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commercial city, is built; the Severn, on which Annapolis, the political capital of Maryland, has been established; Bust River, Herring Bay, &c. Chesapeake Bay belongs to Maryland from the mouth of the Potomac.

The state is well supplied by nature with magnificent rivers, and abundance of water-power, which is increased by the formation of canals. Some of the earliest constructed were cut for avoiding the falls and rapids in the upper course of the Potomac; but these were quickly superseded by the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, extending 191 miles on the Virginia side of the river, from Alexandria to Georgetown, and from thence, on the Maryland side, to Cumberland.

The state of Maryland was among the earliest of the United States to adopt a system of internal improvement, which it has since realised the benefit of. The Baltimore and Ohio railway, within its boundaries, was the first, in America, used for the ordinary purposes of travel and transit.

The facilities for foreign and internal commerce in this state are very great, in consequence of the Chesapeake, navigable for the largest vessels, extending through the heart of its territory; while its south-western shore is washed by the Potomac and the Susquehanna, by whose streams the products and manufactures of Maryland are borne to the chief marts of commerce upon the American continent, and to all parts of the world.

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CONNECTICUT.-In 1633, William Holmes, of Plymouth, erected a house, and fortified it, at Windsor, on the Connecticut river; and, during the two subsequent years, many people from Massachusetts emigrated to Connecticut. Prior to this date, however, the Dutch had established a fort where Hartford is now situated. In 1638, the inhabitants of this new province formed an independent commonwealth; and, in 1643, the colonies of Massachusetts and Connecticut formed an alliance, under the name of the "United Colonies of New England." Their united strength was formidable, and they were able to repel the invasions of the Dutch and Indians. After Charles II. ascended the throne of England, Governor Winthrop was sent to the king to obtain a royal charter for Connecticut; and on the 20th of April, 1662, it was granted. James II., in 1685, attempted to assume the government of the province, by cancelling the charter; and to that end, in 1687, Sir Edmund Andros, governor-general of New England, proceeded to Hartford, the capital of Connecticut. He arrived there during the session of the assembly, and demanded the charter. It was secretly taken by the people, and hid in the hollow of an oak tree. The new governor, however, took possession of the province. After the death of James II., the provincial government resumed the exercise of its chartered rights.

The people of Connecticut had to contend against the Indians and their sovereign. They fought well, and were able defenders of their homes: their laws were strict; but they were faithfully obeyed. The inhabitants of Connecticut have ever been remarkable for bravery and fidelity.

The area of the state is about 4,674 square miles. The surface of the country is generally uneven; but there are no isolated mountains of great altitude in Connecticutthe chief ranges of high ground being merely continuations of the Massachusetts mountain chain, which runs from north to south, in the direction of the Housatonic and


terminates at High Rock, two miles north-west from New Haven; and the Lyme range, on the east side of Connecticut River, separates the lower basin of that stream from the New Thames. Another range of high land, called the Middletown Mountains, runs from Hartford on the Connecticut, to East Rock-the altitude being 870 feet north-east of New Haven, where it terminates. The Blue Hills in Southington, part of this considered the highest within the boundaries, rising to an elevation of 1,000 feet. The Housatonic Mountains, which run along the western margin of the state, complete the list of hills in Connecticut.

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The water-power of the state is very considerable. Long Island Sound washes the entire southern boundary; New Haven Bay being the largest opening into the Sound, though there are a number of small ones. The Connecticut river enters the state from Massachusetts, and traverses its whole extent from north to south, dividing it into two nearly equal portions. This river is navigable for fifty miles by vessels drawing eight feet water. The Housatonic crosses the western portion of the state, and is navigable by small vessels for about twelve miles. The New Thames, in connection with its main branch, the Quinebaug, intersects the eastern part of the state, and is navigable fourteen miles to Norwich. These rivers all open into Long Island Sound. The Tarnington, the Shetucket, and the Quinebaug-the two latter forming a junction, and becoming the "New Thames”—with several smaller rivers and streams, abound with falls and rapids, and afford valuable water-power for the purposes of commerce and manufactures.

Connecticut possesses several considerable manufactures; but the industrial productions of the people are dependent upon a large number of small establishments, most of the wares being fabricated in small quantities, by individuals of but little capital: the aggregate amount is great, however, and places Connecticut in a fair position among the manufacturing states. The clocks exported from this state have long continued to indicate the march of time to the remote settlers of the far west; and, of late, have found their way to European markets. Extensive factories of cotton and woollen goods have also sprung into existence; and, upon the whole, Connecticut yields her full proportion of productive labour.

The foreign commerce of this state is chiefly carried on through the ports of New York and Boston, although it enjoys a limited trade with the West Indies, and an active coasting trade.

