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3rd. Taking off a party of men from Boonsborough in his expedition to the Scioto, and thus weakening the garrison, when he had reason to believe the Indians were about to invade the fort.

4th. That, at the siege of Boonsborough, he was willing to take the officers to the Indians' camp, on the invitation to make peace, and thus endanger the garrison.

case he attempted to move. In this manner he passed the night, unable to sleep, and filled with the most gloomy forebodings of the future. In the morning, when released from his fetters, he smiled, and never admitted that he had endured the slightest suffering during the night; and he manifested a real zeal to go forward to the Indian village, where they arrived during the day. He continued a prisoner for some Captain Boone nobly defended his coneight months; and during that time, no duct, and stated that the surrender of the man ever suffered more than he did. He salt party was necessary in order to save was eight times compelled to run the Boonsborough and every station of the gauntlet; three times tied to a stake; once country. We are inclined to the opinion, brought to the brink of the grave by a however, that it was to save his own life, blow from a tomahawk; and, throughout and the lives of the salt-makers. The the whole time, subjected to minor cruel- conduct at Boonsborough, he declared, was ties. Once his old friend and companion, but a step of strategy, to gain time, in Simon Girty, the famous hater of his own order to complete some measures of defence. race, interposed, and saved him for a short Boone was acquitted by the complete court, time from the flames. He had been tied and was promoted to the rank of major for to the stake, and the faggots were piled his past services. around him, when Girty interceded, and procured a respite. On the next occasion, when he was lashed to the stake, Girty could not influence the savages to permit a further prolongation of his life; but the chieftain Logan-the celebrated Mingo, whose wrongs had not obliterated the nobility of his nature, though still panting with the spirit of revenge against the whites for the wholesale murder of his family-interceded for the life of Kenton, and, at the same time, prevailed upon a Canadian trader to purchase him as a prisoner of war. Kenton was then taken to Detroit, and delivered over to the British commander. In the summer of 1779 he made his escape, and returned to Kentucky.

Boone had his enemies-a misfortune common to all men of worth; and these were not very moderate in assailing the integrity of the surrender at the Lower Blue Licks. Charges were alleged against him,† and Captain Boone was formally tried by a court-martial. The allegations were

1st. Surrendering the company of saltmakers when he was taken prisoner at the Blue Licks.

2nd. Manifesting friendly feelings towards the Indians while a prisoner, and offering to surrender Boonsborough, have the people removed to Detroit, and live under British protection and jurisdiction.

*Collins' History of Kentucky; McClung's Sketches: Butler's Kentucky, &c., &c.

The facts respecting this trial of Boone was

The Kentuckians were very anxious to reduce the Indian village of Chillicothe, and various attempts were made to organise companies to march against that place. In July of 1779, Colonel Joseph Bowman succeeded in raising a company of 160 men, all of whom were determined to destroy Chillicothe. Logan was the second in command; and the whole force was composed of brave and experienced hunters, all of whom volunteered to aid in the effort to exterminate the savages from that strong rendezvous. The details of this expedition has been furnished by McClung, a local historian of Kentucky. The well-prepared expedition commenced its march from Harrodstown in July, and proceeded through the forest, keeping in advance some of the most experienced "trailers," men who understood tracking Indians. The army arrived within a mile of Chillicothe without being seen by any of the enemy. Here the detachment halted at an early hour in the night; and Bowman then sent out spies in different directions, to ascertain the condition of the village, and to see if there were many warriors present, or within the vicinity of the place. Before midnight the spies returned, and reported that their presence was unknown; that the town was occupied by but few warriors, and that there were no other tribes within a distance near enough to afford relief to the town, in time to save

communicated to us, many years since, by the indefatigable border historian, Lyman C. Draper, Esq. Sketches of Western Adventure, p. 113.

and had seen that the attacking force was not very formidable. They saw that they had more warriors than there were "Big Knives," and they commenced an energetic attack on the invaders. The skirmish was conducted on both sides with alternate success; but, as the Indians were more familiar with the avenues between the cabins, they had a very great advantage over the Kentuckians. Logan was com pelled to retreat, and at one time was nearly surrounded by the savages: his situation was one of desperation, and he managed to maintain his defence with considerable success, until a messenger arrived from Colonel Bowman, with orders to retreat from the town. This most astonish ing command was received by Logan when he was in a situation requiring the aid of Bowman's division to effect a retreat and to escape destruction, as he was then endeavouring to retire by dodging from cabin to cabin, defending every foot of his retreat. During the contest, all were expecting to hear of the success of Bowman's division, and they fought with

