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upon all human things, as finite, as having a terminus, like mountain ridges, affording good, firm roads, for a greater or less distance, but ending in precipices, or morasses, if pursued too far. When on principle, he pursued it with ardour; his driving was like that of Jehu; it was furiously. If he went farther than some men would think prudent, yet he knew when, and where, to stop in safety. If he thought the safety of his country required it, he would press the principles of either political party into his service. Thus, when he believed that his native state had misunderstood, or was pushing Jefferson's principles too far, he did not scruple to throw all his weight on the opposite, or Hamiltonian principle. But before doing so, he recommended, in his message, that measures be taken to remove the grievances complained of. On the great tariff question, he stood between the two extremes, with the word " JUDICIOUS,” inscribed on his flag; not so little as to make us dependent on Europe, yet not so great as to foster oppressive monopolies.
His letters to President Monroe did much to soften the asperity of party feeling, which, in the war, a short time before, had run so high as to make some men forget that they had a country to defend. His country, his whole country, and nothing but his country, was the corner-stone of Jackson's political creed. Unlike Robespierre, who, in the French assembly, cried out, “ Perish France, and the colonies, but save the principle, or the party;" General Jackson would have exclaimed, " Perish principle, perish party, but save the country.” - The Union must be preserved," not that the principle must be preserved, whether Jefferson's, or anybody else's, but “ The Union must be preserved.” General Jackson seems to have viewed principles and systems, in the same light that Hippocrates, the father of physicians, viewed them in medicine. This or that principle, system, or theory, to be acted on, according to the circumstances of the case. The heating, the cooling, the let alone, or the forcing; anything, to save the patient. Pushing principles to the extremes, for the sake of the principle, regardless of its effects, is what ruined the French republic. Bolivar, in trying to be a greater patriot, and more of a republican, than Washington, ruined his country. He pushed the principles of liberty so far, as to apply it to the negroes of Colombia. Where is Colombia ? Torn to pieces by factions, growing out of loose or fanatical notions of liberty. Liberty, consistent with subordination, order, law, human happiness, and human improvement, seems to have been the kind of liberty, and the only kind of liberty, that Andrew Jackson, and, in fact, all of our Revolutionary fathers, cared for, fought for, or wished to establish.
If he should be called a benefactor of mankind, who can make two blades of grass grow where only one grew before, what are
ve to think of our glorious Jackson ? Answer, ye two millions of happy people, who have made the wilderness in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi, so lately the abode of ferocious savages, blossom as the rose. Ye, of the older settlements in Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, and Louisiana, what think you of the man whose policy has put two millions (a number about equal to the whole population of the United States, in 1776) of friends and defenders in that very wilderness around you, so lately filled with discontented savages, ready to fall upon you with the tomahawk at the instigation of incendiaries, or whenever they found you pressed by an enemy? You are thankful, you are grateful for the peace and security which Andrew Jackson has been instrumental in giving you, beyond what tongue can tell. As we pass away, others will come to honour the memory, and bless the name of Andrew Jackson. The two millions, now in the territory he so lately acquired from the Indians, will ere long become four millions. As time rolls on, each generation will bring with it increasing millions to swell the throng of Andrew Jackson's admirers, and to gaze on his star in the galaxy of American patriots, the brightest of all save one, our glorious Washington. Ēre long, innumerable multitudes, towards the setting sun, will rise up to thank him who brought them into the fold of the American Union, and as they pass away, others more numerous will come to lisp his praise, and to vie with the other patriots of this great empire of republican freemen, in honouring the name of him whose memory we this day celebrate.
In New Orleans General Jackson won a large portion of his worldly fame, by gaining a victory over the conquerors of Europe and Napoleon ; but here in Natchez, fifty-four years ago, a kind Providence, that we blind mortals saw not, gave him a pilot in pious woman's form, who showed him the way to gain the victory over self, to conquer death, and he won a place in Heaven.
DELIVERED AT LANCASTER, OHIO, JULY 12, 1845,
WILLIAM IRVIN, Esq.
MY FELLOW-CITIZENS : By the Proyidence of God, a grateful people are called upon to pay the last sad tributes of respect to one of its greatest benefactors. ANDREW Jackson, the hero, the patriot, and the sage, is no more. He has gone down to the tomb, full of years and full of honours. How deeply enshrined he is in the hearts of his countrymen, let the tributes that are now being paid by a nation to his memory express.
