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means as yet kept secret, imparted the stereo- flecting a ray, this power increasing from the
scopic effect, or relief, to copies of flat surfaces, centre out to the thin edge. Consequently,
such as paintings and engravings.-Several in- pictures at such distance apart as to be readily
struments have been invented for the purpose united through the middle part of the lenses,
of exhibiting a large number of views in suc- require to be separated more and more as we
cession, usually involving the revolution of an separate the lenses themselves, looking through
endless band carrying holders, in which the their more deflecting portions. This circum-
slides or views are previously placed, and by stance suggests the means of giving to the in-
which they are brought successively into suit- strument a general character, and adapting it
able position. Prof. H. W. Dove, by covering to all sorts of views as well as to differences in
slides with printed lines, each one repeated, the width between the eyes. The modification
for one eye commencing evenly, and for the given is that of rendering the lenses movable in
other every alternate line being set in or in- a horizontal direction, approaching till the edges
dented, has secured a perfect imitation of the touch, or separating as far as the eyes will al-
effect of a double-refracting crystal. He has low, each lens moving through slightly more
accordingly proposed to detect spurious bank than an inch. The lenses must move simulta-
notes which are copies of the genuine, by ob- neously, at the same rate, and in opposite di-
serving any suspected note alongside of one rections; when the right lens moves to the
known to be genuine in the stereoscope ; if the right, the left goes to the left, and vice versa.
former be spurious, slight misplacements of This is accomplished by fitting the lenses to
Fords or lines, inappreciable to the unaided slide in a brass frame, and attaching the lower
eye, will distinctly show the double-refractive edge of each to a nut; within the right nut
effect, by an apparent projection of such out of turns a right-hand screw, and within the left a
the plane of the paper. Copies of prints or left-hand screw; and the threads of both screws
drawings may in like manner be known from being cut in the same horizontal rod, both
the originals; with genuine duplicate notes or lenses are actuated simultaneously and oppo-
prints the effect is not observed. Other appli- sitely by turning the rod by a milled head at
cations have been proposed, though not yet one side of the instrument. With this arrange-
probably to any great extent adopted. But as ment, the separation of the centres may vary
i means of amusement, within the past 10 from 2 as far as to 44 inches, or with achro-
years the stereoscope has risen to a very prom- matic lenses to 5 inches; and as an incidental
inent place in commerce as well as in art; advantage, views may thus be employed which,
and experienced artists are already visiting al- as taken, cover an area of 20 square inches, or
most every portion of the earth's surface, twice that of those in general use.
known or supposed to offer objects of historical STEREOTYPE PRINTING. See PRINTING.
interest or scenery of striking character; while STERLING. See POUND STERLING.
groups illustrative of domestic and other sup- STERLING, John, a British author, born at
posable scenes and situations are multiplied Kaimes castle, in the isle of Bute, July 20,
continually.-Prof. E. Emerson, of Troy uni- 1806, died at Ventnor, in the isle of Wight,
Fersity, N. Y., has devised a simple means Sept. 18, 1844. His father, Edward Sterling,
of remedying a common defect of the len- had been educated for the Irish bar, had sery-
ticular stereoscope. (See the “ American Jour- ed for a time as captain in the army, was now
nal of Science," Nov. 1861.) The two semi- occupied as a gentleman farmer, and after-
lenses being fixed at the distance from each ward became a leading writer of the London
other supposed to be that ordinarily required, “ Times." John was the second of 7 chil-
there may still be very great difficulty or dren, 5 of whom died in youth. The family
even an impossibility of uniting the two pic- removed to Paris during the peace of 1814, but
tures on the slides into one impression in re- fled on the return of Napoleon from Elba, and
hef; and this mainly from two causes—that settled in London. At the age of 16 he was
the pictures are at improper distances apart, sent to the university of Glasgow, whence he
the distance between their centres varying was removed in the following year to Trinity.
from 24 to 37 inches; and that the width be- college, Cambridge, where he was the chief
tween the observer's eyes may also change speaker in the union debating club, and was
moch. An instrument enabling us to see intimate with a group of young men including
equally well views whose separation may vary F. D. Maurice, R. O. Trench, J. M. Kemble,
by an inch or more thus becomes a desidera- Charles Buller, and Monckton Milnes. In
tum. In the ordinary arrangement, moreover, 1828 he and his friend Maurice became pro-
the size of each picture is confined to about 3 prietors and editors of the recently establish-
inches each way, or an area of 9 square inches; ed “Atheneum,” which soon passed out of
the views must be taken under an angle cor- their hands. Sterling continued to reside in
respondingly small; and even if these be after- London, and gained the friendship of Cole-
Fard magnified in viewing, still nothing is ridge, of whom he was a most enthusiastic ad-
added in this way to the actual completeness mirer. In 1829–'30 he wrote his novel of
of details. Now, while the lenses employed “Arthur Coningsby” (3 vols., 1833), the hero
in the stereoscope are each constant in focal of which foreshadowed his own career by pass-
length, yet each will vary in the power of de- ing through radicalism, by means of what Car-

