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the manufacturing districts, 2; infant serfs of a parative expense at large and small hotels, 276;
neglected rural district compared with the child projected monster hotel in Trafalgar Square, ib.;
ren of the manufacturing population, 3; the Clubs and Hotels, 279 ; moral aspects of the hotel
operative mind peculiarly susceptible of culture, question, 280; effects on our domestic morality,
5; feeling of the accomplished workman towards 282; evil of excluding females from places of
the sciences, 7; exchange of experiences between resort, 283; hotel companies on the Continent,
the professor and the operative, ib.; bearing of 284.
manufactures upon science, 7, 8; means of ren-
dering the interchange of scientific with practical

knowledge advantageous, 10; faulty construction
of subsidiary machines, 11; the border land of Ireland, great changes which have taken place in,
science, 12; things familiar to mechanics but and within a few years, 62; nature of these
ignored by philosophy, 13; suitable college train changes, ib.; the present compared with the past,
ing for the higher class of operatives, 13, 14; 63, 74; Cloncurry (Lord) Life and Times of, ib.;
Owens College, 14; a practical or manufacturing Nicholas Lawless turns Protestant, and buys land,
system of education should be built upon this ib.; becomes draper, and buys a baronetage, 64;
foundation, 14, 15; how the scheme may be buys a peerage for £3000, 64, 65; education of
carried out in Languages, 15, 16; in Mathematics, the second Lord Cloncurry, 65 ; becomes one of
17; Chemistry, ib.; History, ib.; Political Econo the "United Irish," and is arrested and imprison-
my, 18; Logic, ib.; whence the necessary funds ed, 66; repairs to the Continent for some years,
are to be derived, 20; unity of industrial art, 21; 67; his opinion of the change produced by the
a travelling professor, 22; College Exhibitions, 23 ; Union, ib. ; his views on emancipation, the Church
Owens College a good beginning, ib. ; improve question, and education, 68.
ment necessitates improvement, 26; illustration Italian character and Italian prospects, 286; charac-
from Nasmyth's iron-gun experiment, ib.

ter of the lower classes, 289; influence of the
Examination for East India Civil Service, 192; for priests, ib.; present prospects, 292; the three
Royal Artillery and Engineers, 205.

principal parties in Italy, and how far they are
willing to unite for independence and unity, 293;

the constitutional party, Azeglio, ib.; the Federal

party, Manin, 294; the Republicans, Mazzini,

ib.; extinction of the divisions of Italy not desira-
Farm-schools, advantages of, see Mettray and Red-

ble, 296; difficulties in the way, Sicily, ib.; the

Pope, how to be disposed of, 298; how the Italian
Fielding, Henry, his early life and education, 108; patriots are regarded by the French, 299 ; and

his plays, the irregularity of his life, 109; his English, 300; absurdities of the Vienna Congress
marriage, 110; his satires against ministers, ib. ;

arrangement, 300, 301 ; union of moral and mate-
Fielding and Richardson, 112; “Tom Jones, rial force, 302.

"Amelia," 113; anecdotes of Fielding, ib.
Firmas, M. D'Hombre, notice of his Memoir on
Colour-blindness, 192.

France and Scotland, intercourse between, 155;

origin of the alliance, ib.; Scotland before the Jones, Inigo, associated with Ben Jonson in the
Conquest, 156; Saxon fugitives into Scotland getting up of court masques, 245; quarrels with
after the Norman Conquest, 157; projects of him, 250.
the Norman Kings, ib.; William Wallace, 159; Jonson, Ben, 238; defects of Gifford's Memoir, ib.;
Robert the Bruce, ib.; escape from the Normans, ib.; his education, 239; what it was to be a literary
reasons which attached Scotland to France, 160); man about town, ib.; view of the Elizabethan
nature of the connection, ib.; kindness of the French, drama and dramatists, 241; very nearly comes
161; Royal Guard of Scottish Archers in France, into acquaintance with the hangman, 242; Ben's
162; nature of their duties, 163; M. Teulet's first dramas, ib.; becomes a writer of masques,
Papers, 165; competition between France and 244; his social habits and haunts, 245; the Mer-
England for the annexation of Scotland, 166; the maid Club, 246; his babit of indulging in “silent
matrimonial alliances, the Guises, 167; effects of contempt,” 247; his visits to Hawthornden, 249;
the Reformation, 169; permanent social influence appointed poet-laureate, ib. ; the Apollo Club, 250;
of the alliance, 170; influence on laws and institu Ben compared with Shakespeare in their corporeal
tions, ib.; on habits and manners, 172 ; on archi dimensions and mental qualities, 262 ; Drummond's
tecture, ib; on festive occasions, 173.

