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towers. When these towers were finished, Godfrey placed his on the east side of the town; and the Count de St. Gilles erected one exactly like it to the south. These arrangements being made, on the fifth day of the week, the crusaders fasted, and distributed alms among the poor. On the sixth day, which was the 12th of July, the sun rose with brilliancy; the towers were manned with chosen troops, who threw up ladders against the walls of Jerusalem. The bastard inhabitants of the Holy City were filled with consternation,” when they found themselves besieged by so vast a multitude. But as they were on all sides threatened with their last hour, as death impended over their heads; certain of falling, they thought only how to sell the rest of their lives as dearly as possible. Meanwhile, Godfrey posted himself at the top of his tower, not as a foot-soldier, but as an archer. The Lord guided his hand in the combat, and all the arrows discharged by him pierced the enemy through and through. Near this warrior were two brothers, Baldwin and Eustace, like two lions beside another lion: they received terrible blows from stones and darts, which they returned to the foe with usury.
“While they were thus engaged on the walls of the city, a procession was made round those same walls with the crosses, relics, and sacred altars.f The victory remained uncertain during part of the day; but at the hour when the Saviour of the world gave up the ghost, a warrior named Letolde, who fought in Godfrey's tower, leaped the first upon the ramparts of the city. He was followed by Guicher—that Guicher who had vanquished a lion; Godfrey was the third, and all the other knights rushed on after their chief. Throwing aside their bows and arrows, they now drew their swords. At this sight the enemy abandoned the walls, and ran down into the city, whither the soldiers of Christ with loud shouts pursued them. w
“The Count de St. Gilles, who on his part was endeavouring to bring up his machines, to the walls, heard the clamour. “Why, said he to his men, “do we linger here? The French are masters of Jerusalem; they are making it resound with their voices and their blows.’ Quickly advancing to the gate near the castle of David, he called to those who were in the castle, and summoned them to surrender. As soon as the emir knew that it was the Count de St. Gilles, he opened the gate, and committed himself to the faith of that venerable warrior.
* Stupent et contremiscunt adulterini cives urbis eximie. The expression is not less beautiful than true; for the Saracens were not only, as foreigners, the bastard citizens, the illegitimate children of Jerusalem, but they might likewise be termed adulterini, on account of their mother Hagar, and in reference to the legitimate posterity of Abraham by Sarah
f Sacra altaria. This would seem to be applicable only to a pagan ceremomy; but it is brobable that the Christians had portable altars in their camp.
• But Godfrey, with the French, was resolved to avenge the Christian blood spilt by the infidels in Jerusalem, and to punish them for the railleries and outrages to which they had subjected the pilgrims. Never had he in any conflict appeared so terrible, not even when he encountered the giant on the bridge of Antioch. Guicher, and several thousands of chosen warriors, cut the Saracens in two from the head to the waist, or severed their bodies in the middle.—None of our soldiers shewed timidity, for they met with no opposition. The enemy sought only to escape; but to them flight was impossible; they rushed along in such crowds, that they embarrassed one another. The small number of those who contrived to escape, took refuge in Solomon's Temple, and there defended themselves a considerable time. At dusk our soldiers gained possession of the temple, and in their rage put to death all whom they found there.—Such was the carnage, that the mutilated carcases were hurried by the torrents of blood into the court; dissevered arms and hands floated in the current, that carried them to be united to bodies to which they had never belonged.”
In concluding the description of the places celebrated by Tasso, I feel happy in having had an opportunity of being the first to pay to an immortal poet the same honour which others before me had rendered to Homer and Virgil. Whoever has a relish for beauty, the art, the interest of a poetic composition; for richness of detail, for truth of character, for generosity of sentiment, should make the Jerusalem Delivered his favourite study. It is in a particular manner the poem of the soldier: it breathes valour and glory, and, as I have elsewhere observed, it seems to have been written upon a buckler in the midst of camps.
pro M the SAME, NEGLECTED BIOGRAPHY.
“Full many a gem of purest ray serene,
A CELEBRATED German poet, who, born without fortune, had the happiness to meet with princes who justly appreciated his talents; the favours of the king of Denmark, and the margrave of Baden, enabled him to live independently, and to devote himself to the impulse of his poetic genius. In 1792, Klopstock received from the legislative assembly the title of a French citizen; but in consequence of the turn which the affairs of France shortly after took, he solemnly refused it, and the following is an extract from his letter to the convention. “ Moderators of the French empire! I send back to you with abhorrence those titles, of which I was so proud as long as I could believe that they made me one of a society of brothers and friends to humanity. Alas! the illusion has vanished too soon, and the most afflicting reality has put an end to a deceitful dream. Why have you deceived me? Were then your rights of man only a snare, into which you strove to lead the French, that you might assassinate them the more easily? Learn, that the excess of your barbarity and of your crimes, has placed an eternal barrier between you and the inhabitants of happy Germany. The tragic adventures which stain your bloody annals, are related to them and they fly in terror. There is nothing in common between you and us, and you have broken for ever the last bonds which united us. Frenchmen! I turn my eyes with horror from that impious troop, which is itself guilty of assassination, by quietly suffering such crimes to be committed in its sight. In horror I turn from that execrable tribunal, which slays not only the victim of the people, but him who is pardoned by them.” Since that time Klopstock has been made a member of the National Institute of France, and in 1792 had an interview with the celebrated Delille, from which they departed mutually pleased. He died at Hamburgh on the 14th of March, 1803, at the age of 80, but age to him had been a season of happiness, for he had passed it in easy circumstances, in the midst of a family who adored, and friends who esteemed him for his endearing qualities, his sweet and easy temper, and his immoveable serenity of soul. Pompous funeral honours were decreed him in Hamburgh.