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lyle calls the "Coleridgean legerdemain,” up and abandoned the study of law for literature. to faith in the church, in which he finally takes He left Russia in 1830, passed several years in orders. In 1830 he was married, and soon af- travel, and since 1843 has lived in Berlin. His ter, for the benefit of his health, went with his writings are lively, satirical, and aristocratic. wife to the island of St. Vincent in the West Several collections of his works have been Indies, where he resided 15 months on a sugar published. estate. In 1833, under the influence of his STERNE, LAURENCE, an English divine and former tutor, J. O. Hare, and of Coleridge, he author, born in Clonmel, Ireland, Nov. 24, resolved to enter holy orders, was ordained 1713, died in London, March 18, 1768. His deacon at Chichester in 1834, and at once parents were both English, and his father, Robecame curate of Hurstmonceaux in Sussex, ger Sterne, a grandson of Dr. Richard Sterne, where his friend Hare was rector. At the end archbishop of York in the time of Charles II., of 8 months ill health compelled him to retire was a lieutenant in Handaside's regiment, the from the ministry, which he never resumed. movements of which, “from barrack to transHe removed to London, where he now first port, from Ireland to England,” young Laumet Carlyle, who soon filled the place of Men- rence followed until his 10th year, when he tor to him, which had before been held by was put to school at Halifax in England. HavColeridge. From this time literature was his ing been adopted by his kinsman, Mr. Sterne chief pursuit. Carlyle describes him as busy of Elvington, he was in 1733 admitted of Jesus but unproductive, roaming among his friends, college, Cambridge, where he was graduated a welcome illumination to all, his address in 1736; soon after which he took orders and everywhere pleasant and enlivening. His ill was presented, through the influence of his health continuing, in 1836 he went to the south uncle, the Rev. Jaques Sterne, to the living of France, and in the following year to Madei- of Sutton in Yorkshire, to which preferment ra; part of the years 1838 and 1839 he passed a few years later was added a prebend in York in Italy; visited Madeira again in 1840; and cathedral. In 1741 he was married after an in 1841 settled at Falmouth, from which he ardent courtship of several years, although he made frequent visits to London. Meantime he lived long enough to cordially hate his wife; had contributed to “Blackwood's Magazine" and about the same time, through her connechis delightful “Legendary Lore;" wrote for the tions, he obtained the living of Stillington, ad“Westminster Review," then under the charge joining Sutton. For nearly 20 years he purof John Stuart Mill; and was engaged on other sued the career of a rural incumbent, enjoying compositions, in prose and verse. For the pur- good health and amusing himself with “ books, pose of meeting him on his hasty visits to Lon- painting, fiddling, and shooting;" and during don, the Sterling club had been formed, among this period his only publications appear to have the members of which, beside his friends al- been two sermons, although he probably wrote ready mentioned, were Tennyson and Sir G. O. political paragraphs for the newspapers, and is Lewis. He published in 1839 a collection of said to have conducted for some time a periodiminor poems; in 1841" The Election," a poem cal electioneering paper in the whig interest. of English life and society; and in 1843 a In 1759 he published at York, under the pseudrama entitled “Strafford.” During the last donyme of "Mr. Yorick," the first two volumes named year both his wife and mother died, of “Tristam Shandy,” which were reprinted and his own health was rendered more pre- in London early in 1760. The 3d and 4th volcarious by the bursting of a blood vessel. He umes appeared in 1761, the 5th and 6th in retired in 1843 to the isle of Wight, and there 1762, the 7th and 8th in 1765, and the 9th in commenced a poem entitled “Cæur de Lion," 1767. Long before the completion of the work, which he did not live to complete. In 1848 the charm and the novelty of the style, abrupt a collection of his “Essays and Tales," from and exclamatory rather than continuous, the periodicals, was edited by Archdeacon Hare, whimsical digressions, the exquisite touches with a biography prefixed (2 vols.). The biog- of pathos and humor, and its many admirably raphy dwelt specially upon the religious as- conceived characters, had taken an extraordipects of his character, as a heroic truth-seek- nary hold upon the public, and Sterne took his or and a laborious curate. Mr. Carlyle, deem- place by the side of Fielding and Richardson ing this the least significant phase of his career, and Smollett as a great writer of prose fiction, holding that artistic admiration was his forte, He was extensively lionized in London, where and not devotion in any form, and condemning people were invited a fortnight in advance to his entrance into the church as a weak, false, dine with him; and Boswell has recorded unwise, and unpermitted step,” published in Johnson's remark that “the man, Sterne, had 1851 his own “Life of Sterling," one of his engagements for three months.” The erudition best productions and one of the most remarks which so greatly astonished the not very learned able of biographies. In 1851 "Twelve Letters readers who welcomed the appearance of “Trisby John Sterling” were edited by his relative, tam Shandy,” will however scarcely stand the Mr. Coningham.