portrait of him too unfavourable, 254; his peculi-
French Politics, anomalies of, 59.

arities as a poet and dramatist, ib.

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Hotels, 269; the "line" has supplanted the road, and Manufacturing system of education, 6.

the railway hotel the roadside hotel, ib. ; pleasure Mettray and Red-Hill farm-schools, 222; the train-
traffic, not business traffic, now fills our hotels, ing-school must supersede the prison, 223; has the
271; complaints of the expense of pleasure hotels, State a right over children not become amenable
272; importance of table d'hôte system, 273; to law ? 224; the two principles upon which Met-
Englishmen at home and abroad, 275; meeting tray and Red-Hill are founded, 225; labour the
with "objectionable people” a bugbear, ib.; com antagonist of vice, 226; objections to the farm-

school system, ib.; description of Mettray, 227; |

objections of false economists, 230; expense of
punishing crime, ib.; expense of preventing crime, Reformation, (Home,) and Christian Union, 74;
231; choice of sites and general plan, 234; short Philanthropic literature, 75; state of crime in Eng-

holidays, 235; necessity of religious teaching, 237. land, 77; London compared with continental
Milton contrasted with Samuel Butler, 46.

towns, ib. ; how far the clergy have lost the confi-
Mozley on Augustinianism, 114; liberation of revela dence of the people, 78; England, Scotland, and

tion from the trammels of polemical theologies, ib. ; Wales compared, ib.; the English Church, its de-
limits of human reason, 116; religious philosophy, fects, and what it requires, 81; Dr. Chalmers' paro-
117; true theory of our necessary ignorance, ib. ; chial system, the West Port scheme a model for
incomprehensible knowledge, ib.; causality and imitation, 83; and illustrates the defects of the
moral agency, 119; power ultimately incompre English Church, 84 ; lay agency indispensable, ib.;
hensible, 120; generality of both the uninstructed is the Church to be one organization ? ib.; adapta-
and the learned ignorant of their ignorance, 120, tion of the Wesleyan Church to supplement the
121; position of incomprehensible truths in theo defects of the national Church, 85, 86; City Mis-
logy, 121, 122.

sions, David Nasmyth, 88; fundamental idea of
city missions, 89; their discipline, ib.; the kind of

labourers, 89, 90, their training, 90; scene from Mr.

Vanderkiste's experience, 91, 92; religious tracts,

92; results of city missiong, 93, 94; open-air
Napoleon, Louis, causes of the weakness or strength preaching, 94; Reformatory Institutions, Mr.
of his government, 61.

Nash, 95; progress towards Christian union, 96.
Nasmith, David, founder of city missions, 88. Russian Church, intolerance of, 221.
Néttement, M. Alfred, review of his History of French Russian empire, composition of, 148.
Literature, 48.