A Polish general, of a noble but not affluent family, was brought up at the military academy of Warsaw, and rapidly improved in mathematics and drawing; he was in consequence appointed one of the four pupils who were to travel into foreign countries for the purpose of perfecting their acquirements. The establishment defrayed the expense of his journey to France, where he resided some years, paying undeviating attention to those studies which are connected with the art of war, and immediately on his return to Poland obtained a company. In consequence of an unhappy passion, he resolved to quit his country, and go and serve in America, where he became adjutant to Washington, gained by his valour and talents the esteem of the army; the encomiums of those French officers who served among the insurgents; the commendations of doctor Franklin, and the cross of Cincinnatus.After this war he returned to his own country, where he lived in complete retirement till 1789, when he was promoted to the rank of major-general by the diet, which from 1788 to 1791, kept making some vain efforts to restrain the power of foreigners in Poland. At this period, 1791, he enjoyed only a moderate share of military reputation, for which he was indebted to his conduct in America, but he had no influence, and even in 1792 served only in a secondary rank. Under the younger Poniatowski, who was appointed to head the troops directed to oppose the forces sent by Russia into Poland, to overturn the constitution of May the 3d, 1791, he served as general of division, and displaying great talent and courage during the whole campaign, acquired the esteem of the officers, and the confidence of the soldiery, and finally excited a species of enthusiasm in the army by the manner in which he behaved at Dubienka. But the weakness of Stanislaus, who soon submitted to the terms prosposed by Russia, rendered his zeal useless. He was one of the seventeen officers who resigned as soon as this pacification was signed, and soon after he found himself under the necessity of leaving his country, which yet more contributed to increase his consequence with the patriotic party, and the legislative assembly of France conferred on him the title of a French citizen. When, in 1793, the army and people of Poland, impatient of the Russian yoke, strove to break it, every eye turned towards Leipzig, whither he had retired, and after several nocturnal conferences had been held at Warsaw, under the very eyes of M. d’Igelström, the Russian governor, it was resolved to choose Kosciusko as leader, and in the beginning of September two emissaries were sent to him. He then communicated the proposals which were made him to the other Polish emigrants, particularly Ignatius Potocki and Kolontay; and though the means offered appeared inadequate, he hastened to the frontier with Zajonczeck, whom he sent on to Warsaw to sound the public mind, to stir up the people, and above all, to restrain the leaders, who wanted to declare themselves too soon. However, his return to the frontier had been openly reported, and fearing to endanger the success of the conspiracy, he hastened towards Italy, leaving to Zajonczeck the charge of continuing the secret negotiations, and above all, of gaining the people, by every where announcing a popular revolution.
The insurgents of Warsaw, who dreaded a discovery, and still more the officers, whose regiments were gradually thinned by the Russians, and who every moment apprehended they might be disbanded, pressed him to return, and he approached Poland in. February, 1794. Madalinski, who was desired to disband his regiment, having first raised the standard of revolt, Kosciusko immediately made his way into the palatinate of Cracou, where he arrived just as the Polish garrison had driven away the Russian troops. On the 24th of March, the citizens drew up and signed the act of insurrection, in which Kosciusko was declared supreme head of the national force, and director of political and civil affairs, setting no other limit to his power than his virtues; Kosciusko, whose moderation was well known, did not betray the confidence of his countrymen, and no one reproached him with having made a bad use of his power. On being informed, ten days after, that 12,000 Russians were advancing rapidly against him, he marched out of Cracou at the head of 4000 men, the greater part of whom were armed only with scythes and pikes, and without artillery, and engaged them at Wracklavits: the battle lasted four hours, the Russians were beaten and lost 3000 men and twelve pieces of ordnance, while a body of peasants with scythes seized on a battery. After this victory he passed a month in prevailing on the rest of the province to rise, and, having increased his army to 9000 men, he again began his march on the 5th of May; on the 10th was informed of the insurrection of Warsaw, and different parts of the army events, which the Russians had prevented him from learning sooner, by cutting off the communications, and in a few days succeeded in driving the enemy completely out of the palatinate. Sandomir having sent him some recruits, he did not carry on his operations till joined by general Grochowski, who soon brought him a reinforcement. His army then consisting of 15,000 men, he pursued the Russians, sent troops into Wolhinie, and busied himself in organizing the government at Warsaw. The report of the Polish insurrection brought Frederick William, at the head of 40,000 men, to check it, yet Kosciusko, who had only 12,000, and even those not completely armed, had the daring to attack him at Szczekociny, on the 8th of June; but after an obstinate resistance, in which two horses were killed under him, he was beaten, and compelled to retire to an entrenched camp which covered Warsaw, while the Prussians, taking advantage of their success, seized Cracou. The news of this loss transported the people of Warsaw with rage, and some malecontents stirring up the populace, gibbets were, on the 28th of June, raised in the streets, the prisons were forced, and some of the prisoners who were accused of communication with the enemies of the state, were murdered, but Kosciusko, disdaining to imitate the guilty weakness of the French government with regard to the assassins of September, in an energetic proclamation expressed the indignation he felt at such atrocities, and made the authors of the plot expiate their crime