extent adopted. But as a means of amusement, within the past 10 years the stereoscope has risen to a very prominent place in commerce as well as in art; and experienced artists are already visiting almost every portion of the earth's surface, known or supposed to offer objects of historical interest or scenery of striking character; while groups illustrative of domestic and other supposable scenes and situations are multiplied continually.-Prof. E. Emerson, of Troy university, N. Y., has devised a simple means of remedying a common defect of the lenticular stereoscope. (See the "American Journal of Science," Nov. 1861.) The two semilenses being fixed at the distance from each other supposed to be that ordinarily required, there may still be very great difficulty or even an impossibility of uniting the two pictures on the slides into one impression in relief; and this mainly from two causes-that the pictures are at improper distances apart, the distance between their centres varying from 24 to 31 inches; and that the width between the observer's eyes may also change much. An instrument enabling us to see equally well views whose separation may vary by an inch or more thus becomes a desideratum. In the ordinary arrangement, moreover, the size of each picture is confined to about 3 inches each way, or an area of 9 square inches; the views must be taken under an angle correspondingly small; and even if these be afterward magnified in viewing, still nothing is added in this way to the actual completeness of details. Now, while the lenses employed in the stereoscope are each constant in focal length, yet each will vary in the power of de
flecting a ray, this power increasing from the centre out to the thin edge. Consequently, pictures at such distance apart as to be readily united through the middle part of the lenses, require to be separated more and more as we separate the lenses themselves, looking through their more deflecting portions. This circumstance suggests the means of giving to the instrument a general character, and adapting it to all sorts of views as well as to differences in the width between the eyes. The modification given is that of rendering the lenses movable in a horizontal direction, approaching till the edges touch, or separating as far as the eyes will allow, each lens moving through slightly more than an inch. The lenses must move simultaneously, at the same rate, and in opposite directions; when the right lens moves to the right, the left goes to the left, and vice versa. This is accomplished by fitting the lenses to slide in a brass frame, and attaching the lower edge of each to a nut; within the right nut turns a right-hand screw, and within the left a left-hand screw; and the threads of both screws being cut in the same horizontal rod, both lenses are actuated simultaneously and oppositely by turning the rod by a milled head at one side of the instrument. With this arrangement, the separation of the centres may vary from 2 as far as to 4 inches, or with achromatic lenses to 5 inches; and as an incidental advantage, views may thus be employed which, as taken, cover an area of 20 square inches, or twice that of those in general use.
STEREOTYPE PRINTING. See PRINTING. STERLING. See POUND STERLING. STERLING, JOHN, a British author, born at Kaimes castle, in the isle of Bute, July 20, 1806, died at Ventnor, in the isle of Wight, Sept. 18, 1844. His father, Edward Sterling, had been educated for the Irish bar, had served for a time as captain in the army, was now occupied as a gentleman farmer, and afterward became a leading writer of the London "Times." John was the second of 7 chil
dren, 5 of whom died in youth. The family removed to Paris during the peace of 1814, but fled on the return of Napoleon from Elba, and settled in London. At the age of 16 he was sent to the university of Glasgow, whence he was removed in the following year to Trinity. college, Cambridge, where he was the chief speaker in the union debating club, and was intimate with a group of young men including F. D. Maurice, R. C. Trench, J. M. Kemble, Charles Buller, and Monckton Milnes. 1828 he and his friend Maurice became proprietors and editors of the recently established "Athenæum," which soon passed out of their hands. Sterling continued to reside in London, and gained the friendship of Coleridge, of whom he was a most enthusiastic admirer. In 1829-'30 he wrote his novel of "Arthur Coningsby" (3 vols., 1833), the hero of which foreshadowed his own career by passing through radicalism, by means of what Car
