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Notes” (1788). Of his songs, 100 in number, improvements, in the way of balance valves, one only, “ The Storm,” is still popular. tubular boilers, steam packing, cut-offs, cross
STEVENS, JOHN, an American inventor, propellers to turn boats as on a pivot, the forborn in New York in 1749, died in Hoboken, cing of air under the bottom of the steamer N. J., in 1838. In 1787, having accidentally John Wilson to lighten the draft, &c. He had seen the imperfect steamboat of John Fitch, he also during this period invented and put into at once became interested in steam propulsion, use the T rail
, and used successfully anthracite and experimented constantly for the next 30 coal as a fuel for fast passenger locomotives. years on the subject. In 1789 he petitioned He had at an early age established steam ferry the legislature of New York for a grant of the boats on the Hudson river, and on the organiexclusive navigation of the waters of that state. Zation of the Camden and Amboy railroad took The petition was accompanied with draughts a deep interest in its management, and was for of the plan of his steamboat, but the right was many years its president. In 1813-'14 he innot granted. In 1804 Mr. Stevens constructed vented an elongated bomb shell of great dea propeller, a small open boat worked by structive power, and imparted to the governsteam, and his success was such that he ment the secret of its construction, in considerbuilt the Phenix steamboat, which was com- ation of which he received a large annuity. In pleted but a very short time after Fulton had 1842 he commenced experiments with a view finished the Clermont. Fulton having ob- to the construction of an iron-plated war tained the exclusive right to the navigation steamer or battery, which should be shot and of the Hudson, Mr. Stevens placed his boats on shell proof. (See BATTERY.) This battery is the Delaware and Connecticut. In 1812 he not yet completed, but the propriety of finishpublished a remarkable pamphlet urging the ing it is now (Feb. 1862) under consideration. government to make experiments in railways STEVENSON, ANDREW, an American statestraversed by steam carriages; and if his plan man, born in Virginia in 1784, died at Blen(which varied very little from the present rail- heim, Albemarle co., Va., June 25, 1857. He ways) should prove feasible, he proposed the studied law and attained a prominent position construction of such a railway from Albany to at the bar. In 1804 he was elected to the house Lake Erie. The railway engines, he thought, of delegates of Virginia, and after being a memmight traverse the roads at a speed of 50 miles ber for several sessions was chosen speaker. or even more per hour, though probably in In 1821 he was elected a representative in conpractice it would be found convenient not to gress, and for 13 years held that office, for the exceed 20 or 30 miles an hour. The details of last 6 of which he was speaker of the house. construction of the roadway and of the loco- He was minister to England from 1836 to 1841, motives and carriages are given with such and on his return became rector of the univerminuteness and accuracy, that it is difficult to sity of Virginia, and devoted the remainder of realize that their only existence at that time his life to the duties of that office and to agriwas in the mind of the inventor.–ROBERT cultural pursuits. LIVINGSTON, son of the preceding, also an in- STEWARD, LORD High, in England, the ventor, born at Hoboken, N. J., in 1788, died highest officer under the crown, who was forthere, April 20, 1856. Inheriting his father's merly known by the Latin title of magnus mechanical genius and his deep interest in pro- seneschallus. The office was under the Planpulsion by steam on land and water, he while tagenets hereditary, but since the reign of young commenced a course of discovery and Henry IV. has been abolished as a permanent improvement on these subjects which have dignity, and is conferred for some special ocgiven him a very high rank among modern in- casion, as a trial before the house of peers or ventors. At the age of 20 he constructed a a coronation, after which its functions cease. steamboat with concave water lines, the first The lord high steward presides at the former, application of the wave line to ship building; and at the close of the proceedings breaks his soon after used for the first time vertical buck- wand and dissolves the court.—The office of ets on pivots in the paddle wheels of steamers, steward, or stewart, also existed from early suspended the guard beam by iron rods, and times in Scotland, and gave name to the royal adopted a new method of bracing and fasten- family of Stuart, in which it had been herediing steamboats; in 1818 discovered the advan- tary from the time of Malcolm III. (1056–93) tage of using steam expansively, and of employ- till the accession to the throne of Robert (II.) ing anthracite coal as a fuel for steamers; in Stuart, grandson of King Robert Bruce, in 1371. 