Open-air preaching, 94.
Orleans, reign of the house of

, in France, 48; Louis Schools (Scottish) for the middle classes, 192 ; ex-
Philippe's eighteen years of power produced no

amination for East India Civil Service, ib.; Scot-
great intellectual names, 49; character of Dr. Véron

tish share of the prizes, 193; reason of the small
and of his Mémoires, 49, 50; the nation did not

success, ib. ; High School of Edinburgh, 194;
believe in Louis Philippe nor Louis Philippe in the

yearly examinations, 195; how Scottish schools
nation, 50 ; electoral reform, reform banquets, 51;

differ from English, 196; lowering of the Scottish
programme of the banquet, 52 ; dishonest compro-

Universities into drill schools, ib.; Scottish en.
mise, ib.; letter of the Duke of Orleans on the in-

dowments compared with English, 198; Scottish
surrection of Strasbourg, 53; discussion concerning

University Extension, 200; false position of the
the secret service-money, 54; comparative view of

universities, “poaching upon the schools," 201 ;
its amount and distribution under different govern-

professional schools, 204; examination for the
ments, 54, 55; civil list of Louis Philippe, 56; Scotland, effects of French alliance upon, 155; Eng

Royal Artillery and Engineers, 205.
rapacity of the actors in the revolution of Febru-
ary, 58; pillage of royal residences, ib.; anomalies

lish Norman kings, attempts of, to annex Scotland,

of French politics, 59; hollowness of Louis
Philippe's régime, 60; no "solid edifice" fell in Science, bearing of manufactures upon, 7, 8.
February, ib. ; the two species of right to rule, 60, Sermons (recent) Scotch, English, and Irish, 255;

Secret service-money in France, 54.
61; will Louis Napoleon's authority endure ? 61.
Owens College, 14; a good beginning for a united,

Dr. Blair's, ib.; Dr. Chalmers's, ib. ; Dr. Guthrie's
scientific, and manufacturing college, 23.

discourses, 256; illustrative word-pictures, 257;
extracts, ib.; the Bible the preacher's model, 259;

undue fetters upon the freedom of the pulpit, 260;

prospects of the future, 261; the Episcopalian

pulpit, 262; Mr. Stanley's sermons on the Apostol-
Paris Exhibition of 1855, 122; history of industrial ical age, ib.; Professor Butler's sermons, 265;

exhibitions, 123; the Crystal Palace at Sydenham, their peculiar excellences, 268.
124; description of the buildings of the Paris Ex Shakespeare, a member of the Mermaid Club, 246;
position, 125; comparative industry of France and

viewed in contrast with Ben Jonson, 252.
England, 126, 127; Mr. Fairbairn's account of the Sheil, Richard Lalor, Life and Times of, 69; his re.
m: inery, 127; superiority of the French in in collections of the Jesuits, 70; Catholic Associa.
struments of precision, 129; resolutions passed by

tions, 71; produces the play of " Adelaide," and
British jurors, 129, 130; patent law of England,

Sketches, Legal and Political,” 72 ; his speeches,
130; character of the old patent law, 131; its

justice, 132 ; Lord Brougham's patent bills of 1835 Sicily, political condition of, 296.
and 1852, 133 ; injustice of the new patent law of Signals at sea and on railways, danger of red and
1852, 133, 134; intolerable expense, appropriation

green, 189.
of the funds levied from inventors, 135; discussion Stahl's theory of Christian toleration, 217; how dis-
on patents in the British Association, 135, 136;

posed of by Bunsen, 220.
patents should be given gratis, 136; and abso- Stanley's Sermons on the Apostolical Age, notice of,
lutely secured, 137; they and the copyrights should

be perpetual

, 139; parliamentary committee of the Steven's (Dr.) history of the High School of Edin-
British Association, 140.

burgh, 194.
Presbyterianism and Independency burlesqued in

Hudibras, 36.
Puritans, Samuel Butler's hatred of, made him an
author, 32.

Teulet's State Papers reviewed, 155.
Puseyism, the Chevalier Bunsen's opinion of, 212. Thackeray, Mr., objections raised against him for the

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moral imperfection of his characters, 104, 105; his view of the British people, ib.; colder views of the
peculiar style, 106; , breadth of handling characters British Government, 143; cause of the coldness or
not permitted to modern novelists, ib.; difference non-sympathy of the Americans, 144; not a war
between Thackeray and Fielding, 106, 107; his on behalf of freedom, but for the status quo, 145;
pathos, 107; his mode of describing female charac. this the grand error of the Western Powers, ib.;
ters, ib.

the present European arrangements indefensible,
Turkish empire, composition of, 147.

