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commencement of the revolutionary conflict with the mother country: the claimants having entered into that struggle, forgot, for a time at least, all other considerations. After the war, and in 1791, by common consent, the disputed territory became the state of Vermont.

The area of the state is about 9,280 square miles; and it is of a mountainous, hilly, and broken character; and, with one exception, it contains the most elevated land east of the Mississippi; Mount Washington, the loftiest peak of the White Mountains, rising 6,428 feet above the sea-level. The White Mountains proper extend only from fourteen to twenty miles; but isolated and detached groups of the chain extend from the north of New Hampshire into Connecticut. Some of these attain a considerable elevation; Mount Monadnoc, about ten miles from the boundary line of Massachusetts, rising to the height of 3,254 feet; and Moorehillock, further north, to 4,616 feet. Other summits attain a yet higher range; and five of them considerably exceed 5,000 feet. Most of these are covered with snow during the greater part of the year; and hence the appellation, as applied to the group. The general base of the White Mountains is covered by dense forests of heavy timber, succeeded by belts of stunted fir; above which are bushes, and then a scanty coating of mosses and lichens. The scenery of this region partakes of the characteristic Alpine character, and is at once rude, wild, and magnificent.

The principal river of New Hampshire is the Connecticut, which rises near the northern border of the state, and forms almost exclusively its western boundary. The current of this river, naturally obstructed by falls, rapids, and shoals, has nevertheless been so improved by means of dams, locks, and short canals, that boats of very large tonnage can now ascend it for about 200 miles from its mouth. The Merrimac rises in the White Mountains, and traverses the central districts of the state by a southern curve-entering Massachusetts, and furnishing an endless supply of water for the manufactures of Manchester, and other towns on its banks. This river, and its affluents, abound in cataracts that supply water-power to an enormous extent for the factories of Manchester, Dover, Nashua, and other places.

Many of the lakes of this state are entitled to notice for their extent and picturesque beauty; and of these, Lake Winnipiseogee is the largest and most interesting, from the number and beauty of the islands scattered over its bosom.

The chief lines of railway accommodation run in a north-west and south-east direction, or from the Atlantic, at Portsmouth and Boston, to the Connecticut river, where they unite with the railways of Vermont, which connect them with Lake Champlain and Canada. The Great Atlantic and St. Lawrence line traverses the northern section of the state. The southern lines diverge from Concord as a centre.

The soils of the state are described as being generally stubborn, but repaying careful culture by abundant harvests. Maize is grown in every district. The low lands along the river-lines yield rich crops of wheat, oats, and rye, besides the usual culinary plants. The uplands produce only moderate crops; but most of the farms have an orchard of apple and pear trees: from the produce of the former, excellent cider is manufactured.

New Hampshire has exclusive manufactures of cotton and woollen goods, carpets, iron ware, &c.; and in the manufacture of cotton, it is second only to Massachusetts-for a long period producing one-seventh of the entire quantity manufactured in the United States. There are also numerous tanneries, saw-mills, powder-mills, &c. The foreign

commerce of New Hampshire is concentrated at Portsmouth, the only port of entry in the state; but, for many years, the bulk of its manufactured and agricultural produce has been exported from, and its supplies received through, Boston, in Massachusetts.

As regards objects of curiosity and interest, New Hampshire stands prominent among the states east of the Mississippi. The White Mountains have been already noticed for their altitude and extent, and they attract more tourists than any other natural object in the United States, with the exception of the Niagara Falls. The traveller, wandering for weeks amidst their scenery, is filled with admiration of the grand and sublime objects that surround him. The White Mountain Notch is a pass of great celebrity, and is entered from the north or west, by an opening only twenty-three feet in width, between two perpendicular rocks, at the foot of which the Saco (here a shallow stream) gently trickles, expanding as it proceeds, and receiving tributaries from the mountain sides, which form the walls of the gorge and tower, to the height of about 2,000 feet above the bed of the river. Mount Washington is generally ascended on horseback, with no small degree of peril to the equestrian, the road being over piles of rocks of every imaginable size, thrown together by some convulsion of nature; but, from the summit, a prospect is obtained that amply rewards the perseverance of the traveller. Around, in every direction, are confused masses of mountains, "bearing the appearance of a sea of molten lava suddenly cooled while its ponderous waves were yet in commotion." On the south-east horizon, a streak of silver is visible-the first indication of the vast Atlantic afar off, laving the shores of Maine with its ever-rolling waters. Lakes of all sizes, from Lake Winnipiscogee, with its clustered islands, to mere mountain ponds, in extent and diversity of form, sparkle in the sun. In the western horizon, are discerned the Green Mountains of Vermont; and to the south and west, Mounts Monadnoc and Kearsarge shut in the view; the intermediate space, on all sides, being filled up with every variety of landscape, mountain and hill, plain and valley, lake and river-dotted here and there with thriving towns and villages, like pearls scattered over a carpet of green velvet, embroidered with silver.