test of modern criticism; and it has been STERNBERG, ALEXANDER Von, baron, a shown by Dr. Ferriar in his “Illustrations of German novelist, born near Revel, in Esthonia, Sterne" (1798), that the quaint imagery and the April 22, 1806. 'He was educated at Dorpat, quainter conceits and fancies scattered through

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STERNE

STESIOHORUS

91

the book, were largely borrowed from Rabe- in principle, a bad husband, a faithless lover,
lais. Burton, and other authors not generally offering his affections to 2 or 3 married women
read in Sterne's time or even now. But after at once, the dupe of every coarse flatterer, and
making liberal allowances for plagiarisms, his false to his professions of virtue or sensibility.
Tnele Toby, Corporal Trim, Mr. Shandy, Dr. With wonderful power to move his readers to
Slop, and Widow Wadman, “creations of a tears or laughter, he was rather a great jester
fine fancy working in an ideal atmosphere, and than a great humorist, wasting his pathos on
not mere copies or caricatures of individuali, the most trivial objects, apparently “ to make
ties actually observed," must be considered points and seek applause," and leaving the
beyond all doubt among the most original per- mind in doubt whether it were genuine feeling
sonages in fiction; and in his peculiar vein of or a piece of consummate acting. Masson, how-
humor it would be difficult to name any author ever, is of the opinion that "not even the alti-
whom he resembles. Thackeray has noted the ficiality of his pathos can take away the effect
influence of Sterne's early association with mil- on our sympathies,” and that “ so far as sensi-
itary men and scenes upon some of the most bility can be taught by fiction, his works teach
delightful and picturesque passages, which he it.” The gravest charge brought against him,
characterizes as “reminiscences of the boy who and one which not even the character of thé
had lived with the followers of William and age in which he lived nor the exquisite accu-
Narlborough, and had beat time with his little racy and finish of his diction can palliate, is a
feet to the pipers of Ramillies in Dublin barrack tendency to indecency. "There is not a page in
yard, or played with the torn flags and halberds Sterne's writings," says Thackeray, with a se-
of Malplaquet on the parade ground at Olon- verity perhaps not wholly merited, “but has
mel." In 1760 and 1766, during the publication something that were better away, a latent cor-
of “ Tristam Shandy," appeared 4 volumes of ruption-a hint, as of some impare presence;
sermons, also by “Mr. Yorick," which met with the foul satyr's eyes leer out of the leaves con-
considerable favor, more perhaps on the score stantly.” Sterne was tall and thin, with a hec-
of their paternity than on account of their actual tic and consumptive appearance.
merit. Gray, in his correspondence, while ad- STERNHOLD, Thomas, an English writer
mitting that “they are in style most proper for of psalms, born in Hampshire about the com-
the pulpit," confesses that the author seems mencement of the 16th century, died in 1549.
“ often tottering on the verge of laughter, and He was groom of the robes to Henry VIII. and
ready to throw his periwig in the face of the Edward VI., and was noted at court for his
sodience.” In 1760 Sterne received an addi- poetical talents and extreme piety. Impressed
tional living at Coxwold in Yorkshire; but with the necessity of procuring a substitute for
sabsequent to this time he seems to have lived the profane songs in vogue, he undertook a
principally in London or on the continent, leav- translation into metre of the Psalms of David,
ing his wife and daughter to reside in York. In hoping they might become popular with the
1769 he visited France, and between 1764 and courtiers. Ile completed only 37, which were
1767 spent much time in southern Europe for printed in 1549, after his death, with 7 by Hop-
the benefit of his health, now seriously impaired. kins, under the title of “All such Psalms of Da.
Returning to England, he recorded the impres- vid as Thomas Sternholde, late Grome of the
sions of his travels in “The Sentimental Jour- Kinges Majestyes Robes, did in his lyfe-tyme
Dey," which speedily obtained a European rep- drawe into Englyshe Metre.” The version was
atation. He died soon after the appearance completed by John Hopkins and others, and
of the book, of which the first part only was was published in 1562 as “The Whole Book of
completed, at hired lodgings in London, sur- Psalms, collected into English Metre by T.
rounded by strangers, by whom, it has been Sternhold, J. Hopkins, and others, conferred
said, his body was rifled while he was expiring with the Ébren; with apt Notes to sing them
In 1775 his daughter Lydia published 3 volumes withal;” under which title it was annexed to
of his * Letters to his Friends,” accompanied the “Book of Common Prayer," and continued
be a short autobiographical memoir; and in in use until superseded by the “New Version"
the same year appeared “Letters to Eliza," of Tate and Brady, first published in 1696.
consisting o 10 letters addressed by Sterne Sternhold was also the author of “Certain
in March and April, 1767, to “Mrs. Elizabeth Chapters of the Proverbs of Solomon, drawen
Draper, wife of Daniel Draper, Esq., counsellor into Metré” (London, 1549). Sternhold's ver-
at Bombay, and at present chief of the factory at sions are now remembered only for their an-
Surat," and another collection of letters in one'tiquity and the prominent place they once oc-
valame. With the exception of a few frag- cupied in English psalmody.
ments and a collection of “Seven Letters by STESICHORUS, a Greek lyric poet, born in
Sterne and his Friends,” printed for private Himera, Sicily, flourished during the first part
circulation in 1844, these are his only remain- of the 6th century B.O. He appears to have
ing writings that have been published.-Of the lived to the age of 80 or 85. The incidents of
personal character of Sterne, as seen in his life his life are mostly of doubtful authenticity. He
and letters, no favorable impression can be is said to have been educated at Catana, and
formed. The latter show him to have been to have been on friendly terms with Phalaris,
indifferent to the duties of his profession, lax tyrant of Agrigentum, and is supposed to have