146; the Vienna Congress, ib.; the three Eastern

Powers in reference to the status quo, 146, 147;

Turkey, 147; the Russian dominions, 148; the

Austrian dominions, 149; disposal of the Crimea
University (Scottish) Extension, 200.

and the Trans-Caucasian provinces, 151.

Wartmann, Professor, analysis of his Memoirs on co-

lour-blindness, 191.
Voluntary association, wonders achieved by, one of Wesleyan Methodists well adapted for supplying the
the signs of the times, 210.

missionary machinery which the National Church
wants, 85, 86.
Wilson, Dr. George, biographical notice of, 176; ac-

count of his researches on colour-blindness, 177.
War with Russia, significance of the struggle, 142 ; / Wit, Hudibrastic, 47.







1 8 5 5.

Art. 1.- Owens College. Annual Report even this, or, say both in different senses,

of the PRINCIPAL, read in the Common have become what they are as they stand Hall, at the Meeting for the Distribution related to that IndUSTRIAL Greatness of of Prizes, 29th June 1855.

Britain, which, with its bone and sinew, and

with its Titan force, rises up new every LAY before you, on the right hand, a map of morning from the bowels of the earth. If the Geology of the British Islands, and on then we were in search of the final causes of the left hand Bradshaw's (much needed) il- the railway system, as it now covers the lustration of the mysteries of his “Railway land, or of its efficient causes, or of its hisGuide.” Volumes of thought are suggested toric origin—in search of the first, and of the by a comparison of the two sheets! Tell us, second, and of the third, we must go

whither? if any can tell us, how many cycles of cen- we must do what? book ourselves at Euston turies, or millions of Telluric millenniums Square for Manchester. have run themselves out to make up the in In the present grave aspect of European terval of duration which separates those affairs, who shall come forward and assure physical evolutions that are set forth in the us that, ere long, Her Most Gracious Maone sheet, from those engineering operations jesty will not be called by the voice of the that are set forth in the other ! Neverthe British people to fight the world almost sinless, the causal relationship of the one to the gle-handed, in defence of that one spot on other is obvious and unquestionable. So far earth where liberty, political, civil, and relias the ways and works of man are concern- gious, is truly understood and is fully enjoy. ed, it is a thesis not needing much argument ed? But should such a time come--and to establish it, that those interlacings and may God avert it!-whence will be drawn perplexed crossings which belt the island the funds and material of so mighty a confrom Birkenhead to Grimsby—from Ripon flict? From the sources whence has come to Stafford or Birmingham, are the direct the iron ribbing which Bradshaw's map consequences of those treasures of the mate- brings under the eye. Let the other sources rials of industry which underlay the same of the nation's surplus wealth be reckoned areas, and which our recent geology has at their utmost, it might easily be shewn mapped out.

that the share contributed, directly or indiBut, looking beyond this region, there is rectly, by the manufacturing energies of the a true sense in which these wonders of na- manufacturing districts, is large almost be. tional wealth and of mechanic art, which yond computation. Bradshaw's map exhibits-netting with iron We need not therefore stay to prove that the Island, from Falmouth to Aberdeen, re- the prosperity of these districts is every ceive their explication from the geological Englishman's concern. Though he be a chart. Grant it that the agricultural wealth grower of corn in the eastern or southern of England has contributed its share to this counties, or a trader in a dull provincial network: Grant it too, that the colonial town, far remote from the din of machinery, greatness of England, and that its vast com- he may, nevertheless, from time to time, merce have furnished a large share; yet make the anxious inquiry, “How are things