it from destruction by their force. Bowman then organised his plan of attack, and each man prepared for the desperate work to be done. It was determined to divide the force-placing one division under Logan, which was to march to the left side of the town; and Bowman was to move his men to the right, contemplating a simultaneous attack on both sides of the village. Logan moved his division, in silence, to its position by the time assigned. He then waited to hear the signal-gun to be fired by Bowman; but hour after hour passed away, and no signal was given. The delay was hastening the dangers of Logan's position. At length daylight appeared, and still no signal for attack. Logan then ordered his men to hide in the cane and high grass, and further await the signal for the attack; but in finding "good hiding," an Indian dog discovered the presence of the whites, and approached to make an attack. The anxiety of the dog was seen by one of the warriors, who walked cautiously towards the spot--halting frequently, rising upon his tiptoes, and gazing in advance to see the cause of the dog's excite-a spirit determined to conquer; but when ment. Logan's men lay silent and close to the earth, hoping to take the Indian without giving any alarm; but, at that moment, a gun was fired in an opposite quarter of the town, by one of Bowman's men, and the savage gave one shrill whoop, ran swiftly back to the council-house, and reported the presence of the "Big Knives." Logan then gave orders to his men to charge upon the village, which they did with yells and whoops, enough to frighten even the savages. The Indians-men, women, and children -all ran to the great cabin in the centre of the village, to make a defence. In the meantime Logan took possession of many of the houses which had been deserted, and then advanced from house to house, until he reached within rifle shot of the great cabin, where the warriors had collected to defend them

they received the order to retreat, a most singular and tumultuous scene commenced. Each man selected his own time, manner, and route of his retreat; and, as usual in "tree warfare," each man fought in his own style, and "looked out for himself." On this occasion, the pioneers "dodged from tree to tree, stump to stump," until they joined Bowman's party near the spot where they had parted from it the night before. Bowman had failed to move his division forward to carry out his part of the programme; the colonel seemed to have been in a state of imbecility, and wholly incapable of managing himself. On the return of Logan's men, the whole detachment was in a state of confusion, and every man was determined to pur sue his own course: the majority, being disgusted with the shameful failure, determined speedily to return to Kentucky. Having thus gallantly pushed forward The savages, in the meantime, were in hot to the centre of the town, Logan listened pursuit of their enemy; and ere the Kenimpatiently for the firing, which should tuckians had gone but half a mile in their have been heard from the opposite extre- retreat, they found themselves surrounded mity of the town, where he supposed Bow- by a very large force of warriors, who fired man's division was stationed; but, to his upon them with fatal effect. The Kenastonishment, everything remained quiet tuckians immediately formed themselves in that quarter. In the meantime his into a hollow square, protected by trees, own position became extremely critical, as and then maintained their defence with the Indians had recovered from their panic, complete success-routed success-routed the savages,


The preceding explains a few of the many struggles of the Virginians in their efforts to settle in the west. At the same time, the Pennsylvanians also embarked in pioneer life. They located east of Fort Pitt, on the waters of the Monongahela; and the government maintained that fort during the revolutionary period, in order to prevent an invasion of the British from Detroit, or from the Canadas; and in these noble efforts the state performed a very important part in the western or border wars. The garrison, for the most of the time, remained in a defensive position, preventing the invasion of the savage tribes, then fully organised and equipped by the British at Detroit, and other places on the lakes.

who scattered in the wildest confusion the savages, at every siege, failed to acthroughout the forest. The retreat was complish success. then continued, and, after they had gone another half mile, to their surprise, they found that, instead of the Indians having been really routed, they had only retreated to move forward and form another ambuscade, and thus suddenly found themselves again surrounded by the Indians, who were pouring upon them a most galling fire. The Kentuckians again formed into a square-or, in other words, diverged from a centre-and met their enemy with a desperation seldom, if ever, excelled by warriors of any race. Logan, then in command, selected the boldest and best of his mounted men, and, at their head, dashed into the bushes on horseback scoured the woods in every direction, forcing the Indians from their hidingplaces, and cutting them down "as the Early in the year 1778, the general reaper did his corn." This decisive step government determined upon an offensive completely dispersed the enemy, and the policy, and sent a small force of reguweary and dispirited troops continued their lar troops, under the command of Genretreat unmolested. They lost nine killed, eral M'Intosh, for the further defence of and a few others were wounded. How the western frontier; and that officer many of the Indians were killed and wounded, was never ascertained by the Kentuckians. Thus resulted Bowman's invasion of Old Chillicothe.

Before the close of 1779, many families had removed from Virginia and North Carolina, to take up their abode in the wilds of Kentucky; and the population had increased to nearly 1,000, though they were scattered over an immense territory, and many of them two and three days' travel apart. Boonsborough had been the centre of attraction to the Indians, and Old Chillicothe village was their rallyingpoint.

