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christianity to save episcopacy~AND create ten thousand infidels—RATHER than give up one useless ceremony.

Finish-By enlarging on Baron Montesquieu's concession—" That the protestant religion is more “favourable to a spirit of LIBERTY than the catho"lick.”—Observe—THAT despotism is the desideratum of most princes. That popery is highly fitted to serve their views. - That they have protected popery for this—AND not for religious reasons. -That they have persecuted nonconformists for their religious sentiments, merely because they supposed them to include something injurious to arbitrary power. –That an army of hireling priests is a very convenient machine of government.That our own history too well shews what they can do--By shewing what they have done-UNDER the Stuarts.That-so much episcopacy in a state--so much despotism-is a certain truth. -THAT universal-EQUAL-liberty is incompatible with prelacy.- That the nonconformists' principles of government are those of the best statesinen.—THAT to inculcate them in the church is the best preservative of the state—AND that attempts to reform is allowing on the episcopalian side a great part of what we affirm.

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LECTURE VIII.

The State of Religion during the Civil Wars, and

the Protectorate.

CHARLES, chagrined at the unpliableness of his parliament, fled--AND resolved in council to pass no more bills--To pawn the crown jewels for ready money—to purchase arms and ammunition -To employ the pope's nuncio to hire foreign troops to enslave his own subjects.—This obliged the parliament to secure magazines—To provide for the national safety-To get command of the navy—AND the militia—AND to form alliance with the Scotch.

The nation petitioned parliament for redress of grievances—THE parliament the king-But he full of duplicity-and inflexibility-DENIED-OR deceived them in all-RAISED forces-PROVIDED arms—AND began a war.--The parliament abolished episcopacy--RAISED an army—AND defended their rights.

The parliament thought the civil magistracy might set up what religion they thought most conducive to the good of the state.—THEY, therefore, reformed universities—AND cathedrals-ENFOR CED the Sabbath-SUPPRESSED publick diversions ORDAINED fasts---AND religious exercises--AND a great reformation of manners followed.—THE king's army remarkably profane-- THAT of the parliament very sober.--CHARLES published proclamations--THE puritan clergy refused to read them --AND the king's soldiers plundered them for their refusal. -- The episcopal clergy refused to obey parliament orders—AND they also were plundered in their turn-GOOD and bad were involved in the publick calamity.—This produced committees for scandalous ministers—PLUNDERED ministers.--. &c. -RESTRAINTS of the

press,

&c. The parliament called the assembly of divines

To reform the church-AND invited the Scots to assist them—THE Scots agreed on condition of their establishing presbyterian church government

-AND for that purpose swearing to the solemn league and covenant-Which was accordingly subscribed by both houses—The clergy--AnD laityAND imposed on most episcopalians —But not on some, who were supposed free from arbitrary principles.

The assembly addressed--AND were approved by foreign churches—They ordained ministersThe parliament nominated to livings—AND ejected their enemies from livings--AND universities.The assembly published a directory instead of the old liturgy-and the parliament put down Christmas- AND other festivals--TRIED and executed Laud-AND tried various measures for accommodation with the king,

The king was in arms for arbitrary powerThe cavaliers for the episcopal church-THE Scots for covenant uniformity---BUT Cromwell possessed the art of overpowering all by becoming the pa

tron of all, who wished for civil and religious liberty —AND managed all with indefatigable address.

The unhappy Charles was an incorrigible tyrant-AND deserved to die--But they, who put him to death, had no constitutional right to do so. -No religious party was the cause of his death ALL remonstrated against it-And he fell a sacrifice to military power-By the hands of a few desperate officers—AND their dependents—who were of various religious denominations.

CROMWELL was an astonishing man-his capacity was uncommon-His address infinite-HIS courage undaunted-His principles of government just and liberal-His religion doubtful.—HE possessed all the qualifications of a chief magistrate -EXCEPT that of free popular election to govern. -HE was an uniform patron of religious liberty

NECESSITY— NOT equity governed some of his actions against his principles.--SOME peculiar maxims rendered his conduct inconsistent.

CROMWELL and his army petition for toleration-QUARREL with the parliament—FORCIBLY dissolve it----ASSUME the government--CALL the little parliament- A council of officers make him protector — HE calls another parliament --- DISSOLVES them-TOLERATES all except papists and royalists—KEEPS them under for civil reasons MODELS parliaments NAVY-FOREIGN treaties --AND all branches of government so as to render himself necessary to all.-PROJECTS an union of all the reformed.INTENDS to restore monarchy—AND unite it with

UNIVERSITIES_ARMY

universal liberty-To wear a crown--AND transmit it to his family-BUT death prevented the execution of his plan.

Finish-By distinguishing first principles of government—FROM social contracts for the preservation of them-ORDINARY obedience to established courses of law- FROM extraordinary recourses to first principles, when social contracts are in danger of dissolution.

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