lyle calls the "Coleridgean legerdemain," up to faith in the church, in which he finally takes orders. In 1830 he was married, and soon after, for the benefit of his health, went with his wife to the island of St. Vincent in the West Indies, where he resided 15 months on a sugar estate. In 1833, under the influence of his former tutor, J. C. Hare, and of Coleridge, he resolved to enter holy orders, was ordained deacon at Chichester in 1834, and at once became curate of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, where his friend Hare was rector. At the end of 8 months ill health compelled him to retire from the ministry, which he never resumed. He removed to London, where he now first met Carlyle, who soon filled the place of Mentor to him, which had before been held by Coleridge. From this time literature was his chief pursuit. Carlyle describes him as busy but unproductive, roaming among his friends, a welcome illumination to all, his address everywhere pleasant and enlivening. His ill health continuing, in 1836 he went to the south of France, and in the following year to Madeira; part of the years 1838 and 1839 he passed in Italy; visited Madeira again in 1840; and in 1841 settled at Falmouth, from which he made frequent visits to London. Meantime he had contributed to "Blackwood's Magazine" his delightful "Legendary Lore;" wrote for the "Westminster Review," then under the charge of John Stuart Mill; and was engaged on other compositions, in prose and verse. For the purpose of meeting him on his hasty visits to London, the Sterling club had been formed, among the members of which, beside his friends already mentioned, were Tennyson and Sir G. C. Lewis. He published in 1839 a collection of minor poems; in 1841 "The Election," a poem of English life and society; and in 1843 a drama entitled "Strafford." During the last named year both his wife and mother died, and his own health was rendered more precarious by the bursting of a blood vessel. He retired in 1843 to the isle of Wight, and there commenced a poem entitled "Coeur de Lion," which he did not live to complete. In 1848 a collection of his "Essays and Tales," from periodicals, was edited by Archdeacon Hare, with a biography prefixed (2 vols.). The biography dwelt specially upon the religious aspects of his character, as a heroic truth-seeker and a laborious curate. Mr. Carlyle, deeming this the least significant phase of his career, holding that artistic admiration was his forte, and not devotion in any form, and condemning his entrance into the church as "a weak, false, unwise, and unpermitted step," published in 1851 his own "Life of Sterling," one of his best productions and one of the most remarkable of biographies. In 1851 "Twelve Letters by John Sterling" were edited by his relative, Mr. Coningham.
STERNBERG, ALEXANDER VON, baron, a German novelist, born near Revel, in Esthonia, April 22, 1806. He was educated at Dorpat,
and abandoned the study of law for literature. He left Russia in 1830, passed several years in travel, and since 1843 has lived in Berlin. His writings are lively, satirical, and aristocratic. Several collections of his works have been published.
STERNE, LAURENCE, an English divine and author, born in Clonmel, Ireland, Nov. 24, 1713, died in London, March 18, 1768. His parents were both English, and his father, Roger Sterne, a grandson of Dr. Richard Sterne, archbishop of York in the time of Charles II., was a lieutenant in Handaside's regiment, the movements of which, "from barrack to transport, from Ireland to England," young Laurence followed until his 10th year, when he was put to school at Halifax in England. Having been adopted by his kinsman, Mr. Sterne of Elvington, he was in 1733 admitted of Jesus college, Cambridge, where he was graduated in 1736; soon after which he took orders and was presented, through the influence of his uncle, the Rev. Jaques Sterne, to the living of Sutton in Yorkshire, to which preferment a few years later was added a prebend in York cathedral. In 1741 he was married after an ardent courtship of several years, although he lived long enough to cordially hate his wife; and about the same time, through her connections, he obtained the living of Stillington, adjoining Sutton. For nearly 20 years he pursued the career of a rural incumbent, enjoying good health and amusing himself with "books, painting, fiddling, and shooting;" and during this period his only publications appear to have been two sermons, although he probably wrote political paragraphs for the newspapers, and is said to have conducted for some time a periodical electioneering paper in the whig interest. In 1759 he published at York, under the pseudonyme of "Mr. Yorick," the first two volumes of "Tristam Shandy," which were reprinted in London early in 1760. The 3d and 4th volumes appeared in 1761, the 5th and 6th in 1762, the 7th and 8th in 1765, and the 9th in 1767. Long before the completion of the work, the charm and the novelty of the style, abrupt and exclamatory rather than continuous, the whimsical digressions, the exquisite touches of pathos and humor, and its many admirably conceived characters, had taken an extraordinary hold upon the public, and Sterne took his place by the side of Fielding and Richardson and Smollett as a great writer of prose fiction. He was extensively lionized in London, where people were invited a fortnight in advance to dine with him; and Boswell has recorded Johnson's remark that "the man, Sterne, had engagements for three months." The erudition which so greatly astonished the not very learned readers who welcomed the appearance of "Tristam Shandy," will however scarcely stand the test of modern criticism; and it has been shown by Dr. Ferriar in his "Illustrations of Sterne" (1798), that the quaint imagery and the quainter conceits and fancies scattered through