When we cease to feel gratitude to those great men, who, by their courage in the field, and wisdom in council, won for, and secured to us, the liberties we possess, and the glorious institutions we now enjoy, then, indeed, will we be unworthy of the name of freemen—unworthy of the blessings conferred on us by our brave sires, and purchased by their blood and treasure. Andrew Jackson was a patriot. Deep and unfathomable was the love he bore for America, the land of his birth. From early boyhood to green old age, he bore his life in his hand, ever ready to offer it as a sacrifice on the altar of his country. How proud ought we to be, both of the institutions which gave birth to such deep love, and of the man. Sparta has long ceased to exist; but so long as time endures, will the love of country, that prompted Leonidas and his brave compatriots, to offer themselves as living sacrifices for the country's safety, be cherished and remembered in the hearts of men. The love which Leonidas bore for Sparta, was not greater than that which Jackson bore for America. He, in whose breast there is a spark of patriotic fire, will feel a pleasure and a pride in doing justice to such exalted worth, no matter to what sect or party he may belong, and, as he approaches to the grave, enmity must be swallowed up in grief for the death of the patriotic chief. But though he has gone, he has left behind him the record of
his virtues and his worth; and as long as time endures, and our institutions last, the American, as he reads the pages of history, whereon are spread out the noble principles by which he was governed, and the incidents and achievements of his romantic and adventurous life, will exclaim with pride—"he was my country
Yes, my fellow-citizens,-living, he was ever ready to serve us, and dead, he has left to us as rich a legacy as man ever left to a grateful people. His virtues have won for him a place in the temple of fame with the immortal Washington. There, side by side, let them stand,—and as our youth grow up from generation to generation, and gaze upon them, oh, may they learn from them the lesson, how in war to be heroes, in peace statesmen and patriots, and plain and simple republicans always.
Time will not permit me to take more than a glimpse at the history of Andrew Jackson. The family from which he sprung, were at an early period emigrants from Scotland to Ireland. Andrew Jackson, the father of General Jackson, resided in Ulster county, in Ireland. Two sons were born unto him there, Hugh and Robert. Though of the Presbyterian faith, the iron hand of England's despotism bore as heavy on him as on his Catholic countrymen; and in A. D. 1765, he sought for protection and peace in South Carolina. There, at the Waxhaw settlements, General Jackson was born, on the 15th of March, A. D. 1767. His father died about the time of his birth, leaving to him his name. His mother was left with nothing but a farm, to rear and educate him and his brothers. Though poor, she determined to give him a liberal education, and she therefore placed him, at a very tender age, at school. He was but eight years old when the Revolutionary war broke out; and, therefore, even in infancy, his mind became familiarized to war.
At first he heard but of battles fought far off to the north, but soon the thunder-cloud rolled to the south, and deluged the plains of Carolina in blood. Over his native state, everywhere thundered the fierce Rawdon and the impetuous Tarleton.
“Wherever they hoisted their standard black,
Before them was murder, behind them was wrack.” How deep and undying must have been the hatred which his soul acquired for tyranny in every form, at that early age, when the prayer of the old, and the young, hourly went up to Heaven
for freedom. How bitter must have been the enmity of his young heart to England. His father, and his uncles, driven by her persecutions from Ireland, sought safety and refuge in America; but to their wild retreat, had now come the blood-hounds of England, to hunt him and his relatives to the death. Not a day passed by, but what he heard of farm-houses destroyed, and neighbours murdered—and when he heard of the gallant exploits of Marion, and Sumpter, and
tion. The legislature of that state appointed him one of its supreme judges. The duties of this office were discharged by him with such impartiality and justice, that it was a matter of regret for all men, when declining health forced him to resign.
For several years, upon his farm, near Nashville, he lived a life of uninterrupted quiet and domestic happiness. He loved his wife with a romantic attachment, which none but few persons of his enthusiastic character are susceptible of. Such were the fascinating powers of his conversation, such the cheerfulness of his fireside, and the warmth of his heart, that though but a private citizen, his house at this time was the most public one in Tennessee. But this quiet and repose were soon destined to be disturbed. His peaceful country was once again to be desolated with war. When forbearance ceased to be a virtue, and peace could only be purchased by the most abject and cowardly submission to indignities, the Union declared war against her ancient foe. General Jackson, on fire to meet in manhood, those foes, who, in the days of his boyhood, with murder and rapine for their companions, had desolated his native state, raised three thousand volunteers, and offered them to his country. They were accepted, and ordered to New Orleans. With his command, he marched to Natchez, and whilst there, received å à peremptory order to disband his men. Instead of obeying the order, he marched his men back to Tennessee. His love of justice was so great, that rather than desert, by abandoning far from home, those patriotic men, he disobeyed the positive orders of his governs ment. No power on earth could make him commit what he considered to be wrong. The cowardly and treacherous conduct of Hull, had so inflamed his soul, that he burned to wipe out the disgrace inflicted on our arms at Detroit. He wrote to the government, begging to be ordered north, that he might plant the American eagle on the walls of Malden; but his prayer was disregarded, and his command dismissed. Once more he was left in retirement, but his soul was with his countrymen in the field.
Not long, however, did he thus remain. The English had called into the field a new element of war. The Indians, armed by their allies, were murdering the defenceless citizens. Again, at the call of Tennessee, he took the field. He hurried with his command to the enemy's country, and such was the celerity of his movements, such the courage with which he inspired raw and inexperienced soldiers, that he could have ended the war with the Creeks in one month, had he been supplied with provisions for his army. By gross negligence, he was reduced to such straits that he knew not how to subsist from day to day his men. He penetrated into the enemy's country, and struck the first blow at Talladega. For want of provisions he was obliged to fall back, instead of following up his success.
Hunger, famine, and mutiny were in his camp, and