1822 substituted the skeleton wrought iron STEWART. I. A W. S. W. co. of Ga., walking beam for the heavy cast iron walking bounded W. by the Chattahoochee, separating beam previously in use; first placed the boilers it from Alabama, and drained by several of its on the guards, and divided the buckets on the tributaries; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, water wheels in order to lessen the jar of the 13,423, of whom 7,885 were slaves. The soil boat; in 1824 applied artificial blast to the is fertile. The productions in 1850 were 684,boiler furnace by means of blowers, and in 449 bushels of Indian corn, 171,791 of sweet 1827 the hog frame (so called) to boats, to potatoes, 16,390 lbs. of rice, and 19,165 bales prevent them from bending at the centre; and of cotton. There were 9 farm implement facduring the next 22 years made numerous other tories, 4 grist mills, 7 saw mills, 3 tanneries, 33 churches, and 660 pupils attending public Capts. Stewart and William Bainbridge united schools. Capital, Lumpkin. II. A N. W. co. in most earnest efforts to induce a change of of Tenn., bordering on Ky., intersected by the policy in this respect, and succeeded. In conCumberland river, and bounded W. by the formity with their suggestions, the ships of Tennessee; area, 700 sq. m.; pop. in 1860, war were ordered to sea, and in Dec. 1812, 9,888, of whom 2,405 were slaves. The surface Capt. Stewart was appointed to the frigate is undulating and the soil very fertile. The Constellation, then lying at Norfolk. In the productions in 1850 were 584,050 bushels of summer of 1813 he was transferred to the ConIndian corn, 22,020 of sweet potatoes, 43,225 stitution, there seeming to be no possibility of of oats, 290, 320 lbs. of tobacco, and 92,625 of his eluding with the Constellation a close blockbotter. There were 11 grist mills, 9 saw mills, ade of Norfolk, which was maintained by a 5 forges, 8 tanneries, 42 churches, and 248 pu- strong British squadron. In December he pils attending public schools. Capital, Dover. sailed from Boston upon a cruise, which ex
STEWART, CHARLES, an American naval tended to the coasts of Surinam, Berbice, Demofficer, born in Philadelphia, July 28, 1778. erara, and the Windward islands, resulting in He entered the navy as lieutenant in March, the capture of the British schooner of war Pic1798, and performed his first service in the tou, of 14 guns, a letter of marque under her frigate United States, Com. John Barry. . He convoy, and several merchant vessels. In remained in this ship, which was employed in April, 1814, the Constitution was chased into the West Indies for the protection of American the port of Marblehead by the British frigates commerce against French privateers, until La Nymphe and Junon. About the middle of July, 1800, when he was appointed to the December following, Capt. Stewart sailed in command of the schooner Experiment, of 12 the same ship upon a second cruise, and on Feb. guns, upon the same station. While lying in 20 he fell in with and captured, after an action Rupert's bay, island of Dominica, he ascer- of 40 minutes, H. B. M. ship Cyane, Capt. Faltained that an impressed American seaman was con, mounting 34 guns, with 185 men, and the on board H. B. M. ship Siam, whose release he sloop of war Levant, Capt. Douglass, of 21 demanded, and after some negotiation obtained guns and 156 men. The Constitution mounted from the English commander. On Sept. 1 the 52 guns with 470 men. The action was fought Esperiment fell in with and captured, after an at night, and at the commencement of it the action of 10 minutes, the French schooner three ships were close-hauled and formed nearDeux Amis, of 8 guns; and soon after, while ly an equilateral triangle, the Constitution becruising near the island of Barbuda, she cap- ing to windward. By judicious manœuvring tured, after a very short action, the French she forced her antagonists down to leeward, schooner Diana, of 14 guns. In addition to and raked them both, while she avoided being these two captures, she recaptured a number raked herself. No British official account of of American vessels which had been taken by this action has been published. By some stateFrench privateers. In 1801 the Experiment ments the joint loss of their two ships is given arrived at Norfolk, Va., and was sold out of at 41, while that of the Constitution was but service; and in the following year Lieut. 3 killed and 12 wounded. On March 10 the Stewart made a short cruise as first lieutenant Constitution arrived at Port Praya, Cape of the frigate Constellation, employed in the Verd islands, with her prizes, and while a carblockade of Tripoli. Upon the termination tel was preparing to convey the prisoners to of this crnise he was appointed to command the United States a British squadron appeared the brig Siren in the squadron of Com. Ed- in the offing. Capt. Stewart believed that the ward Preble, and participated in the naval neutrality of the port would not be respected, operations of 1804 against Tripoli. He coöpe- and therefore cut his cables and put to sea, the rated with Lieut. Com. Stephen Decatur, jr., prizes following. The squadron was composed in the destruction of the frigate Philadelphia of two line-of-battle ships and a heavy frigate, on Feb. 16, as well as in the several attacks on and an active chase ensued, which resulted in the city and its defences; and for his services the