Another approach to Mount Washington is effected by the Portland and Montreal railway, which stops at Gorham, within five miles of the base of the mountain; and on this side is the François Notch—a gorge equally, if not more interesting than that of the White Mountains, since there are accessories not to be met with in the other ascent. Among these are the Echo Lake, at the northern entrance of the gorge, which has an extraordinary power of repeating the sound of the human voice; the "Old Man of the Mountain," a well-defined profile of the human face, 1,000 feet above the level of the pass; and numerous pools or lakes, distributing their transparent waters in cascadessometimes falling upon the green sward of the terrace valleys-sometimes dashing amongst rocky precipices, and losing themselves amidst the embowering foliage that clothe the slopes of the mountain.

NEW JERSEY.-This state lies between the Hudson and the Delaware rivers, and has an area of 8,320 square miles. The first settlement was made on the Hudson river, opposite the upper part of the present city of New York, by the Danes, who accompanied the Dutch colonists under authorisation of the Dutch republic, in 1618. In 1623, a settlement was made, by the Swedes and Finns, on the Delaware river, below Camden-which

Delaware, near Christiana Creek. About 1640, the English began a settlement on the eastern bank; and, shortly after, there arose a conflict between the Swedes and the English with respect to titles. The former united with the Dutch, and drove the English from the country. The Swedes then erected a fort on the spot that had been held by the English, which commanded the river. They claimed and exercised authority over all vessels that entered, including those of the Dutch. Until 1655, the Swedes held both sides of the Delaware; solely, however, under the right of occupancy. At this time, Stuyvesant, the governor of New Netherlands, by the aid of forces sent to him from Holland, compelled the Swedes on the Delaware to surrender; and the officers and principal people were taken to New Amsterdam as prisoners. The Dutch then held the whole territory, now comprising the states of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. The English, however, continued to claim the country, under the title of discovery; and an expedition was sent to New Amsterdam in 1664, which demanded from Governor Stuyvesant a surrender of the country; and, being in a defenceless condition, he yielded. The expedition then went to the Delaware, and effected a submission of the people, which completed the English title of occupancy. The grant of Charles II., in 1664, to the Duke of York, embraced the whole territory from Nova Scotia to the east side of the Delaware bay. In the same year, the Duke of York sold and conveyed to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret, all the land lying between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, under the name of New Cesaria. The name New Jersey was subsequently given to it in compliment to Carteret, who had defended the island of Jersey, during the civil war, against the Long Parliament. Emigration was encouraged, and the proprietors granted a constitution, securing to the people liberty of conscience and equal rights. In 1673, the Dutch invaded the English provinces; and Captain Manning, then in authority, surrendered New York without making any defence. Subsequently, he was tried by a court-martial, and found guilty upon his own confession. The sentence was-" Though he deserved death, yet, because he had, since the surrender, been in England, and had seen the king and the duke, it was adjudged that his sword should be broken over his head in public." In the year 1674, the English retook the possessions from the Dutch. The proprietors of New Jersey, about this time, divided their interests; and West New Jersey came under the management of the Quakers, who divided the lands between purchasers. East New Jersey had about 5,000 inhabitants in 1680; and its government was located at Elizabeth Town. In 1702, the two provinces, East and West New Jersey, were, as to government, surrendered to Queen Anne; and from thence they were united. The queen appointed a governor for New York and New Jersey, jointly, in 1703. The two provinces, New York and New Jersey, continued under the one governorship, but with separate assemblies, until 1738, when the queen appointed a governor for each. At the commencement of the revolutionary period, New Jersey was among the foremost to resist the British oppression; and during that memorable struggle, the state performed her part well.

The northern part of New Jersey is of a mountainous character, being occupied by the hilly ranges of Pennsylvania; the principal of which are the Blue Mountain and Kittatinny ridges, portions of the great Appalachian chain. The remaining, and by far larger part of the state, comprising the whole country south of a line from Staten Island to Trenton, consists of a sandy plain, for the most part a dead level, except at the

establishment, being connected with the details of the important battle fought on the banks of the Brandywine river, in 1777, between the Americans and the English; to which we shall hereafter refer. The shores of the Brandywine, above Wilmington, are wild and romantic; and near the city are chalybeate springs, much resorted to by the inhabitants of Philadelphia. In the neighbourhood of Lewistown, near Cape Henlopen, is the Delaware breakwater, about two-thirds of a mile in extent, having one face presented to the sea, and the other to the current of the river; the latter being to protect vessels from floating ice. The ice-breaker is about 1,500 feet long. The deep cut in the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, about ninety feet perpendicular, is said to be the most extensive excavation of the kind in any canal yet constructed.

