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Of ike .most remarkable elevations measured in the inferior of New Spaix.

The work published with the title of10Nivellement barometriquejait dans.les Regions Equinoxiales duNouveau
Continent, in 10799—1003, contains more than two hundred points in the interior of New Spain, of which I
determined the elevation above the level of the sea, either by the barometer, or by trigonometrical methods.
We have merely inserted in the.following table the absolute heights of the most remarkable mountains and
cities. The points marked with an asterisk are doubtful. My Recueil d'observations astronomiques et de me-
sures barometriques, edited by M. Oltmanns, may also be consulted, (vol. I. pages 118 to 110.)

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Names of places of observation.

Pazcuaro, city . . .

Charo, city • »•.,3

Villa de Islahuaca, in the intendancy of Valladolid

San Juan del Rio, town

Queretaro, city \

Celaya, city • • . . .

Salamanca, city .

Guanaxuato, city ....

Mine de la Valenciana

Durango, city . . .

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END OF GEOGRAPHICAL INTRODUCTION,

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POLITICAL ESSAY

ON THE

KINGDOM OF NEW SPAIN,

I Arrived at Mexico by the South Sea in March 1803, and resided a year in that vast kingdom. I had recently visited the province of Caraccas, the banks of the Oronooko, the Rio Negro, New Granada, Quito, and the coast of Peru; and I could not avoid being struck with the contrast between the civilisation of New Spain, and the scanty cultivation of those parts of South America •tvhich had fallen under my notice. This contrast excited me to a particular study of the statisticks of Mexico, and to an investigation of the causes -which have had the greatest influence on the pro• gress of the population and national industry.

My situation offered me every means for attaining this end. No printed work could furnish nfe

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