recapture of the Levant. The Cyane arin the bombardment of Aug. 3, 1804, he re- rived at New York on April 15, and the Conceived the thanks of Com. Preble in general stitation about the middle of May. Civic honorders. He was promoted to the rank of mas- ors were bestowed upon Capt. Stewart by ter and commander, and upon the conclusion New York and Philadelphia; congress voted of peace with Tripoli returned to the United him a gold medal, and silver ones to each of States in command of the frigate Constellation. his commissioned officers, and also passed a In 1506 he was captain, and was employed in vote of thanks to him, his officers, and men; superintending the construction of gun boats and Pennsylvania voted him a sword. From at New York. Upon the declaration of war 1816 to 1820 Com. Stewart commanded a by the United States against England in 1812, squadron in the Mediterranean, the Franklin the government resolved to withdraw the ship of the line bearing his flag. In 1821 he American ships of war from the ocean and hoisted his flag in the same ship for the Pacific devote them to harbor defence, upon the station, where he commanded 3 years. His croand that they would soon be captured by later services have been upon the board of the overwhelming naval force of England; but navy commissioners from 1830 to 1833, and in
command of the home squadron_and of the culture of all the faculties, intellectual, moral, naval station at Philadelphia. He has also and sensitive, rather than to teach definite sorendered important services in the organization lutions of intellectual problems; and his lecof the navy, and submitted to the navy depart- tures therefore proceeded from psychology to ment at different times valuable papers on theories of character and manners, life and litthe subject. In 1857 he was placed upon the erature, taste and the arts, politics and natural reserved list of the navy, his advanced age, in theology. The prominence which he assigned the opinion of the board appointed under the to the last subject, as the highest branch of act of congress of Jan. 16 of that year, leaving metaphysics, was designed, as he explained, to them no discretion in his case; but in March, resist the prevalent sceptical tendencies of the 1859, he was placed upon the active list by era of the French revolution. From the bespecial legislation under a new commission as ginning he gave lectures on the theory of govsenior flag officer. He was recently at his own ernment as a part of the course on moral phirequest relieved from the command of the navy losophy, and in 1800 he first delivered a special yard at Philadelphia, and now (1862) resides course on the new science of political economy. upon his estate at Bordentown, N. J.
He showed no marked advances beyond the STEWART, DUGALD, a Scottish metaphysi- doctrines of the “Wealth of Nations,” but cian, born in Edinburgh, Nov. 22, 1753, died made modifications and new applications, and there, June 11, 1828. The son of Dr. Mat- had the courage to canvass fundamental questhew Stewart, a clergyman and mathematical tions and to maintain liberal opinions before professor, he was educated at the high school the youth of Great Britain at a time when hosand university of his native city, attracted no- tility to revolutionary tendencies prejudiced tice by his taste and capacity for purely phil- all political speculation. He did not appear as osophical studies, heard the lectures of Reid an author till 1792, when he published the first at Glasgow during one term (1771-2), was re- volume of “ Elements of the Philosophy of the called to Edinburgh to act as his father's sub- Human Mind.". In the following year he pubstitute in the charge of the mathematical lished his “ Outlines of Moral Philosophy," and classes, and was formally elected conjoint pro- read before the royal society an account of the fessor as soon as he had completed his 21st life and writings of Adam Smith, which was year. For several years he was prominent in printed in the Transactions," and was followed the weekly debates of the speculative society, by his biographies of Dr. Robertson (1796) and before which he also read essays on philo- Dr. Reid (1802). Nothing else appeared from sophical subjects. He conducted the class in his pen till the publication of the “ Philosophmoral philosophy for one session (1778–’9), ical Essays” in 1810, though in this interval during the absence of Prof. Ferguson, upon he prepared the matter of all his other writwhose resignation in 1785 he was elected his ings, with a single exception. In 1806, on the successor; and as a lecturer in this depart- accession of a whig administration, the sinement he enjoyed the highest reputation during cure office of gazette writer of Scotland was the next 24 years. “Probably no modern,” created for him, to which the salary of £300 says Mackintosh, “ ever exceeded him in that per annum was attached. He accompanied in species of eloquence which springs from sus- that year Lord Lauderdale on his mission to ceptibility to literary beauty and moral excel- Paris. His health was failing, when in 1809 lence; which neither obscures science by it received a severe blow by the death of his prodigal ornament, nor disturbs the