There was no formidable invasion, in 1779, of Kentucky, because the Indian force had been required by the British commander at Detroit. The immediate west of Virginia had remained comparatively quiet, as the Indians were more anxious to expel the whites from the Kentucky country. Forts Pitt, Henry, Point Pleasant, and others were maintained, and afforded protection to the emigrants to the west; and by the close of 1779, the population in that part of the country had largely increased-so much so, in fact, that the Indians did not hazard an invasion during the latter year. In 1778, however, they made several small invasions-such as the attack on Donnally's fort, and a few others; but the efforts of

proceeded at once to invade the Indian domain west of the Ohio. He descended the river about thirty miles from Fort Pitt, with a body of regulars and militia, and constructed Fort M'Intosh, on the site of the present town of Beaver. The fort was made of the usual stockades, with woodenfaced bastions; and it was mounted with one 6-pounder. The station was well selected, and the fort was garrisoned with some excellent soldiers. The site was on one of the principal routes of the Indians from the north to the south side of the Ohio; and from the fort could be sent small detachments against the Indian villages not far distant from that place. In the autumn of that year, a campaign was ordered against the Sandusky town; and General M'Intosh started on the expedition with 1,000 men ; but the winter commenced very early, and compelled the general to go into winter quarters. Accordingly he erected a fort on the banks of the Tuscarawa, which he called Fort Laurens. It was soon found impracticable to procure provisions for the army; and, in order to economise and render more certain the provisioning of his soldiers, General M'Intosh returned to Fort Pitt with all his force, except 150 men, which were placed under the command of Colonel John Gibson. The Indians soon discovered the strength and condition

that he was in the presence of Indians; but when he told the whites at the station that the savages were approaching, and that they had called to him as he was passing, the old pioneers said immediately that it was a white man, because the red man never hails by name when lying in ambush. Guided by the negro, several of the men proceeded in search of the lost man, each having a pine-knot torch; and in a few moments they were standing by the side of the sad and mournful sight. Before them lay the skeleton of a companion, naked and blood-stained all over. The bushes and briars had torn every inch of the flesh upon his body; and although the wounds were not mortal, yet the worn-out and mangled man was almost beyond suffering. He was unable to bid them welcome. The men clasped their hands, forming a bier, and carried what remained of Crist to the station. The procession was one of most singular interest; slowly and silently they marched, guided in their pathway by the pine-knot torch. The stars of heaven aided with their glimmering lights to cheer the anxious moments of that solemn and mournful party!

growth along the river-banks. From the altitude attained, he was unable to discover his position. All around was a wilderness, thickly covered with trees, cane, vines, and briars. He was aiming for Bullitt's Lick, then some eight miles distant; but his progress was not half a mile an hour. He had eaten the sassafras root, and spice-wood bark, and by these alone sustained life, although they contained but little nourishment. He toiled all day, and made considerable progress; but at night he had little hope remaining that he would ever reach the settlement. Worn down with hunger, want of sleep, and suffering with pain, he laid himself down to die. After a little rest, and encouraged by the mere sight of the brilliant stars of the heavens, he made another effort, guided by their positions. Every rag that he could interpose between the rugged stones and his bleeding hands and knee (for he could now use but one) was worn away. The morning of the third day arrived, and with it came but little hope. He, however, resolved upon an increased effort during the day; and by the time the stars again appeared, he was within the vicinity of the Bullitt's Lick station. The salt-fires were but a short distance from him; and the song of the whites was within hearing. It seemed as though it was but within the sound of a whisper; but the brave and chivalrous Crist could go no further-nature had made its last effort, and he laid himself down upon the earth, and fervently prayed that death would speedily end his sufferings. From where he lay, the hundred fires of the salt-furnaces at the Licks could be seen; and though he was cold and wet with the night dew, yet the light of the glowing fire in the distance, seemed to give him at least an imaginary warmth and cheer. In the latter part of May, 1778, a party The station was then half a mile distant, of Indians stole twenty horses, near Colonel beyond the possibility of his reach. He Johnson's mill, situated in central Kenhad not eaten any bread or meat for four tucky. They were pursued by a small days; his wounded leg had become so body of whites; but the ever-watchful swollen and stiff, that he was compelled to savages successfully escaped. After the drag it after him; the flesh was worn from Indians had proceeded about twenty miles his knee and the palms of his hands! they came to a halt, to afford an opporWhile thus lying upon the earth, a man tunity for the horses to graze upon some on a horse came near to him, when Crist grass found adjacent to a skirt of woods, hallooed for assistance; but instead of the with thick undergrowth and cane. While man's stopping, he hurried on the faster thus waiting, the whites suddenly came to the Licks. He was a negro, and he upon them; and before the Indians could | hastened to the station under the belief get to their rifles, the Kentuckians were in the course of the stream can be traced, for many miles, by the white bark of these trees.