the book, were largely borrowed from Rabelais, Burton, and other authors not generally read in Sterne's time or even now. But after making liberal allowances for plagiarisms, his Uncle Toby, Corporal Trim, Mr. Shandy, Dr. Slop, and Widow Wadman, "creations of a fine fancy working in an ideal atmosphere, and not mere copies or caricatures of individualities actually observed," must be considered beyond all doubt among the most original personages in fiction; and in his peculiar vein of humor it would be difficult to name any author whom he resembles. Thackeray has noted the influence of Sterne's early association with military men and scenes upon some of the most delightful and picturesque passages, which he characterizes as "reminiscences of the boy who had lived with the followers of William and Marlborough, and had beat time with his little feet to the pipers of Ramillies in Dublin barrack yard, or played with the torn flags and halberds of Malplaquet on the parade ground at Clonmel." In 1760 and 1766, during the publication of "Tristam Shandy," appeared 4 volumes of sermons, also by “Mr. Yorick,” which met with considerable favor, more perhaps on the score of their paternity than on account of their actual merit. Gray, in his correspondence, while admitting that "they are in style most proper for the pulpit," confesses that the author seems "often tottering on the verge of laughter, and ready to throw his periwig in the face of the audience." In 1760 Sterne received an additional living at Coxwold in Yorkshire; but subsequent to this time he seems to have lived principally in London or on the continent, leaving his wife and daughter to reside in York. In 1762 he visited France, and between 1764 and 1767 spent much time in southern Europe for the benefit of his health, now seriously impaired. Returning to England, he recorded the impressions of his travels in "The Sentimental Journey," which speedily obtained a European reputation. He died soon after the appearance of the book, of which the first part only was completed, at hired lodgings in London, surrounded by strangers, by whom, it has been said, his body was rifled while he was expiring. In 1775 his daughter Lydia published 3 volumes of his "Letters to his Friends," accompanied by a short autobiographical memoir; and in the same year appeared "Letters to Eliza," eonsisting o 10 letters addressed by Sterne in March and April, 1767, to “Mrs. Elizabeth Draper, wife of Daniel Draper, Esq., counsellor at Bombay, and at present chief of the factory at Surat," and another collection of letters in one volume. With the exception of a few fragments and a collection of "Seven Letters by Sterne and his Friends," printed for private circulation in 1844, these are his only remaining writings that have been published. Of the personal character of Sterne, as seen in his life and letters, no favorable impression can be formed. The latter show him to have been indifferent to the duties of his profession, lax
in principle, a bad husband, a faithless lover, offering his affections to 2 or 3 married women at once, the dupe of every coarse flatterer, and false to his professions of virtue or sensibility. With wonderful power to move his readers to tears or laughter, he was rather a great jester than a great humorist, wasting his pathos on the most trivial objects, apparently" to make points and seek applause," and leaving the mind in doubt whether it were genuine feeling or a piece of consummate acting. Masson, however, is of the opinion that "not even the antificiality of his pathos can take away the effect on our sympathies," and that "so far as sensibility can be taught by fiction, his works teach it." The gravest charge brought against him, and one which not even the character of the age in which he lived nor the exquisite accuracy and finish of his diction can palliate, is a tendency to indecency. "There is not a page in Sterne's writings," says Thackeray, with a severity perhaps not wholly merited, "but has something that were better away, a latent corruption-a hint, as of some impure presence; the foul satyr's eyes leer out of the leaves constantly." Sterne was tall and thin, with a hectic and consumptive appearance.