serenity younger son, and in the following year he was of patient attention; but, though it rather obliged to retire from active duty as a profescalms and soothes the feelings, yet exalts the sor, his successor being Dr. Thomas Brown. genius, and insensibly inspires a reasonable en- To divert his thoughts from his affliction, he thusiasm for whatever is good and fair." Lord interrupted his more elaborate work on the Cockburn describes him as one of the great- mind for the easier task of preparing the volest of didactic orators. Had he lived in an- ume of “ Philosophical Essays," which reached cient times, his memory would have descend- 3 editions in 7 years. He had meantime reed to us as that of one of the finest of the old moved to Kinneil house, on the shore of the eloquent sages." * All the years I remained frith of Forth, 20 miles from Edinburgh, about Edinburgh,” says James Mill, “I used, where he passed the remainder of his life. as often as I could, to steal into Mr. Stewart's From this retreat he sent forth in succession
Ι class to hear a lecture, which was always a the second volume of the “Elements of the high treat. I have heard Pitt and Fox deliver Philosophy of the Human Mind” (1814); a some of their most admired speeches, but I nev- preliminary dissertation to the supplement of er heard any thing nearly so eloquent as some the “Encyclopædia Britannica,” entitled “A of the lectures of Prof. Stewart." It was his General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, custom to speak from notes, not to read from Ethical, and Political Science since the Refull copy, a method suited to his peculiar pow- vival of Letters” (part i., 1815; part ii., 1821); ers, since it allowed scope to the imagination the third volume of the “Elements" (1827); and the feelings. His aim was always moral and the “ Philosophy of the Active and Moral and practical more than speculative, to portray Powers” (1828), which was completed only a ideal perfection and advance the harmonious few weeks before his death. He had been
struck with paralysis in 1822 ; but though the STEWART, Robert HENRY, Marquis OF
STEWART, John, an English traveller, born trals abdominal, reduced to a strong spine, used
20 years that the fact has been generally adSTEWART, MATTHEW, a Scottish clergyman mitted by naturalists. They breed in summer, and mathematician, father of Dugald Stewart, and may be conveniently watched in aquaria, born at Rothesay, in the isle of Bute, in 1717, making and guarding their nests and protectdied in Ayrshire, Jan. 23, 1785. He was edu- ing the young fry; the males are the builders, cated at Glasgow and Edinburgh, and entered and at this season have the throat carmine red the church. The favorite pupil of Simson, and the eyes brilliant bluish green, the other he assisted his master in investigating the po- parts above being ashy green and the abdomen ristns of Euclid, and, pursuing the same subject, silvery and translucent. The nest is made of discovered a series of ingenious and curious delicate vegetable fibres, matted into an irregupropositions, published under the title of “Gen- lar circular mass cemented by mucus from the eral Theorems" (1746). This work caused him body, an inch or more in diameter, with the to be elected the successor of Maclaurin in the entrance near the centre; when the nest is mathematical chair of the university of Edin- prepared the female is enticed or driven in, burgh in 1747, which position he held till and there deposits her eggs, which are fecun1772. He retired 3 years later to an estate in dated by the male; the latter remains constantAyrshire. His aim as a mathematician was to ly on guard, swimming in the neighborhood, cherish the forms of ancient demonstration driving away intruders with great ferocity, even for such problems as the algebraic cal- frequently putting in his head to see if all is culus alone had been thought able to resolve. right, and fanning the water with the pectoThus he solved Kepler's problem by the meth- rals and caudal to secure free circulation and ods of the ancients (1756). His other publica- ventilation for the eggs. They are frequently tions were “ Four Tracts, Physical and Mathe- seen shaking up the eggs, and carrying away matical" (1761), and an “Essay on the Sun's impurities in the mouth; the young are hatchDistance” (1763), in which he adhered to geo- ed in 2 or 3 weeks; any of the small fry getmetric simplicity, but stopped far short of the ting outside of the nest are instantly seized in results since attained in physical astronomy. the mouth of the parent and put back; there
are about 40 young to a nest, and if any escape not the effect which she anticipated, and from far beyond its protection they are eagerly de- that time he is stated to have travelled hurvoured by other fish of the same species al- riedly, as if accursed, from city to city, pubways on the watch. This fish takes as good lishing occasional ns. His best productions care of its young as does the hen of her chick- are: Bilder des Orients (4 vols., Leipsic, 1831ens; for interesting details on its nidification '3); Stimmen der Zeit in Liedern (2d ed., 1834); see "Annals and Magazine of Natural History," and Das Dionysusfest (Berlin, 1836). 2d series, vol. x., pp. 241-'8 and 276-'80 (Lon- STIGMARIA. See Coal PLANTS. don, 1852). The common European species STILES, Ezra, D.D., an American clergyman, (G. aculeatus, Linn.; since separated into 3 by born at North Haven, Conn., Dec. 10, 1727, Ouvier) has 3 spines in front of the dorsal, and died in New Haven, May 12, 1795. He was is found in almost every pool and rivulet in graduated at Yale college in 1746, and was a Great Britain; in some years it has been so tutor there from 1749 to 1755. Dr. Franklin abundant in Lincolnshire as to be used for ma- having sent an electrical apparatus to Yale col