STEUBEN

travelled in Greece. Suidas says that his name a free pardon from government. While abroad was originally Tisias, but was changed to Stesi- he published several works on currency, and chorus because he was the first to establish a in 1767 produced his “ Inquiry into the Princhorus for singing to the harp. By some he ciples of Political Economy” (2 vols. 4to.), the has been called the inventor of choral poetry. first considerable English work on the subject. He wrote in the Doric dialect, intermixed with (See POLITICAL ECONOMY, vol. xiii. p. 449.) epic. His poems were chiefly on heroic sub- Among his remaining works are: “ The Prinjects, although he wrote many on themes more ciples of Money applied to the Present State of purely lyrical. He was the first of the Greek the Coin of Bengal,” “ A Plan for introducing poets who composed erotic poems. Fragments an Uniformity of Weights and Measures," &c. only of his writings are now

extant. The best A complete edition of his works was edited by collection is that of O: F. Kleine, entitled Ste- his son, Sir James Steuart (6 vols. 8vo., 1805). sichori Himerensis Fragmenta, with a disserta- STEUBEN. I. A S. W.co. of New York, bortion on his life and poetry (8vo., Berlin, 1828). dering on Pennsylvania and drained by the Che

STETHOSCOPE. See AUSCULTATION. mung, Canisteo, Tioga, and Conhocton rivers;