Connecticut is traversed in every direction by railways, connecting its principal towns with each other, and with New York and Boston. Lines of railway thread the coast of Long Island Sound, from New York to Stonington; and, from those points, branches diverge to the most important seats of industry and commerce in the neighbouring territories.

The soil in the valley districts being generally fertile, and skilfully tilled, the products are excellent and abundant. Hartford is the capital of the state; and, alternately with New Haven, is the seat of the state legislature.

Connecticut possesses much that is highly picturesque and attractive. The shores of its principal rivers are frequently bold and precipitous, sometimes having rugged cliffs on one side, while on the other the country spreads into beautiful meadows, terminated by distant hills, clothed with luxuriant vegetation to the summits, and dotted here and there with rising villages, or busy and thriving towns-agreeably varying the prospect,

and indicating the general wealth and comfort of the inhabitants. Throughout the state, west of the Connecticut, and for a large extent of country on the eastern side, romantic hills and luxuriant valleys meet the eye in every direction; while the Quarries, at Rockyhill, near Hartford, might be supposed to have been the battle-field of the Titans in their war with the gods, so vast and ponderous are the masses of rock, piled in chaotic confusion at the base of the mountain. Immense blocks, looking, as it were, the timebleached ruins of some stupendous building, are scattered over the ground; while entire cliffs and pillars, each of many tons weight, lie in wild confusion about the valley, as it mocking the feeble efforts of man to reduce them into shape or order.

RHODE ISLAND.-The first white settler on Rhode Island was Roger Williams, whose liberal opinions in matters of faith, and eccentricities of manner, banished him from England, and at length rendered him obnoxious to the colonists of Massachusetts, with whom he had emigrated, that, with them, he might enjoy liberty of conscience, but among whom he strove to inculcate principles of toleration far in advance of their ideas of religious liberty. The result was, his expulsion, in January, 1636, from the colony of Massachusetts, by the voice of the whole community, which required that he should be forthwith transported to England. A ship was then ready to sail from Boston to Europe; and a pinnace was dispatched to Salem, where he resided, for the purpose of conveying him to Boston, where he was to embark; but, having received notice of the project for transporting him, he fled from his persecutors. "For fourteen weeks he was sorely tossed in a bitter season, not knowing what bread or bed did mean." In his wanderings he approached Narraganset Bay; and at Mooshansie, an Indian village, he met with some natives, whose language he had acquired a knowledge of, and was received by them with kindness. In June of the same year, with five companions whe had accompanied him, he founded a little settlement at the mouth of the Seakouk rivernaming the place Providence, "as an acknowledgment of God's merciful providence to me in my distress; and I desire it may be for ever a shelter for persons distressed for conscience' sake." The land surrounding his settlement was purchased fairly by him, from the chiefs of the Narraganset tribe, to whom it belonged; and who, on the 24th of March, 1638, made over to him a large domain, which he designated Providence Plantation. Williams then organised a body politic, and the public affairs were conducted upon the most liberal principles. This new colony, however, was much annoyed by the Plymouth government claiming the territorial jurisdiction, and right of property.

In 1644, Williams went to England, and obtained a patent from the Plymouth Company for the territory he had occupied, and the right of self-government. In 1647, a legislative tribunal was organised, and a code of laws established. Sixteen years subsequently, Charles II. granted a royal charter, creating a provincial government, under the name of "The Governor and Company of the English colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, in New England, of America." The new government was thereupon organised; and the assembly granted to all Christian sects, excepting Roman catholics, the right of voting.

The largest portion of the state of Rhode Island lies to the west and north-west of Narraganset Bay, and comprehends about 900 square miles. A further portion is situated eastward of the same bay; and the rest is composed of various islands, of which

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populated. Near Rhode Island is another, named Canonicut Island, seven miles long, and one broad, much frequented for the beauty of its scenery. Prudence Island, lying partly between Rhode and Canonicut islands, is of smaller dimensions than the lastnamed; and Block Island, situated about twelve miles south-west from Point Judith, on the mainland (about eight miles long, by two to four miles broad), is chiefly inhabited by fishermen.

The bay of Narraganset, in which these islands are clustered, intersects a large portion of the state, and is about thirty miles long from Point Judith on the south, to Bullock's Point at its head, by about ten miles wide, the entrance extending from Point Judith on the west, to Point Seeconnet on the east. The bay offers a safe and convenient roadstead during the prevalence of storms from the north-west; is navigable in all seasons; and contains many excellent harbours and points available for defensive works, most of which have been strongly fortified. The harbour of Newport, between Rhode and Canonicut islands, is esteemed one of the finest on the whole seaboard of the Union.