STERNHOLD, THOMAS, an English writer of psalms, born in Hampshire about the commencement of the 16th century, died in 1549. He was groom of the robes to Henry VIII. and Edward VI., and was noted at court for his poetical talents and extreme piety. Impressed with the necessity of procuring a substitute for the profane songs in vogue, he undertook a translation into metre of the Psalms of David, hoping they might become popular with the courtiers. He completed only 37, which were printed in 1549, after his death, with 7 by Hopkins, under the title of "All such Psalms of David as Thomas Sternholde, late Grome of the Kinges Majestyes Robes, did in his lyfe-tyme drawe into Englyshe Metre." The version was completed by John Hopkins and others, and was published in 1562 as "The Whole Book of Psalms, collected into English Metre by T. Sternhold, J. Hopkins, and others, conferred with the Ebreu; with apt Notes to sing them withal;" under which title it was annexed to the "Book of Common Prayer," and continued in use until superseded by the "New Version" of Tate and Brady, first published in 1696. Sternhold was also the author of "Certain Chapters of the Proverbs of Solomon, drawen into Metré" (London, 1549). Sternhold's versions are now remembered only for their antiquity and the prominent place they once occupied in English psalmody.
STESICHORUS, a Greek lyric poet, born in Himera, Sicily, flourished during the first part of the 6th century B. C. He appears to have lived to the age of 80 or 85. The incidents of his life are mostly of doubtful authenticity. He is said to have been educated at Catana, and to have been on friendly terms with Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum, and is supposed to have
travelled in Greece. Suidas says that his name was originally Tisias, but was changed to Stesichorus because he was the first to establish a chorus for singing to the harp. By some he has been called the inventor of choral poetry. He wrote in the Doric dialect, intermixed with epic. His poems were chiefly on heroic subjects, although he wrote many on themes more purely lyrical. He was the first of the Greek poets who composed erotic poems. Fragments only of his writings are now extant. The best collection is that of C: F. Kleine, entitled Stesichori Himerensis Fragmenta, with a dissertation on his life and poetry (8vo., Berlin, 1828). STETHOSCOPE. See AUSCULTATION. STETTIN, a town of Prussia, capital of the province of Pomerania, and of the administrative district of its own name, situated on the left bank of the Oder, 76 m. N. E. from Berlin; pop. in 1858, 53,094. The river is crossed by two bridges, and the town is defended by walls, a citadel, and several forts and outworks. It is entered by 5 principal and several smaller gates, 2 of the former being highly ornamented. The town is old, but it contains several fine squares, and is generally well built. The ancient castle of Stettin, which was the residence of the dukes of Pomerania, contains a collection of northern antiquities, and in the chapel attached to it is the ducal vault. Woollen, linen, cotton, sugar, anchors, &c., are manufactured. The value of the imports in 1854 was $12,295,800, and of the exports $6,571,550. In 1858 the total value of the imports was $17,000,000. The number of vessels entered in 1858 was 3,007, tonnage 541,978; and 58,572 tons of shipping was registered in the port.— In the year 830 a large village and a temple to the Wendish idol Trigloff occupied the present site of Stettin. The temple was destroyed and rebuilt several times, and when Christianity was introduced about the beginning of the 13th century a large treasure was found in it. Stettin has belonged at different times to Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia.