The G. spinachia (Linn.) has 14 or 15 lege, Mr. Stiles, with one of his fellow tutors, free spinous rays on the back, and has an elon- entered with great zeal upon this then new field gated head and body; it is a marine species, of philosophical investigation, and performed found in the northern seas of Europe. The the first electrical experiments ever made in best known of the many species in the United New England. At the same time he was purStates are the 2-spined stickleback (G. biacu suing the study of theology, and commenced leatus, Mitch.), which is found from Labrador preaching in June, 1749. In April, 1750, he to New York, 2 inches long, olive green above, visited the Housatonic tribe of Indians at Stockyellowish green on sides, with 2 distant spines bridge, and preached among them so acceptably on the back and a 3d near the dorsal; and the that he was earnestly solicited by the society for 4-spined stickleback (G. quadracus, Mitch.), of propagating the gospel among the Indians to the Massachusetts and New York coasts. Other take charge of the mission there, but his imspecies have 8 to 10 spines, and the males in perfect health obliged him to decline the proall assume the red tint in the breeding season, posal. He then studied law, in 1753 was ad. both in salt and fresh water.
mitted to the bar, and practised the profession STICKNEY, Sarah. See Ellis, WILLIAM. at New Haven for the two following years. In
STIEGLITZ, CHRISTIAN LUDWIG, a German Feb. 1755, he pronounced a Latin oration in writer upon architecture, born in Leipsic, Dec. honor of Dr. Franklin, on occasion of his visit12, 1756, died there, July 17, 1836. He was ing New Haven, and was from that time in ineducated for the legal profession, but devoted timate relations with him till they were terhimself chiefly to architectural and antiquarian minated by death. In 1756 he became pastor studies, and published treatises on architecture of the 2d church in Newport, R. I., and during (1786), on the use of the grotesque and ara- his residence there devoted himself assiduously besque (1792), and a history of the architecture to his professional duties, and found time also of the ancients (1792). His most important for literary and scientific investigations, corworks aro: Encyklopädie der Baukunst der responding with learned men in almost every Alten (5 vols., Leipsio, 1792-'8); Zeichnungen part of the world. In 1767 he began the study aus der schönen Baukunst (1801), containing of the Hebrew and other oriental languages, and engravings of select specimens of modern ar pursued it with great avidity. His congregachitecture; Ueber altdeutsche Baukunst (1820), tion at Newport being entirely broken up by which contributed to diffuse and direct a taste the British occupation of the place, in May, for mediæval art; and a valuable Geschichte der 1777, he removed to Portsmouth, N. H., to Baukunst vom frühesten Alterthume bis in die become pastor of the North church. In Sepneuesten Zeiten (Nuremberg, 1827). He also tember following he was elected president of published poems and dissertations on literary Yale college, and shortly after professor of and antiquarian subjects, and contributed to ecclesiastical history in connection with the journals and to Ersch and Gruber's Encyklo- presidency, and in June, 1778, entered on his päilie.
official duties. After the decease of Professor STIEGLITZ, HEINRICH, a German poet, born Daggett in 1780, he discharged the duties of at Arolsen in 1803, died in Venice, Aug. 24, professor of divinity, beside which he gave 1849. He completed his studies at Berlin, each week one or two dissertations on some where in 1828 he became librarian. He mar- philosophical or astronomical subject. His ried, tanght in the gymnasium, published po- labors for the college were intense and uninems with moderate success, and became mor- terrupted during the residue of his life. He bidly melancholy. His wife, who was thought published a funeral oration in Latin on Gov. to be a woman of genius, eager for his fame ernor Law (1751); a Latin oration on his inas a poet, and believing that only a great sor- duction to his office as president (1778); an row could restore his mind to health and activ- “Account of the Settlement of Bristol” (1785); ity, committed suicide in 1834, after an excur- History of three of the Judges of Charles I." sion with him in Russia. Her letters and diary (1795); and 5 occasional sermons. His life has were collected by Mundt in Charlotte Stieglitz, been written by James L. Kingsley, in Sparks's cin Denkmal (Berlin, 1835). Her death had “American Biography," 1st series, vol. vi.