The face of Rhode Island is generally rough, and broken into isolated hills; but there are no elevations throughout the state that can properly be designated mountainous, the highest altitude of the land being but 300 feet above the sea-level. The rivers of Rhode Island are of little value for navigable purposes; but having generally a considerable fall, they give impetus to a large amount of mechanical power, which is made abundant use of in the numerous mills that have grown up on their banks. Of these streams, the principal is the Pawtucket river, which, in the lower part of its course, forms the boundary between Rhode Island and Connecticut, and is navigable for about six miles only. Having its source in Massachusetts (where it is called the Blackstone River), it then, under its Indian appellation, traverses the north-eastern part of Rhode Island, and falls into Providence River, about a mile below Providence City. At Pawtucket village, four miles from its mouth, there are falls of about fifty feet; below which the river again changes its name, and is called the Seakouk. This portion is navigable up to the falls. Providence River, formed by the union of the Wanasginatucket and the Moharuck, opens into the north-western arm of Narraganset Bay, and is navigable for vessels of 900 tons burthen, up to Providence City. The Patuxent is also a tributary of the Providence, into which it falls about three miles below the city.

The soil is moderately fertile, but, in some districts, rough and difficult to cultivate -that on the islands being far superior, in fertility, to the soil of the mainland. As the state of Rhode Island is noted for its cattle, sheep, butter, and cheese, the farmers, in all parts of the country, devote their attention more to the rearing of stock than to tillage.

With regard to the productions of this state, it is to be observed, that owing to the abundant supply of water-power, it has long been extensively occupied in manufacturing; and the first cotton-mill erected in the United States, arose within the limits of Rhode Island, which, in proportion to its population, ranks first in the product of its cotton, and second in that of its woollen fabrics. The commercial operations of the state are limited as regards foreign markets; but the coasting trade, which absorbs the attention of the marine population, occupies many, and serves as a feeder for the Federal and mercantile navies. On Canonicut Island are the ruins of a circular fort, which, crowning an eminence at the entrance of the bay, present the remains of an early period. This circular fort is supposed to have been constructed by the Northmen during their

settlement of the country, between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The tower is precisely like those constructed at many places on the continent of Europe, by the Romans, and now to be seen as ruins. The celebrated Dighton rock, with runic inscriptions, found upon the Taunton river, evidence the settlement of the country by the Scandinavians in the year 1007.

NORTH CAROLINA.-This state was originally included in the grant, given by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584, for the territory named Virginia. Attempts were made to settle the country in 1585, and again in 1589; but the efforts were unsuccessful. In 1650, some Virginians fled to this territory to enjoy religious toleration, which they had not been able to realise in Virginia. They settled near Albemarle Sound, and declared they would not acknowledge any superior on earth, nor obey any laws but those of God and nature. In 1661, a few people from Massachusetts settled on the shores of Cape Fear River; and in 1666, there were about 800 inhabitants. Charles II. granted a patent to Lord Clarendon, and others, for all the territory between 30° and 36° N. lat., extending from the Atlantic to the South Sea (Mississippi River), or Pacific Ocean. Emigration was encouraged, and they were promised religious liberty, and the right to be governed by an assembly. A settlement was made at Charleston (South Carolina); and being very successful, it proved to be a rival to the one on Albemarle Sound. It was owing to this circumstance that the terms "North" and "South" Carolina originated, and ultimately a division of the territory. A despotic governor reduced North Carolina to half its population, whiet only numbered, in 1694, 787.

In 1707, some Huguenots, or French protestants, located themselves on the river Trent, and conducted their affairs with prudence, effecting prosperity. In 1710, a large number of Palatines came from Germany, and settled in North Carolina; but the most of them, and many of the other inhabitants, were massacred by the Indians in 1712. After this, North Carolina came under the government of South Carolina, until about 1729, when it was transferred to the king by the proprietors. Subsequently, another govern ment was established under the crown. The early annals of this portion of the American continent are written in blood, through the fierce and implacable hostility of the Indians, who on several occasions devastated the settlement, and massacred the unprotected inhabitants. The people of this state took an early and active part in the most stirring events of the revolution, and many sanguinary conflicts with the royal forces took place within her borders. The Mechlenberg Declaration of Independence was made on the 31st of May, 1775; and North Carolina therefore claims the honour of being the first of the colonies to demand a separation from the parent country.

The area of North Carolina is 50,704 square miles; and at the commencement of the revolution in 1775, included Tennessee. In 1790, it ceded the territory of Tennessee (then called Franklin) to the United States; which was, in 1796, admitted into the

Union as a state.

The face of the country comprehended within the limits of this state, is, on the south-east and east sides, level and sandy, interspersed with shallow lakes and marshes. A chain of low islands or sand-banks lines the whole extent of the coast, cutting off a number of shallow lakes or lagoons, which are difficult to navigate. The tract known as

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