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an. 5, (4th September, 1797) that he informed the Directory of the correspondence of the Prince of Condé with Pichegru, which had been intercepted at the beginning of the campaign, in a packet to the Austrian general Kinglin, and which he had kept till this time, out of regard for his ancient benefactor, or rather waiting the issue of the dispute between the consuls and the directory; for on account of the first motive it cannot be supposed that he had waited for the moment, the most unfortunate for Pichegru, and at which he might bring triumphantly to the Directory all the means of his ruin. Being sent for to Paris immediately by those before whom he had been himself denounced, he wrote that before he could comply with their orders, he wished to be able to assure them of the tranquillity of the army, and that he must arrest a number of persons implicated in that correspondence which he reserved to prove his own innocence. He sent them at the same time a copy of one of his proclamations, the effect of which he said had been to convert many of the incredulous with repect to Pichegru, whom he had long ceased to esteem. He wrote also in the same strain to Barthelemy, not recollecting that this director would be enveloped in the ruin of Pichegru. Nevertheless whether he had changed his opinion as to that general, or (which accords more with his character) that he imagined this inculpation would produce nothing, and would save himself from the hatred of i. victorious party, it is no less certain, that this proceeding injured him in the eyes of the greater number, without which he would otherwise have had great merit, in the eyes of a discerning Directory, i. of its authority, and much inclined to set themselves at defiance of the military, and to make them feel the weight of dependence. Little notice was taken, however, of this tardy denunciation, and he was obliged to retract. If the government had employed him in consequence, it was not because it believed in his sincerity, but because it had need of his talents, and always calculated on making him obey it, more on account of his own weakness, than his sense of duty. In September, 1798, he obtained the rank of inspector-general, and in April, 1799, the Directory called him to the Military Council, formed near the seat of government, to develope and prepare military plans and operations. At the commencement of the campaign in Italy, he repaired to the army commanded by Scherer, and was witness to the defeat at Verona, which his counsels could neither prevent nor repair. Scherer, covered with shame, and unwilling to command or fight, threw upon Moreau the care of providing for the safety of the army; he, in a council of war had previously advised, to retire towards Peidmont, avoiding all serious encounters with an enemy who had acquired a decided superiority, and whose victorious movements were WQL. VIII. 3 F