MARYLAND. This colony was founded in the year 1622, by Cecil, Lord Baltimore, an Irish nobleman, whose father had been secretary of state to James I.; and was one of the original associates of the Virginia Company. In the year mentioned, this nobleman visited America, for the purpose of ascertaining whether or not some portion of the | territory of Virginia, or New England, might not be rendered promotive of the interests of his family, and at the same time afford a safe retreat for the persecuted professors of the Roman catholic faith, to which he had become a convert. A portion of the territory of Virginia was selected by him; and he had influence to obtain from King Charles I. 2 grant of sufficient land for his purpose: but before he could carry the plan of colonisation into effect, his lordship died, leaving to his son the task of consummating his design. To the latter, therefore, in 1632, a charter was granted, by which the territory was separated from Virginia, and erected into an independent colony by the name of Maryland—s designation it received as a mark of respect to the queen of the royal donor. The first settlers in the colony were brought to it in 1634, by Leonard Calvert, the brother of the founder; and one of the earliest acts of the colonists allowed religious liberty, which con trasted generously with the conduct of the people through whose over-rigid zeal they had been compelled to abandon the homes of their fathers, that they might worship God according to their consciences, in the wilds of a far-distant country. And, again, in 1649, the legis lature of Maryland passed an act granting perfect religious toleration to people of all sects and creeds. By this liberal concession to religious principle the new colony speedily became strong in point of numbers, as well as in intelligence. In twenty-six years from its foundation, the population of the district amounted to 12,000 persons; and, in 1671, it had increased to 20,000. The first legislature assembled in 1639, and passed many useful laws. When the civil war in England took place, the government of Maryland was much disturbed, as, under Cromwell, a new governor was appointed, who was adverse to the interests of the proprietors. The first settlement was made at St. Mary's; and this place continued the capital of the province until 1691, when it was removed to Providence, now known as Annapolis, the present capital of the state. In 1688, the government of Maryland was assumed by King William; and, in 1691, Sir Leonel Copely was appointed governor. In 1715, the government was restored to the proprietors, who continued to exercise their authority until the American revolution commenced, when an effort was made by the people to establish an independent government. In 1776, an election took place for members of the legislature, to form a constitution; and they met February 5th, 1777. Thomas Johnson was the first governor under the constitutional government.

has been of discussional interest. The heirs of Lord Baltimore and of Penn were, for many years, contesting the location of the line between their respective grants. It was finally determined to have the line permanently fixed upon certain agreed stipulations; and to that end, on the 4th of August, 1763, Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, "two mathematicians and surveyors," were appointed, in London, to establish the boundary. They arrived in Philadelphia, November 15th, 1763, and immediately proceeded in the discharge of their duties. At the end of every mile a stone post was set up, with the letter P, and the arms of Penn engraved on the north side; and the letter M, with the arms of Lord Baltimore, on the south side. These gentlemen nearly completed the survey, and were honourably discharged on the 26th of December, 1767. The Indians prevented the completion of the undertaking at that time; but, in 1784, the residue, some twenty-two miles, was surveyed by others.

Mason and Dixon's line is often referred to in American discussions, because it is a line between the slave and the non-slaveholding states. At the present time, the whole of the states south of the line are slaveholding states, and all to the north are non-slaveholding. Upon the north is the state of Pennsylvania, extending from the Delaware to the Ohio river and Lake Erie; to the south are the states of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia.

The state of Maryland has an area of 9,366 square miles, and is irregular in its outline. Its greatest breadth, in a north and south direction, is about 120 milesdivided by the Chesapeake Bay into two portions, designated the eastern and western shores, the western shore being nearly double the size of the eastern. The Chesapeake Bay extends northward for about 120 miles within this state, with a breadth varying from seven to twenty miles, and is navigable for large vessels throughout its whole extent, receiving the river Potomac at the southern extremity of Maryland. The Patuxent and Patapsco rivers from the west, the Susquehanna from the north, and the Elk, Chester, Choptank, Nantichoke, and Pocomoke from the east, also empty themselves into this bay, and are all, more or less, navigable for small ocean craft. The Potomac is also navigable, for the largest class of vessels, as far as Alexandria. A great many islands are scattered over the bay; the principal of which are Kent Island, opposite Annapolis, twelve miles in length; and Tangier Island, situated further south.

The country east of Chesapeake Bay has an almost level surface as far north as Chester Bay, when it begins to undulate; and towards the boundary of Pennsylvania some isolated hills are scattered about. The soil is generally thin and poor, but is kept in an excellent state of cultivation. The Cypress Swamp, already noticed in Delaware state, partly belongs to this state also, and is situated near the northern extremity of Sinepuxent Bay-a shallow arm of the sea, from one to five miles wide, and nearly thirty miles long, formed by a long, narrow stretch of sandy beach, a prolongation of the coast of Delaware. The water of this bay is comparatively fresh.

The western shore of the bay is less fertile than that of the east; but there are isolated districts which are exceedingly productive. North of the river Patapsco, the country along the Chesapeake Bay becomes slightly undulating, and is possessed of a great degree of natural fertility. The bays and islets along the western, are not so numerous as those along the eastern shore, but they are more important. The principal are those formed by the Potomac; the Patapsco, on which Baltimore, the chief

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