going on at Birmingham, at Sheffield, at physical result of their peculiar modes of Leeds, at Preston, at Stockport, at Manches. life. This is true to some extent, but no ter ?" The artillery of England's future safe- more than superficially. The races indigety is at this moment either a-making, or it is nous to this region claim a high antiquity, not a-making in these towns, and in the hun- and their characteristics are manifestly such dred towns around them; and it is so what- as must be of a permanent kind. At this ever their line of business may be, whether present time, and if we are walking the in iron or in cotton, or in silk, or in wool, or streets and lanes of the principal manufacin clay. It can be no impertinence then, on turing towns, we must of course set off a the part of any one who seeks to inform him- large percentage of all whom we meet as self concerning these vital interests, or who an alien population, attracted from distant even ventures to suggest what he thinks districts by the higher rate of wages which might perhaps promote and secure them, usually, or at certain times, are there to be and which at present may be wanting. obtained. On all sides, too, we encounter

But it may seem to the reader that man- the people of Scotland, and, alas ! abundant ufactures, and that manufacturers might overflowings from the Sister Isle, as well as safely be left to take care of themselves. a mixed multitude always filtering in from Can one push one's way through the sunless the agricultural counties, proximate and restreets of these great towns, or mount from mote. Yet amidst these alloys it is never story to story in the mills, and shops, and dificult to attach the genuine man of the warehouses to the right and left, and then region—the Lancashire man, or the Yorkentertain a doubt as to the energy, or the shire man. His osteology alone would dauntless, untiring, well-skilled determina- mark him; then the set of his muscular tion of the Principals and the subordinates system-his tendency to adipose accumulawhich have been, and which are, the soul of tions—the peculiar hinging of the lower these mighty movements ? What need can limbs upon the pelvis-and, not least, his there be either to stimulate this productive speech bewrays him; his twang, and the ardour, or to inform it? Is it not firmly re- ample justice which he does to certain fasolved, and does it not thoroughly under-voured vowels, and to some much loved stand its days' work? Is it not eager enough, diphthongs. and bold too, in pursuit of its object? Is it Gentlefolk, inhabitants of the southern, not astute, experienced, and endlessly patient eastern, and south-midland counties, who of toil ? All this must be granted, and much seldom if ever visit the manufacturing more to the same purport might be affirmed region, or do so only to rush through it in without exaggeration. Truly it is admirable the “ Express," on their way to Scotland or to see with what spirit and courage, with the Lakes, such persons amuse themselves what largeness of view, with what perfection sometimes by talking about the manufacof method, with what address, with what turing population" in tones of pity, which force, with what niceness, with what power, show strikingly how utterly at fault even with what massiveness and volume, with well-informed people may be concerning what infinitesimal parsimony in the details, broad and obvious facts, a true knowledge with what freedom and nobleness, with what of which might be acquired by a three rigidness and care, the men of these manu- days' sojourn in a region that is not more facturing districts are now working up, and than seven hours distant from their homes. are turning to the best account, those trea- There are, indeed, times of awful stagnasures of fuel and of mineral which were laid tion, and there are also clusters of towns up for their use, and hidden deep beneath and villages devoted to peculiar lines of the soil, at the morning hour of the planeta- business, when and where a manufacturing ry system.

population wears the aspect of sad priVery little of the tendency to theorize, vation, of squalor, of extreme wretchedness; or to catch at imaginary relationships, suf- but such times and such spots are excepfices for suggesting the belief that the tional. It should also always be recollected, aboriginal population which occupies the that a dense population will not fail, even at area now in view, strongly marked as it is, the best, to shew its scum, and that it will in its physical and mental characteristics, conceal, until it be searched for, its feculent has a predestinated adaptation to the part as- sediment—the intemperate, the dissolute, signed to it, as the working force upon this the debauched, the blind and the maimed ground. Let those who profess the “ De- also, and, alas! (it is a grief to say it ever velopment” philosophy, as applicable to all and again) the Irish! things, affirm, if they please, that the peo But now let us invite the reader to travel ple have become what they are as the con- with us a hundred or two miles, and, within sequence of their occupations, and as the the compass of a ten hours journey, to


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