directed by the furious Suwarrow. He began in consequence to execute his plan, and assembled the army on the Adda. Forced in this position, and thence to Cossano, he conducted his retreat in good order to the Tesin; he was then reduced to 25,000 men, and pursued by a victorious army of 80,000. He manoeuvered with great precision, to post his right on the Appenines, and to afford a rallying point to Macdonald, who was then hastening from the bosom of Italy, and endeavouring to secure * junction with the main army. Moreau then formed a sort of intrenched camp behind the Po, and the Tanarus, and between Alexandria and Valence. On the 11th of May he fought 12,000 Russians near Bassignano, and passed the Bormida, but being assailed by the whole force of Suwarrow, he evacuated Valence and Alexandria, retired to Corri, and took his position on the Colde feude. After having caused a division to file off to the right, Moreau, in order to strengthen his force with the army of Macdonald, penetrated in the country of Geneva by the Appenines, the heights and passages of which, he possessed. These movements appeared at that time to have no other object, but to place himself within the reach of succours from France, by the river Génes; but their ulterior object was to take the offensive, after the junction with Macdonald, which had been certain had not the latter been beaten at Trebia. It was in vain that Moreau, to make a diversion in favour of Macdonald, sallied from Génes, and vanquished Bellegarde, who opposed him; in vain, that he beseiged Tortona, and drove the enemy even to Voghero; the triple victory over Suwarrow induced that general to unite his forces, and to oblige the French general to get under cover of the Appenines. In the month of August, Moreau was appointed commander in chief of the army of the Rhine; at the same time Joubert to the command of that of Italy. This young general, on the point of commencing his first battle, wished to submit the direction of it to Moreau, who refused it, and asked only to fight under his orders; he assisted him, therefore, with his counsels at the famous battle of Novi, in which Joubert was killed, and he himself exposed to the greatest dangers; he had three horses killed under him, received a ball, which wounded him in the shoulder; and at last effected his retreat in so masterly a stile, that he arrested, as it were, the victory even in the hands of the allies. After this battle, he quitted the army of Italy, having terminated a campaign, in which he had discovered, by the confession of all military judges, a genius which rendered him worthy of being placed in the very first rank of military renown, and which obtained him the title of the French Fabius. We cannot withhold from him the just tribute of admiration, when we observe with what art he defended, at the head of the scanty remains of a debilitated at pay, without magazines, and no hope of reinforcem leagues of ground, which all Europe supposed would cos more than the march of the army of the allies. His natu. racter, and perhaps also the pleasure of distressing a gover, it which he despised, rendered him, in the November of this year, one of the instigators of the revolution of St. Cloud. It is also said that he expressed sentiments of disapprobation at the event of that affair. Nevertheless, he was named, almost at the same time, commander of the armies of the Danube, and of the Rhine, and went to complete by a new campaign, that fabric of military glory of which he had already laid so brilliant a foundation. The manner in which, in the year 1800, he led on general Kray, as if to engage him in the valleys which descend towards Brisgau, whilst he effected his real purpose in passing the Rhine at Stein; the art with which he obliged him, by manoeuvring, to abandon Lech to him, even to the environs of Ulm, &c. and lastly his hardy passage of the Danube, reflected on him more honour than all his other splendid victories over that general. On the 27th of April he passed the Rhine at Bale; met with the enemy at Maeskirch, and defeated them there and at Engen, where he took 10,000 prisoners. In the first affair he exposed himself as much as one of his own grenadiers, had four horses killed under him, and received a spent dead ball in his breast; he possessed himself of Memmingen; again beat the Austrians at Biberach on the 9th of May; passed the Danube on the 22d of June, by an evolution equally skilful and courageous, and afterwards gained the battles of Hochstadt, of Negersheim, Nortlingen, and Oberhausen. After many fruitless negociations, he announced to his army the duplicity of the cabinet of Vienna, and conducted them to the fields of Hohenlinden, to gather fresh laurels. On the 3d of December, 1800, he gave battle to the Austrian army, commanded by general Laver; a bloody and decisive battle ; in which there was not a single French corps which did not cover itself with glory. The enemy's loss was 20 field pieces, 200 covered waggons, 10,000 prisoners (of whom three were generals) and an incalculable number of slain; in his report, the French general estimates his loss at only 1000 men. After this victory, the Austrian army, in disorder, could no longer hinder Moreau from penetrating to Vienna. It was in vain, that the archduke Charles, who by court intrigue had been prevented from taking any part in the late military events, was placed at the head of the Austrian army, by the wishes even of those who had hitherto most sedulously kept him from it. This prince saw no means of safety for the Austrian monarchy, but a peace, and he entered into negociations with general Moreau, who suspended the march of his army, and returned shortly after to Paris, where he received flattering testimonies of the public admiration. The first consul himself, presented to him a magnificent pair of pistols, saying, “that he wished to have had all his victories engraven on them, but had not found room!” From this time Moreau retired to his place of Grosbois, which he had bought from Barras, and where he passed the greater part of his time, coming rarely to Paris, and seeing but few of the chief persons of the government. He even made a sort of affectation of retiring from it, and it was long since known to all the world, that he blamed every thing that was done since the 9th of November 1799. He circulated many satirical tracts against the first consul, which were winked at. In 1802, the police arrested at Calais a certain Abbé David, suspected of having been sent by him to Pichegru, then in England. This man being carried to prison, confessed that “he really thought it his duty to endeavour to reconcile these two old friends !” The police from this time, regarded Moreau with the most watchful scrutiny, and was not backward in getting information that he had many interviews with Pichegru, who came secretly to Paris, and even with Georges. Being arrested almost immediately, the government discovered all the threads, the outline of a vast conspiracy against the person of the first consul, in which Moreau had never consented to participate but with the restrictions and hesitations, which always characterized him. He was sincerely desirous, according to official reports, to assist in overthrowing the consular government, nor did he wish for the monarchy of the Bourbons, but a representative republic. Brought with the other conspirators before the crimio nal tribunal, Moreau was defended, as well by the eloquence of Bonnet, his advocate, as the public opinion, and the generous denials of the other accused. He was, nevertheless, condemned on the 10th of June, 1804, to two years imprisonment, which was immediately converted to banishment. He set out for Spain, escorted by four gens d'armes, and arrived at Cadiz at the time of an epidemic, with which that city was afflicted, at the commencement of 1805. He then proceeded to the United States with his lady, who would not quit him for a moment. The Parisian jourmals announced, at the commencement of 1806, that they were settled in the vicinity of Baltimore, where they had purchased a country seat. His effects in France were sold by Madame Hulot, his mother-in-law, who transferred him the proceeds, retaining a sufficiency to pay the expenses of the criminal procedure in which he was condemned. It may be seen by what we have said, that Moreau is a great warrior; but on examining his political conduct, we find neither energy nor grandeur. He has sometimes sacrificed his friends to his own pusillanimity; little skilled in the knowledge of men, or of the revolution which he had entered into ; without ambition, and not without jealousy, he has often committed great political faults; and he drew upon himself at least by his own imprudence, the exile to which he has been condemned.



FROM THE Annual, Re Grster,


EFrom a paper of Sir Joseph Banks. Bart., &c. &c. inserted in the Communications to the Board of Agriculture.]

A CONSIDERABLE part of Estremadura, Leon, and the neighbouring provinces of Spain is appropriated to the maintenance of the Merino flocks, called by the Spaniards Trashumantes, as are also broad green roads, leading from one province to the other, and extensive resting-places, where the sheep are baited on the road. So careful is the police of the country to preserve them during their journies from all hazard of disturbance or interruption, that no person, not even a foot passenger, is suffered to travel upon these roads while the sheep are in motion, unless he belongs to the flocks. The country on which the sheep are depastured, both in the southern and the northern parts, is set out into divisions, separated from each other by land-marks only, without any kind offences; each of these is called a Dehesa, and is of a size capable of maintaining a flock of about a thousand sheep; a greater number, of course, in the south country, where the lambs are reared, and fewer in the north country, where the sheep arrive after the flock has been culled. Every proprietor must possess as much of these in each province as will maintain his flock. In the temperate season of winter and spring, the flocks remain in Estremadura, and there the ewes bring forth their lambs in December. As soon as the increasing heats of April and May, have scorched up the grass, and rendered the pasturage scanty, they commence their march towards the mountains of Leon; and, after having been shorn on the road, at vast establishments, called Esquileos, erected for that purpose, pass their summer in the elevated country which supplies them with abundance of rich grass; and they do not leave o: mountains till the frosts of September begin to damage the erbage. A flock in the aggregate is called a cavana: this is divided in

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