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a charge made by nearly 500 cossacks upon 100 dragoons. These latter retreated at full gallop, and occasioned a great cloud of dust, which was increased by the pursuit of the cossacks. One frightened fellow cried out, “there is the whole of the Russian cavalry upon us ;” no more was necessary to decide the gaining of this battle, so famous, but till now little known in its true point of view. Macdonald has been unjustly reproached with having wished to gain a battle without Moreau's participation. It was only in conformity with the orders, or at least the positive advice of that general, that he determined to march upon the rear of the left wing of the Austro-Russian army. He was so zealous in complying with the intentions of Moreau, that he had the weakness to change his own plan of attack to adopt that of Victor, who told him he had it from the general in chief: this condescension caused the loss of every thing. A diversion on the part of Moreau was relied on, and it was that which determined Macdonald to desist from his former resolution, which was to proceed by forced marches to Voghera by way of Placentia, he could have got there by the 17th of June, he would have destroyed the Austrians upon the Trebia, or at least have forced them to pass upon the left bank of the Po. Suwarrow with his 25 thousand Russians would not have been able to arrest the march of the army of Naples, composed of choice troops who had made the campaigns of Italy with Bonoparte, and dispersed in one month the sixty thousand Neapolitans commanded by Mac; the Austrians should first have been fought with, and then the Russians. The slowness of the movements of the French army, and some other circumstances which time alone can properly elucidate, forced Macdonald to retreat towards Tuscany, after having lost in killed, wounded, and prisoners, about ten thousand men. The Italian General Lahoz having separated from the French to join the insurgents, whose numbers and audacity increased daily, Macdonald determined upon evacuating Tuscany and rejoining Moreau at Genoa; this movement was made in good order. After this junction Macdonald obtained leave to return to France, for the purpose of re-establishing his health, which was considerably affected by his wounds and the fatigues inseparable from so toilsome a campaign, which had lasted for nearly a year. He was at Paris at the event of the 18th Brumaire, and was intrusted by Bonaparte with the command of Versailles: he showed on that post more firmness than at the end of the campaign of Italy; he caused the club of Versailles to be shut up, and made the inhabitants sensibly feel that it was high time that a just and energetic government should obliterate the horrors of anarchy and the fatal vacillation of the weak directory.

Bonaparte, thinking to testify his satisfaction to Macdonald, offered him, in April 1800, the command of one of the corps of the army of reserve, destined to reconquer Italy, under the orders of Berthier. Macdonald, piqued at seeing himself exposed to serve as a subordinate after having commanded in chief, pretended illness from his wounds in the army of Naples. Notwithstanding this refusal, the true motive of which did not escape the penetration of the crafty Bonaparte, Macdonald was nominated, on the 24th of August, 1800, general in chief of the army destined to penetrate into the Tyrol, through Switzerland, to second the operations of the army in Italy, and favour the movements of the army of Moreau in Germany, by forcing the Austrians to keep up in the Tyrol from 25 to 30,000 men of their best troops. This campaign consisted of very fatiguing marches in the Alps, in the depth of winter. The French army was about 15,000 strong. General Matthew Dumas, more expert in writing about war than carrying it on, was chief of the staff. After having combatted more with the difficulties of the roads than with the Austrians, who made but a weak resistance, Macdonald possessed himself of Trent the 7th of January, 1801. The armistice concluded at Treviso, the 16th of the same month, put an end to hostilities.

Returned to France, Macdonald was no doubt displeasing to Bonaparte, from his intimate connexion with Moreau: he was honourably exiled by being appointed for the embassy to the court of Denmark; he experienced so many disagreeables in that capacity, that he was continually soliciting his recall, which was at length granted him in 1803. Notwithstanding his assiduities at the Thuileries, he was always coldly received. He appeared to be one of the most eager of the generals for the nomination of Bonaparte as emperor: nevertheless thus suffered his ambition to get the better of the pride, which his conduct till now without reproach, ought to have inspired him with, he was not included in the list of marshals of the empire; he remained unemployed till 1809. He obtained at last orders to serve under the command of Prince Eugene Beauharnois in the army of Italy; he then commanded the right wing of this army, and was considered as the mentor of Eugene. The success obtained at Laybach and at Raab were the results of Macdonald's combinations. The 6th of July, 1809, at the battle of Wagram, he was charged with the attack of the centre of the Austrian army: he lost in killed and wounded about three fourths of his column, but he succeeded in making the Archduke Charles fall back; his conduct obtained him a marshal's staff which was given him upon the field of battle. Some time afterwards he was named Duke of Tarento.

The faint attacks of Augereau in Catalonia, determined Bona.

parte to give him, Macdonald, for a successor. Gouvion St. Cyr, an officer of great merit, had been recalled from this command in a manner little flattering to him. The surprisal of Figueras by the Catalans, which at first was considered as a triumph for the noble cause of the brave Spaniards, has been found, by the fatality of events, to have been only a snare in which 4000 choice men, the very soul of the insurrection in Catalonia, have unhappily been taken; so that since the 19th of August, the period that Figueras opened its gates to Macdonald, this rich province appears, in despite of the energy of its inhabitants, to be subjugated to the yoke of the French. Notwithstanding this brilliant result, Macdonald appears to have been recalled from this command. I cannot find out the reason, but in the tone the general assumes in the account he renders of the capitulation of Figueras —“I please myself,” says Macdonald, in his report to Berthier, “in rendering justice to the army, in the hope that the emperor will view with the eye of favour these brave fellows, intreating your excellency to cause it to be remarked to his majesty, that his army of Catalonia is a stranger to the event which has reunited it in this place,” &c. How happensit that Macdonald, who does not want for good sense, should have allowed himself such awkward observations? It would have been easy for him to have convinced himself, long ago, that Bonaparte detests any one who should think proper to take upon himself the language of a momitor, or the part of Phormion or Ephesus, who discussed the science of war in the presence of Hannibal.