The sycamore trees grow to great heights along the banks of the streams. From elevated positions,

The woman who had been left in the boat was carried a prisoner to Canada, and placed in the possession of the British. She was properly treated, considering her sex; and, after a few years' imprisonment, was redeemed, and restored to her Kentucky friends. She reported that there had been over 120 Indians in the battle against the twelve men in the boat. About thirty of the savages were killed, and about the same number wounded. Ten of the whites were killed, or died of their wounds near the spot. Such were the incidents of the battle of Salt River.

their midst, ready to slaughter the whole of them; but while the savages were unarmed, and wholly in their power, one of the chiefs engaged the attention of the whites by continuing to yell, scream, and jump-first flying to one tree, then to another, and exhibiting the most frantic attitudes. This most extraordinary effort so engrossed the attention of the whites, that they did not even fire a gun; and, in the meantime, all the other Indians scattered, and made their escape. After all the others had got beyond rifle-range, the apparently frantic chieftain discontinued his performance, and hurriedly dodged from tree to tree, until he was beyond the reach of the whites. The enchantment served the purpose, and the Kentuckians confessed that it was a very novel trick, and a successful delusion.* About the same time, the Indians stole some horses from a farm on the north Elkhorn, and were pursued by a company of whites, commanded by Captain Henderson. They followed the Indians' trail, and, in a few hours, overtook them. In the skirmish which ensued, two of the savages were killed, and one wounded; but all the others escaped. The Indian bodies were left upon the spot, and the whites returned to their homes without injury, and with their horses.

The mort prominent leaders of the Kentuckians, during the year 1778, were Clark, Boone, and Kenton. Clark's operations against the British were conducted in the Illinois country. Boone confined his efforts to the district of Boonsborough until the policy of an offensive warfare was determined upon. Kenton occupied himself in roving over the country, watching the movements of the Indians; and was ever ready to embark on expeditions against the red men. In June, he went with Clark to the Illinois country, and, after his return, he joined Boone in his offensive measures against Chillicothe. In the meantime the British officers at Detroit were successfully organising the Indians into bands of warriors, with directions to scatter themselves in squads of five, ten, twenty, or more, as circumstances required from time to time. These warriors were well armed, and provisioned for long and difficult journeys. Depôts were established at different places on the north bank of the Ohio river; and, besides, the Indian settlements, near to the river, were well • Marshal's History of Kentucky, vol. i, pp. 282,


supplied with ammunition for the invading warriors. At that time the Virginians made no effort to settle north of the Ohio, and therefore the red men felt perfectly secure the moment they had reached that side of the river on a retreat. They also knew that reinforcements could at any time readily be procured from their villages. The line of attack was from Fort Pitt to the mouth of Salt River, a distance of about 700 miles; and during the foliage season these savage warriors were scattered in small bodies over the country immediately south of the Ohio river, committing depredations of all kinds; such, for example, as the killing of people, burning of houses, destroying the corn, slaying the cattle, stealing the horses, fighting battles, and laying siege to the different stations.

Returning to the efforts of Daniel Boone, we have to relate a misfortune that befel that remarkable hero of the wilderness. The Indians had made repeated efforts to destroy Boonsborough, and in every case they signally failed. In order to effect this desirable end, the warriors adopted the policy of resting quiet for a few months, in order to habituate the whites to exposure. At this time (January, 1778), Boone and twenty-seven of his men were captured by 102 Indians, at the Lower Blue Licks, on the Licking river, whither they had gone to make salt for the garrison. Boone had gone into the woods to hunt game for his men at the salt-works; and, while thus engaged, he was surrounded by the Indians, and compelled to yield to the demand of his conquerors. They required him to surrender his force in Kentucky; and after he found out that their destination was Boonsborough, he managed to conduct them from place to place during a period of eight days, hoping that, in the meantime, the men at the salt-works would have returned to the station. He knew, that if the Indians went to Boonsborough, the fort would be destroyed, and all the people taken as prisoners, or killed. In this dilemma, he concluded that he had better surrender the men at the salt-works; to which place they proceeded, and, on reaching it, Boone made signs to the men not to make any resistance, but yield themselves prisoners of war. The news of this triumph was sent by runners to every Indian village, and "the Kentucky salt-makers" were conducted to the old Indian town, called Chillicothe, where they arrived on the 18th of

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