STETTIN, a town of Prussia, capital of the area, 1,500 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, 66,689. The province of Pomerania, and of the administra- surface is broken and the soil generally very tive district of its own name, situated on the fertile. The productions in 1855 were 307,604 left bank of the Oder, 76 m. N. E. from Berlin; bushels of wheat, 711,307 of oats, 292,689 of pop. in 1858, 53,094. The river is crossed by Indian corn, 255,938 of potatoes, 297,289 of aptwo bridges, and the town is defended by walls, ples, 58,749 tons of hay, 1,976,129 lbs. of butter, a citadel, and several forts and outworks. It 336,334 of wool, 113,653 of honey, and 112,287 is entered by 5 principal and several smaller of maple sugar. There were 9 furnaces, 2 car gates, 2 of the former being highly ornament- factories, 42 grist mills, 238 saw mills, 15 shined. The town is old, but it contains several gle factories, 7 newspaper offices, 105 churches, fine squares, and is generally well built. The and 341 schools. Iron ore and superior buildancient castle of Stettin, which was the resi. ing stone are found. There are 2 or 3 small dence of the dukes of Pomerania, contains a lakes, and Crooked lake is partly within

the collection of northern antiquities, and in the county. It is traversed by the Erie, the Bufchapel attached to it is the ducal vault. Wool- falo, New York, and Erie, and the Blossburg len, linen, cotton, sugar, anchors, &c., are man- and Corning railroads, and the Chemung and ufactured. The value of the imports in 1854 other canals. Considerable lumber is exwas $12,295,800, and of the exports $6,571,550. ported. Seats of justice, Bath and Corning. In 1858 the total value of the imports was II. A N. E. co. of Indiana, bordering on Ohio $17,000,000. The number of vessels entered and Michigan, and intersected by the St. Join 1858 was 3,007, tonnage 541,978; and 58,572 seph's and Pigeon rivers; area, 314 sq. m.; tons of shipping was registered in the port.- pop. in 1860, 10,374. The surface is prairio In the year 830 a large village and a temple to and woodland, and the soil fertile. the Wendish idol Trigloff occupied the present ductions in 1850 were 101,190 bushels of Insite of Stettin. The temple was destroyed and dian corn, 73,141 of wheat, 38,734 of oats, and rebuilt several times, and when Christianity 5,389 tons of hay. There were 4 churches, and was introduced about the beginning of the 13th 1,600 pupils in public schools. Capital, Angola. century a large treasure was found in it. Stet- STEUBEN, FREDERIO WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, tin has belonged at different times to Denmark, baron, an officer of the American revolution, Sweden, and Prussia.

born in Magdeburg, Prussia, Nov. 15, 1730, STEUART, Sir JAMES, a Scottish political died near Utica, N. Y., Nov. 28, 1794. He was economist, born in Edinburgh, Oct. 10,1713, died educated at the Jesuit colleges of Neisse and Nov. 26, 1780. He completed his education at Breslau, and when only 14 years old served as the university of Edinburgh, and in 1734 was a volunteer under his father, who was an ofadmitted to the Scottish bar, at which however ficer in the army of Frederic the Great, and he rarely practised. Although of a whig fam- was at the siege of Prague. In 1747 he was ily, he became, through intercourse on the appointed a cadet in an infantry regiment, becontinent with several exiled adherents of the came an ensign in 1749, and a lieutenant in old pretender, imbued with Jacobite doctrines; 1753. In 1757 he distinguished himself at the and having declared for the young pretender in battles of Prague and Rossbach, in 1758 was 1745, he was sent by him on a mission to the appointed an adjutant-general, and was in the court of France, where he was residing at the battles of Kay and Kunersdorf, in the latter of time of the battle of Culloden. The conse- which he was wounded. On the capitulation of quence was a compulsory absence from Great Treptow in 1761, he was sent to St. Petersburg Britain for nearly 18 years. He resided during as a prisoner of war, but released shortly after the greater part of this period at Angoulême, ward. In 1762 he was appointed adjutant-genand employed his leisure in those studies which eral in the king's staff, and had charge of the were afterward embodied in his books. In quartermaster's department. He was a member 1763 he was permitted to return to Scotland, of Frederic's select academy of young officers where he passed the remainder of his life, al- who were under his special instruction; and afthough it was not until 1771 that he obtained ter the siege of Schweidnitz, in which he parti

