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From the library of William various Ar Convere.

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The Church discipline and services brought master and slare

together.

70

Consecration of the servile virtues

72

Impulse given to manumission

73

Serfdom

74

Ransom of captives

76

Charity.—Measures of the Pagans for the relief of the poor 78

Noble enthusiasm of the Christians in the cause of charity

Their exertions when the Empire was subverted

87

Inadequate place given to this movement in history

90

Two Qualifications to our Admiration of the Charity of the

Church

Theological notions concerning insanity.

91

History of lunatic asylums

94

Indiscriminate almsgiving.—The political economy of charity : 96

Injudicious charity often beneficial to the donor

101

History of the modifications of the old views about charity 102

Beneficial effect of the Church in supplying pure images to the

imagination

105

Summary of the philanthropic achievements of Christianity

107

The Growth of Asceticism

Causes of the ascetic movement

103

Its rapid extension

112

The Saints of the Desert

General characteristics of their legends

114

Astounding penances attributed to the saints

114

Miseries and joys of the hermit life.—Dislike to knowledge. 121

Hallucinations

124

The relations of female devotees with the anchorites

127

Celibacy was made the primal virtue.--Eyjects of this upon

moral teaching

130

Gloomy hue imparted to religion

130

Strong assertion of freewill

131

Depreciation of the qualities that accompany a strong physical

temperament

131

Destruction of the domestic virtues.—Inhumanity of saints to

their relations

132

Encouraged by leading theologians

139

Later instances of the same kind

113.

Extreme theological animosity

Decline of the Civic Virtues

History of the relations of Christianity to patriotism

113

Influence of the former in hastening the fall of the Empire 131

Permanent difference between ancient and modern societies in

the matter of patriotism

153

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Influence of this change on moral philosophy .

Historians exaggerate the importance of civic virtues

General Moral Condition of the Byzantine Empire

Stress laid hy moralists on trivial matters

157

Corruption of the clergy

159

Childishness and vice of the populace

162

The better aspects of the Empire .

163

Distinctive Eccellencies of the Ascetic Period

Asceticism the great school of self-sacrifice

164

Moral beauty of some of the legends

166

Legends of the connection between men and animals produced

humanity to the latter

171

Pagan legends of the intelligence of animals

171

Legal protection of animals".

173

Traces of humanity to animals in the Roman Empire

174

Taught by the Pythagoreans and Plutarch

176

The first influence of Christianity not favourable to it

177

Legends in the lives of the saints connected with animals 178

Progress in modern times of humanity to animals .

184

The ascetic movement in the West took practical forms

188

Attitude of the Church to the barbarians.—Conversion of the

latter

190

Christianity adulterated by the barbarians. - Legends of the

conflict between the old gods and the new faith.

192

Monachism

Causes of its attraction

194

New value placed on obedience and humility.--Results of this

change

196

Relation of Monachism to the Intellectual Virtues

Propriety of the expression “intellectual virtue'

200

The love of abstract truth

200

The notion of the guilt of error, considered abstractedly,

absurd

202

Some error, however, due to indolence or voluntary partiality 203

And some to the unconscious bias of a corrupt nature

204

The influence of scepticism on intellectual progress

205

The Church always recognised the tendency of character to

govern opinion

206

Total destruction of religious liberty

206

The Monasteries the Receptacles of Learning

Preservation of classical literature.—Manner in which it was

regarded by the Church

212

Charm of monkish scholarship

216

The monasteries not on the whole favourable to knowledge 218

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They were rather the reservoirs than the creators of literature 221

Fallacy of attributing to the monasteries the genius that was

displayed in theology

221

Other fallacies concerning the services of the monks

222

Decline of the love of truth .

225

Value which the monks attached to pecuniary compensations

for crime.

226

Doctrine of future torinent much elaborated as a means of

extorting money

232

Visions of hell

233

Peter Lombard

240

Extreme superstition and terrorism

241

Purgatory

246

Moral Condition of Western Europe

Scanty historical literature

249

Atrocious crimes .

250

The seventh century the age of saints

253

Manner in which characters were estimated illustrated by the

account of Clovis in Gregory of Tours

254

Benefits conferred by the monasteries

257

Missionary labours

261

Growth of a Military and an Aristocratic Spirit

Antipathy of the early Christians to military life

262

The belief that battle was the special sphere of Providential

interposition consecrated it

264

Military habits of the barbarians .

265

Military triumphs of Mahommedanism

266

Legends protesting against military Christianity

268

Review of the influence of Christianity upon war

269

Consecration of Secular Rank

The Pagan Empire became continually more despotic

275

The early Christians taught passive obedience in temporal, but

independence in religious matters

276

After Constantine, their policy much governed by their interests 276

Attitude of the Church towards Julian .

277

And of Gregory the Great towards Phocas

279

The Eastern clergy soon sank into submission to the civil

power

281

Independence of the Western clergy.-Compact of Leo and

Pepin

282

Effect of monachism on the doctrine of passive obedience 285

The ' benefices'

286

Fascination exercised by Charlemagne over the popular imagi-

nation

287

A king and a warrior became the ideal of greatness

289

Conclusion .

290

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