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datum is interesting for geographers, who in remote regions must avail themselves of simple itineraries. It is evident that the people shorten the leagues as the road becomes more difficult. However, under equal circumstances we may have some confidence in the judgments formed by the muleteers of comparative distances; they may not know whether their beasts of burden go two or three thousand metres * in the space of an hour, but they learn from long habit if one distance be the third or fourth or the double of another.
The Mexican muleteers estimate the road from Acapulco to Mexico at 110 leagues. They reckon from Acapulco to the Passo d'Aguacatillo, four leagues; el Limon, three leagues; los dos Aroyos, five; Alto de Camarón, four; la Guaritadelosdos Caminos, three; la Moxonera, one-half; Quaxiniquilapa, two and a half; Acaguisotla, four; Masatlan, four; Chilpansingo, four; Sampango, three; Sapilote, four; Venta Vieja, four; Mescala, four; Estola, five; Palula, one and a half; la tranca del Conexo, one and a half; Cuagolotal, one; /Tuspa, or Pueblo nuevo, four; los Amates, three; Tepetlalapa, five; Puente de Istia, four; Alpuyeco, six; Xuchitepeque* two; Cue?-navaca, two; S. Maria, three-fourths; Guchilaque, two and a half: Sacapisca, two; la Cruz del Marques, two; el Guarda, two; Axusco, two; San Augustin de las Cuevas, three; Mexico, four. In * 6561 or 9842 feet English. Trans.
this itinerary the numbers indicate how many leagues one place is distant from the one which immediately precedes it. Other itineraries, which are distributed to travellers who come by the South sea, estimate the total distance at 104 or 106 leagues. Now, according to my observations it is in a straight line 151,766 toises. Adding a quarter for windings, we shall have 189,708 toises, or 1725 toises* for the league of the country.
JOURNEY FROM MEXICO TO VERA CRUZ.
Idetermined on this road thirteen points,either by purely astronomical means, or by geodesical operations, particularly by azimuths and angles of altitudes. M. Oltmanns deduced from my observations the position of the Ventade Chalco, on the eastern bank of the great valley of Teuochtitlan, 19° 16' 8"; that of la Puebla de los Angeles (near the cathedral) 19°0' 15" of latitude, and 6" 41' 3l"=100e 22' 45" of longitude; of the Venta de Sotto, 19- 26' 30"; of the village of Perote, near the fortress of the same name, 19° S3' 37" of latitude, and 6" 38' 15" of longitude; of the village de las Vigas, 19' 37' 10v; and finally, the position of the city of Xalapa, 19° SO1 8" of latitude, and 6h 37'0"=99° 15' 0" of longitude. Don Jose Joacquin Ferrer, who, long before me, determined several points in the environs of Vera Cruz and Xalappa, found for the last city 19° 31 » 10" of latitude, and 99° 15' 5" of longitude. Both of us observed near the convent of St. Francis. In this fertile and cultivated region, four mountains, three of which are perpetually covered with snow, deserve the greatest attention. A knowledge of their exact position serves to connect several interesting points. The two volcanoes distinguished by the names of Puebla or Mexico (Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl) have been connected with the capital and the pyramid of Cholula. I found the latitude of Popocatepetl 18° 5 9' 47*, and 6h 43' 33"=1008 53' 15" of longitude; the latitude of Sierra Nevada, or Iztaccihuatl, 19° 10' 0", and 6h 43' 40"=100° 55' 0" of longitude. M. Costanzo deduced from a series of geodesical operations, 198 11' 43" for the latitude of Iztaccihuatl, and 19° 1' 54" for that of Popocatepetl. The operations of this engineer having been made by means of a compass, and the magnetic declension depending on a great number of small local causes, we ought to be astonished at the accuracy of the results which have been obtained. These two colossal mountains, as well as the Pic d'Orizaba, being visible from the level of the pyramid of Cholula, I endeavoured very carefully to determine the position of this ancient monument. I found the latitude of the chapel which crowns the extremity of the pyramid, 19° 2' 6", and 6h 42' 14"= 100° 33' 30" of longitude.
* 11040 feet. Trans.
M. Ferrer deduced the position of the Cofre de Perote from the geodesical operations between l'Encero and Xalappa, and found 19* 29' 14". I was able, in spite of the rigour of the season, to carry instruments on the seventh of February, 1804, to the top of this mountain, which is 384 metres * higher than the Peak of Teneriffe. I observed there the meridian altitude of the sun, which gave for 1'Alto de los Caxones (43" en arc farther north than the summit or Peria del Cofre) 19" 29' 40" of latitude. The longitude was found by M. Oltmanns, who employed the angles taken by me between the Cofre and the Pic d'Orizaba, 6h 37' 55", which differs but 26" in time from that fixed by M. Ferrer.
The exact knowledge of the position of the Pic d'Orizaba is of great importance for navigators on landing at Vera Cruz. The chart of the gulf of Mexico, published in 1799 by the Deposito Hydrografico at Madrid, places this mountain a degree too far to the east, at 100° 29' 45'' of longitude. Angles of altitudes and azimuths taken by me, gave M< Oltmanns 19° 2' 1?" of latitude, and 99° 35' 15"=6 38' 91" of longitude. But long before me the Spanish mariners knew the true position of the Pic d'Orizaba. It would appear that the error of the map of the Seno Mexicano, which passed into the French mapf, should be attributed to some accidental mistake on the part of the engraver. It is corrected in the edition of M. Bausa in 1803. The name of the capital of Mexico is effaced in it, and the Pic d'Orizaba is placed at 99° 47' 30' of longitude. M. Ferrer fixes the mountain, as is proved by manuscripts in my possession, drawn up in 1793, at 19° 2' 1' of latitude, and 99° 35' 35" of Ion-■ gitude. The same result was also obtained by M. Isasvirivil, whose great accuracy I had occasion to know, having observed along with him at Lima and Callao in 1802.
* 1260 feet. Trans.
t Carte des cotes du golfe du Mexique, d'apres les observations des Espagnols, An. 9.
It appears astonishingthat the most recentmap which we possess of that part of New Spain which we are analysing, and which bears the name of a justly esteemed author, should be the falsest of all. I speak of the large English map, which has for title, Chart of the West Indies and Spanish Dominions in North America, by Arrowsmith, published in June 1803. From Mexico to Vera Cruz the names appear to be scattered at random. The position of the Pic d'Orizaba is indicated in it in a manner which might prove 'dangerous to navigators. The following table gives the position of the principal points, such as this map, very beautiful in other respects, indicates them. I have added the result of my astronomical observations. The longitudes are reckoned to the east of Vera Cruz, to avoid introducing into this comparison the absolute position of this port.