STEUART, SIR JAMES, a Scottish political economist, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 10,1713, died Nov. 26, 1780. He completed his education at the university of Edinburgh, and in 1734 was admitted to the Scottish bar, at which however he rarely practised. Although of a whig family, he became, through intercourse on the continent with several exiled adherents of the old pretender, imbued with Jacobite doctrines; and having declared for the young pretender in 1745, he was sent by him on a mission to the court of France, where he was residing at the time of the battle of Culloden. The consequence was a compulsory absence from Great Britain for nearly 18 years. He resided during the greater part of this period at Angoulême, and employed his leisure in those studies which were afterward embodied in his books. 1763 he was permitted to return to Scotland, In where he passed the remainder of his life, although it was not until 1771 that he obtained
he published several works on currency, and a free pardon from government. While abroad ciples of Political Economy" (2 vols. 4to.), the in 1767 produced his "Inquiry into the Prinfirst considerable English work on the subject. (See POLITICAL ECONOMY, vol. xiii. p. 449.) Among his remaining works are: ciples of Money applied to the Present State of "The Printhe Coin of Bengal," "A Plan for introducing an Uniformity of Weights and Measures," &c. A complete edition of his works was edited by his son, Sir James Steuart (6 vols. 8vo., 1805).
dering on Pennsylvania and drained by the CheSTEUBEN. I. A S. W. co. of New York, borarea, 1,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 66,689. The mung, Canisteo, Tioga, and Conhocton rivers; surface is broken and the soil generally very fertile. The productions in 1855 were 307,604 bushels of wheat, 711,307 of oats, 292,689 of Indian corn, 255,938 of potatoes, 297,289 of ap336,334 of wool, 113,653 of honey, and 112,287 ples, 58,749 tons of hay, 1,976,129 lbs. of butter, of maple sugar. There were 9 furnaces, 2 car factories, 42 grist mills, 238 saw mills, 15 shingle factories, 7 newspaper offices, 105 churches, and 341 schools. Iron ore and superior building stone are found. There are 2 or 3 small lakes, and Crooked lake is partly within the county. It is traversed by the Erie, the Buffalo, New York, and Erie, and the Blossburg other canals. and Corning railroads, and the Chemung and ported. Seats of justice, Bath and Corning. Considerable lumber is exand Michigan, and intersected by the St. JoII. A N. E. co. of Indiana, bordering on Ohio seph's and Pigeon rivers; area, 314 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 10,374. The surface is prairie and woodland, and the soil fertile. The productions in 1850 were 101,190 bushels of Indian corn, 73,141 of wheat, 38,734 of oats, and 5,389 tons of hay. There were 4 churches, and 1,600 pupils in public schools. Capital, Angola.
baron, an officer of the American revolution, STEUBEN, FREDERIO WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, died near Utica, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1794. He was born in Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 15, 1730, educated at the Jesuit colleges of Neisse and Breslau, and when only 14 years old served as ficer in the army of Frederic the Great, and a volunteer under his father, who was an ofappointed a cadet in an infantry regiment, bewas at the siege of Prague. In 1747 he was 1753. came an ensign in 1749, and a lieutenant in battles of Prague and Rossbach, in 1758 was In 1757 he distinguished himself at the appointed an adjutant-general, and was in the battles of Kay and Kunersdorf, in the latter of which he was wounded. On the capitulation of Treptow in 1761, he was sent to St. Petersburg as a prisoner of war, but released shortly afterward. In 1762 he was appointed adjutant-general in the king's staff, and had charge of the of Frederic's select academy of young officers quartermaster's department. He was a member who were under his special instruction; and after the siege of Schweidnitz, in which he parti
cipated, the king presented him with a valuable lay benefice. At the close of the 7 years' war Steuben retired from the army and devoted himself to travel, accompanying the prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen to a number of the courts of Europe. That prince appointed him in 1764 grand marshal, and general of his guard. Steuben was on terms of intimacy and friendship with a number of the European literary characters and noblemen of his time. In 1777, while on a visit to France, the count St. Germain solicited him to come to America; and Steuben, after frequent interviews with the American commissioners, finally decided to acquiesce. He arrived at Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 1, 1777, and immediately wrote to congress and to Gen. Washington, tendering his services as a volunteer, and expressing the strongest sympathy with the cause of the colonies. Shortly