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say that the three great divisions of Europe are Spain, Languedoc, Catalonia, and the territories of Cadiz and Bordeaux.

Before the introduction of the new administration by Count Don Jose de Galvez, minister of the Indies, New Spain contained, 1, El Reyno de Mexico; 2, EI Reyno de Nueva Galicia; 3, El Nuevo Reyno de Leon; 4, la colonia del Nuevo Santander; 5, la provincia de Texas; 6, la provincia de Cohahuila ;*7, la provincia de Nueva Biscaya; 8, la provincia de la Sonora; 9, la provincia de Nuevo Mexico; and 10, Ambas Californias,or lasprovinciasde laViejayNuevaCali, fornia. These old divisions are still very frequently used in the country. The limits which separate la Nueva Galicia from el Reyno de Mexico, to which a part of the old kingdom of Mechoacan belongs, are also the line of demarcation between the jurisdiction of the two audiences of Mexico and Guadalaxara. This line, which I was not able to trace on my general map, does not exactly follow the contours of the new inteodancies.t i It begins on the coast of the gulf of Mexico, ten leagues to the north of the Rio de Panuco and the city of Altamira near Bara Ciega, and runs through the intendancy of S. Luis Potosi to the mines of Potosi and Bernalejo; from thence passing along the southern extremity ofthe intendancy of Zacatecas, and the western limits of the intendancy of Guanaxuato, it traverses the intendancy of Guadalaxara between Zapotlan and Sayula, between Ayotitlan and the Ciudad de la Purificacion, to Guatlan, one of the ports of the South Sea. All north of this line belongs to the audiencia of Guadalaxara; and all south of it to the audiencia of Mexico.

In its present state New Spain is divided into twelve intendancies, to which we must add three other districts, very remote from the capital, which have preserved the simple denomination of provinces. These fifteen divisions are, I. UNDERTHE TEMPERATE ZONE, 82,000 leagues, with 677,000 souls, or eight inhabitants to the square league.

A. Region Of The North, an interior region.

1. Provincia de Nuevo Mexico, along the Rio del Norte to the north of the parallel of31°.

2. Intendencia de Naeva Biscaya, to the south-west of the Rio del Norte, on the central table-land which declines rapidly from Durango towards Chihuahua.

B. Region or The North-west, in the vicinity of the Great Ocean.

3. Provincia de la Nueva California, or north-west coast of North America possessed by the Spaniards.

4. Provincia de la Antigua California. Its southern extremity enters the torrid zone.

5. Intendencia de la Sonora. The most southern part of Cinaloa, in which the celebrated mines ofCopala and Rosario are situated, also passes the tropic of Cancer.

C. Region Of The North-east, adjoining the gulf of Mexico.

6. Intendencia de San Luis Potosí. It comprehends the provinces of Texas, la colonia de Nuevo Santander and Cohahuila, El Nuevo R,eyno de Leon, and the districts of Charcas, Altamira, Catorce, and Ramos. Theselastdistrictscomposetheintendancy of San Luis properly so called. The southern part, which extends to the south of the Barra de Santander and the Real de Catorce, belongs to the torrid zone.

II. UNDER THE TORRID ZONE, 36,500 square leagues, with 5,160,000 souls, or 141 inhabitants to the square league.


7. Intendencia de Zacatecas, excepting the part which extends to the north of the mines of Fresnillo.

8. Intendencia de Guadalaxara.

9. Intendencia de Guanajuato.

10. Intendencia de Valladolid.

11. Intendencia de Mexico.

12. Intendencia de la Puebla.

13. Intendencia de Vera Cruz.

E. Region Of The South-west.


14. Intendencia de Qaraca.

15. Intendencia de Merida.

The divisions in this table are founded on the physical state of the country. We see that nearly seven eighths of the inhabitants live under the torrid zone. The population becomes thinner as we advance towards Durango and Chihuahua. In this respect New Spain bears a striking analogy to Hindostan, which in its north parts is bounded by regions almost uncultivated and uninhabited. Of five millions who inhabit the equinoxial part of Mexico, four fifths live on the ridge of the Cordillera, or table-lands whose elevation above the level of the sea equals that of the passage of Mount Cenis.

New Spain, considering its provinces according to their commercial relations, or the situation of the coasts, is divided into three regions.

I. PROVINCES OF THE INTERIOR, which do not extend to the ocean.

1. Nuevo Mexico.

2. Nueva Biscaya.

3. Zacatecas.

4. Guanaxuato.

II. MARITIME PROVINCES oftheeastem coast opposite to Europe:

5. San Luis Potosi.

6. Vera Cruz.

7. Merida, or Yucatan.

III. MARITIME PROVINCES of the western coast opposite to Asia.

8. New California.

9. Old California.

10. Sonora.

11. Guadalaxara.

12. Valladolid.

13. Mexico.

14. Puebla.

15. Oaxaca.

These divisions will one day possess great political interest, when the cultivation of Mexico shall be less concentrated on the central table-land or ridge of the cordillera, and when the coasts shall become more populous. The maritime provinces of the west will send their vessels to Nootka, to China, and the East Indies. The Sandwich islands, inhabited by a ferocious, but industrious and enterprising people, appear more likely destined to receive Mexican than European colonists. They afford an important stage to the nations who carry on commerce in the Great Ocean. The inhabitants of New Spain and Peru have never yet been able to profit by their advantageous position on a coast opposite Asia and New Holland. They do not even know the productions of the South Sea islands. The breadfruit tree and sugar-cane of Otaheite, that precious reed, the cultivation of which has had such a happy influence on West India commerce.

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