The Duke of Tarento is of a good size, of a slender make, but robust, pale-faced, with eyes full of fire ; his smile sardonic, his gait is military, his manners very polished. I believe him to be a sincere friend. Although he showed a weakness of character in the council of war, which occasioned the loss of the battle of Trebia, we cannot refuse to allow him the firmness necessary to a good general: he paid dear for this complaisance, since he lost the only pitched battle in which he commanded in chief. This fault will have served as a useful lesson to him to hold firm to his opinion, and to shew off those talents to the best advantage with which nature has gifted him. The numerous combats which he has sustained and given in Germany and Italy, and almost always with success, incontestibly place him amongst the generals of the second rank: his cringing conduct to obtain employment does him little honour. He experiences at this time what we see happen every day in society, as a consequence of the strange caprices of men, who appear to increase in coldness in proportion to the anxiety with which respectable women endeavour to captivate husbands, equally despicable for their most ridiculous jealousy and the most insupportable tyranny.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Culture of Potatoes.—From Mr. Murray, overseer of a party of sealers, who landed in Fouveaux’s Straits, October 7, 1809, and arrived at Sydney, August 20, 1810; we learn that his party, with two others, one left in Molyneaux's Straits, the other on the South Cape of New Zealand, had been reduced to great distress for want of food, the vessels they depended on for a supply, not having arrived.

From his long stay in Fouveaux's Straits, Mr. Murray became tolerably conversant in the native language, which he describes as totally different from that of the Bay of Islands, although the people of both places dress much alike, and are nearly similar in their manners. There were two small towns on that part of the coast upon which his gang was stationed, each of which contained between twenty and thirty houses, each house containing twenty families. These houses are built with posts, lined with reeds, and thatched with grass. They grow some potatoes, which, with their nuts, they barter with the sailors for any articles they chose to give in exchange; preferring iron or edged tools, none of which they had ever before had in their possession. Those on the sea-coast live chiefly upon fish; their canoes are very inferior to those of the Bay of Islands, not exceeding 18 inches in breadth; but from 14 to 16 feet in length, which want of proportion renders it unsafe to venture out any distance without lashing two of these vehicles together, to keep them from up-setting. Their offensive weapons are stone axes of an immoderate size and weight, and large spears from 12 to 14 feet in length, which they do not throw; and as an unquestionable evidence of barbarity, Mr. M. affirms, that when two factions take the field, their women are ranked in front of either line, in which posture they attack and defend, the men levelling their weapons at each other of the heads of the unfortunate females, who rend the air with shrieks and lamentations while the conflict lasts, and frequently leave more dead upon the field than do their savage masters. The vanquishers devour the bodies of their fallen enemies, and bury their own dead; and like the Gentoos, the women sollow their husbands to the shades below. To their king or principal chies, whom they call the Pararoy, they pay profound respect; and such was there deference to superior rank, that no civilities were paid to any of Mr. Murray's people, unless he were present; and he also was honoured with the rank and title of a Pararoy.

Slaves Emancifuted.—The island of Goree, off the African coast, now contains 2000 blacks, who have been rescued from slave-ships by our cruizers. A plan has been lately devised for recruiting the West

India regiments from them; and some officers are about to be sent out to carry it into effect.

Prodigious Tiger.—The Madras journals mention, that one of the largest Tigers ever seen in that part of the world, was killed at Saukerry Droog, by Captain Moore and Lieutenants Birch and Nellthropp. In the course of a few months, it had destroyed a hundred head of cattle, &c. besides four children. Sixteen balls were lodged in its

body before it fell; it measured from head to tail 14 feet, and was 43 inches in height.

Persia.—Country surveyed : Panoramic Views.-Mr. Price a gentleman attached to the Persian embassy, has made drawings on the spot, of every town, village, castle, ruin, mountain of note, &c. during the whole of his route from the Persian Gulf to Tehran, the Persian capital. He has made panoramic views of Shiras, Persepolis, Isphahan, Kashan, Kom, and Tehran; giving the costumes of the people, &c. so that on his return to England the public may expect to be gratified with the fruits of his labour through this extensive and interesting tract of country, hitherto so little known in Europe.

Turkey.—Weehabees victorious-Constantinople, April 1. Letters from Smyrna confirm the news of the defeat of Jussuf Pacha, by the Weehabees. He lost near Medina some thousands of men, and retired in disorder to the banks of the Red Sea, where he is waiting for reinforcements.

Mahometan Pilgrimage terminated in a British Shih-The Druid frigate, Captain Searle, has sailed from Alexandria for Tangiers, conveying to the latter place the emperor of Morocco's son, who has performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.

Selling a Wife.—A well dressed woman was lately sold in Smithfield, with a halter round her neck, to a decent looking man, who gave eight shillings for the Lady, and paid the salesman seven shillings. An immense crowd witnessed the scene. The woman declared it was the happiest moment of her life: and the purchaser said that he would not take ten pounds for his bargain '

Daniel Redesh sold his wife in Sheffield market-place lately, for

sixfience, and actually delivered her to the purchaser in a halter, which cost minefience.

Bibliomania.-At no time did the Bibliomania rage with more violence than at present. At the Duke of Roxburghe's sale, a collection of two-penny portraits of criminals, and other remarkable characters, chiefly of persons tried at the Old Bailey, sold for 941. 10s.-The Boke of Saint Albans, printed 1486, 1471.-The Mirrour of the World, Caxton, 1480, 3511. 15s.-The Kalmdayr of the Shippers, 1503, 1801. —The last little volume was bought for the Duke by Mr. Nichol for two guineas.

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