afterward he proceeded to York, Penn., where congress was in session, was directed to join the army under Washington, and during the winter arrived at Valley Forge. On May 5, 1778, he was appointed inspectorgeneral with the rank of major-general, and by his excellent management greatly improved the condition of the continental troops. In June following he was at the battle of Monmouth. He prepared a manual for the army, which was approved by congress in 1779, and introduced the most thorough discipline; and much of the success of the revolution is to be attributed to his sagacious and rigid regulations. He was a member of the court martial on the trial of Major André. In 1780 he was placed in command of the troops in Virginia, and in January following was active in harassing the British forces under Benedict Arnold. The next summer he was attached to Gen. Lafayette's division, and took an important part in the siege of Yorktown. He was distinguished for his generosity and kindness of heart, and was frequently known to share his last dollar with the suffering soldiers. At various times he contributed most of his clothing and camp equipments to the men, and labored unceasingly to promote their comfort and welfare. After the war, in the impoverished condition of the country, congress was tardy in rewarding him for his services, and he experienced much annoyance and vexatious delay in securing an appropriation for his pay and to reimburse him for personal expenses incurred in providing the soldiers with clothing and arms. In 1790 congress voted him a life annuity of $2,500. Several of the states passed resolutions acknowledging his eminent services, and voted him tracts of land. New York presented him with 16,000 acres near Utica, forming a township called from him Steuben, on which he settled and passed the remainder of his life, giving portions of the land to his aids, and leasing the remainder to settlers. His life has been written by Francis Bowen in Sparks's "American Biography," and by Friedrich Kapp (New York, 1860).
STEUBENVILLE, a city and the capital of Jefferson co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, 22 m. N. from Wheeling, Va., 35 m. W. from Pittsburg, Penn., and 141 m. E. from Columbus; pop. in 1860, 6,154. It stands on an elevation on the right bank of the river, is well laid out and substantially built, is surrounded by a rich farming and stock-growing country, and is the centre of an important trade. It has 2 cotton factories, 3 woollen factories, a paper mill, an extensive rolling mill, a glass factory, 2 iron founderies, a brass foundery, copperas establishments, machine shops, a coal and carbon oil refinery, an extensive white lead manufactory, a distillery, and a number of large flouring mills. It has 2 banks, 1 daily and 3 weekly newspapers, 12 churches, and a female seminary, which enjoys a high reputation and usually has about 150 pupils. The seminary building is a handsome structure, erected at a cost of $40,000. The river division of the Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad passes through the city, and it is the present terminus of the Steubenville and Indiana railroad. Abundance of excellent coal is found in the neighborhood.
STEVENS, ABEL, LL.D., an American clergyman, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1815. He studied at the Wilbraham academy, Mass., and the Wesleyan university, Middletown, Conn. In 1834 he was settled as pastor of a Methodist church in Boston; in 1837 he travelled in Europe, and corresponded extensively with American journals. After his return, he was stationed about 3 years in Providence, R. I. He next removed to Boston in 1840, and took editorial charge of "Zion's Herald," a religious newspaper; in 1852 he removed to New York, and was appointed editor of the "National Magazine;" in 1855 he revisited Europe; and on his return in 1856 was elected editor of the "Christian Advocate and Journal." Dr. Stevens has published "Memorials of the Introduction of Methodism into New England," "Memorials of the Progress of Methodism in the Eastern States," "Church Polity," "The Preaching required by the Times," "Sketches and Incidents, a Budget from the Saddle Bags of an Itinerant," "The Great Reform," and a "History of the Religious Movement of the Eighteenth Century called Methodism" (3 vols., New York, 1859-'62). About 100,000 volumes of his works have been issued.
STEVENS, GEORGE ALEXANDER, an English author, born in London in the early part of the 18th century, died in 1784. He commenced life as a strolling actor, and gradually acquired some reputation as a writer of burlesques and of comic songs. In 1760 he published a novel, "The History of Tom Fool," and a few years later produced an entertainment entitled "A Lecture on Heads," which he gave with remarkable success. He also published a volume of "Songs, Comic and Satirical" (1772); and after his death appeared "The Adventures of a Speculist, compiled from the Papers of G. A. Stevens, with his Life, a Preface, and