The pro

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cipated, the king presented him with a valuable STEUBENVILLE, a city and the capital of lay benefice. At the close of the 7 years' war Jefferson co., Ohio, on the Ohio river, 22 m. N. Steuben retired from the army and devoted from Wheeling, Va., 35 m. W. from Pittsburg, himself to travel, accompanying the prince of Penn., and 141 m. E. from Columbus ; pop. in Hohenzollern-Hechingen to a number of the 1860, 6,154. It stands on an elevation on the courts of Europe. That prince appointed him right bank of the river, is well laid out and in 1764 grand marshal, and general of his substantially built, is surrounded by a rich guard. Steuben was on terms of intimacy and farming and stock-growing country, and is the friendship with a number of the European lit- centre of an important trade. It has 2 cotton erary characters and noblemen of his time. In factories, 3 woollen factories, a paper mill, an 1777, while on a visit to France, the count St. extensive rolling mill, a glass factory, 2 iron Germain solicited him to come to America; founderies, & brass foundery, copperas esand Steuben, after frequent interviews with the tablishments, machine shops, á coal and carAmerican commissioners, finally decided to bon oil refinery, an extensive white lead manacquiesce. He arrived at Portsmouth, N. H., ufactory, a distillery, and a number of large Dec. 1, 1777, and immediately wrote to con- flouring mills. It has 2 banks, 1 daily and 3 gress and to Gen. Washington, tendering his weekly newspapers, 12 churches

, and a female services as a volunteer, and expressing the seminary, which enjoys a high reputation and strongest sympathy with the cause of the colo- usually has about 150 pupils. The seminary nies. Shortly afterward he proceeded to York, building is a handsome structure, erected at å Penn., where congress was in session, was di- cost of $40,000. The river division of the rected to join the army under Washington, and Cleveland and Pittsburg railroad passes through during the winter arrived at Valley Forge. the city, and it is the present terminus of the On May 5, 1778, he was appointed inspector- Steubenville and Indiana railroad. Abundance general with the rank of major-general, and of excellent coal is found in the neighborhood. by his excellent management greatly improved STEVENS, ABEL, LL.D., an American clerthe condition of the continental troops. In gyman, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1816. Jane following he was at the battle of Mon. He studied at the Wilbraham academy, Mass., mouth. He prepared a manual for the army, and the Wesleyan university, Middletown, which was approved by congress in 1779, and Conn. In 1834 he was settled as pastor of a introduced the most thorough discipline; and Methodist church in Boston; in 1837 he travmuch of the success of the revolution is to be elled in Europe, and corresponded extensively attributed to his sagacious and rigid regula- with American journals. After his return, he tions. He was a member of the court martial was stationed about 3 years in Providence, R. I. on the trial of Major André. In 1780 he was He next removed to Boston in 1840, and took placed in command of the troops in Virginia, editorial charge of “Zion's Herald," a religious and in January following was active in harass- newspaper; in 1852 he removed to New York, ing the British forces under Benedict Arnold. and was appointed editor of the “National The next summer he was attached to Gen. La- Magazine;" in 1855 he revisited Europe; and on fayette's division, and took an important part his return in 1856 was elected editor of the in the siege of Yorktown. He was distin- " Christian Advocate and Journal.” Dr. Steguished for his generosity and kindness of vens has published "Memorials

of the Introducheart, and was frequently known to share his tion of Methodism into New England," “Melast dollar with the suffering soldiers. At va- morials of the Progress of Methodism in the rious times he contributed most of his clothing Eastern States," « Church Polity," “ The and camp equipments to the men, and labored Preaching required by the Times," i Sketches unceasingly to promote their comfort and wel- and Incidents, a Budget from the Saddle Bags fare. After the war, in the impoverished con- of an Itinerant," "The Great Reform," and a dition of the country, congress was tardy in “History of the Religious Movement of the rewarding him for his services, and he experi- Eighteenth Century called Methodism” (3 enced much annoyance and vexatious delay in vols., New York, 1859–’62). About 100,000 securing an appropriation for his pay and to volumes of his works have been issued. reimburse him for personal expenses incurred STEVENS, GEORGE ALEXANDER, an English in providing the soldiers with clothing and author, born in London in the early part of the arms. In 1790 congress voted him a life annu- 18th century, died in 1784. He commenced ity of $2,500. Several of the states passed res- life as a strolling actor, and gradually acquired olutions acknowledging his eminent services, some reputation as a writer of burlesques and and voted him tracts of land. New York of comic songs. In 1760 he published a novel, presented him with 16,000 acres near Utica, “The History of Tom Fool," and a few years forming a township called from him Steuben, later produced an entertainment entitled “A on which he settled and passed the remainder Lecture on Heads,"_which he gave with reof his life, giving portions of the land to his markable success. He also published a volaids, and leasing the remainder to settlers. His ume of “Songs, Comic and Satirical” (1772); hfe has been written by Francis Bowen in and after his death appeared “The Adventures Sparks's “ American Biography," and by Fried- of a Speculist, compiled from the Papers of rich Kapp (New York, 1860).

G. A. Stevens, with his Life, a Preface, and

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