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blood, are clothed and enjoy some degree of comfort. They live nearly in the nanner of the lower people of the peninsula; and their number is a third of the whole mass. The annual consumption of this third part may be estimated at 300 piastres per family* Reckon ng for the other thirds only 60† piastres I, and supposing the Indians to pay the alcavala of 14 per cent. like the whites, an annual revenue would be raised of 5,000,000 of piastres S, a much greater revenue than the quadruple of the present value of the tributes. We will not guarantee the accuracy of the numbers on which this calculation is founded; but a simple sketch may suffice to prove, that on establishing an equality of duties and imposts among the different classes of people, not only the abolition of the capitation would create no deficit in the crown revenues, but that these revenues would necessarily increase with the increase of comfort and prosperity among the natives.

We might have hoped that the administrations of three enlightened viceroys, animated with the most noble zeal for the public good, the Marquis de Croix, the Count de Revillagigedo, and the

*671.128. 6d. sterling. Trans. + 131. 2s. 6d. sterling. Trans.

It is computed that in the warm region of Mexico, a day labourer requires annually for himself and family, în nourishment and clothes, 72 piastres. The luxury is nearly 20 piastres less in the cold region of the country,

$ 1,093,750l. sterling.

Chevalier d'Asanza, would have produced some happy changes in the political state of the Indians; but these hopes have been frustrated.. The power of the viceroys has been singularly diminished of late: they are fettered in all their measures; not only by the junta of finances (de Real Hacienula), and by the high court of justice ( Audiencia), but also by the government in the mother country, which possesses the mania of wishing to govern in the greatest detail provinces at the distance of two thousand 'eagues, the physical and moral state of which are equally unknown to them. The philanthropists affirm, that it is happy for the Indians that they are neglected in Europe, because sad ex'erience has proved that the most part of the measures adopted for their relief have produced an opposite effect. The layers, who detest innovations, and the Creol proprietors, who frequently find their interest in keeping the cultivator in degradation and misery, maintain thut we must not interfere with the natives, because,on granting them more liberty, the whites would have every thing to fear from the vindictive spirit and arrogance of the Indian race. The language is always the same whenever it is proposed to allow the peasant to participate in the rights of a free man and a citizen. I have heard the same arguments repeated in Mexico, Peru, and the kingdom of New Grenada, which, in several parts of Germany, Poland, Livonia, and Russia, are opposed to the abolition of slavery among the peasants.

Recent examples ought to teach us how dan. gerous it is to allow the Indians to form a status in statu, to perpetuate their insulation, barbarity of manners, misery, and consequently motives of hatred against the other casts. These very stupid indolent Indians, who suffer themselves patiently to be lashed at the church-doors, appear cunning, active, impetuous, and cruel, whenever they act in a body in popular disturbances. It may be useful to relate a proof of this assertion. The great revolt in 1781 very nearly deprived the king of Spain of all the mountainous part of Peru, at the period when Great Britain lost nearly all her colonies in the continent of America. Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, known by the name of the Inca Tupac-Amaru, appeared at the head of an Indian army before the walls of Cusco. He was the son of the cacique of Tongasuca, a village of the province of Tinta, or rather the son of the cacique's wife; for it is certain that the pretended Inca was a Mestizoe, and that his true father was a monk. The Condorcanqui family traces its origin up to the Inca Sayri-Tupac, who disappeared in the thick forests to the east of Villcapampa, and to the Inca Tupac-Amaru, who, contrary to the orders of Phisip the Second, was decapitated in 1578 under the viceroy Don Francisco de Toledo. Jose Gabriel was carefully educated at Lima; and he returned to the mountains, after having in vain solicited from the court of Spain the title of Marquis d'Oropesa, which belongs to the family of the Inca Sayri-Tupac. His spirit of vengeance drove him to excite the highland Indians, irritated against the corregidor Arriaga, to insurrection. The people acknow ledged him as a descendant of their true sovereigns, and as one of the children of the sun. The young man took advantage of the popular enthusiasm which he had excited by. the symbols of the ancient grandeur of the empire of Cusco; he frequently bound round his forehead the imperial fillet of the Incas ; and he artfully mingled christian ideas with the memorials of the worship of the sun.

In the commencement of his campaigns he protected ecclesiastics and Americans of all colours. As he only broke out against Europeans, he made a party even among the Mestizoes and the Creoles ; but the Indians, distrusting the sincerity of their new allics, soon began a war of extermi. nation against every one not of their own race. Jose Gabriel Tupac-Amaru, of whom I possess letters in which he stiles himself Inca of Peru, was not so cruel as his brother Diego, and especially his nephew Andres Condorcanqui, who, at the age of 17, displayed great talents but a sanguinary character. This insurrection, which appears to me very little known in Europe, lasted nearly two years. I shall give more minute information with regard to it in the historical account of my travels. Tupac-Amaru had made himself master of the provinces of Quispicanchi, Tinta, Làmpa, Azangara, Caravaja, and Chumbivilcas, when the Spaniards made him and his family prisoners. They were all quartered in the city of Cusco.

The respect with which the pretended Inca had inspired the natives was so great, that, notwith. standing their fear of the Spaniards, and though they were surrounded by the soldiers of the victori. ous army, they prostrated themselves at the sight of the last of the children of the sun, as he passed along the streets to the place of execution. The brother of Jose Gabriel Condorcanqui, known by the name of Diego Christobal Tupac-Amaru, was executed long after the termination of this revolutionary movement of the Peruvian Indians. When the chief fell into the hands of the Spaniards, Diego surrendered himself voluntarily, to profit by the pardon promised him in the name of the king. A formal convention was signed between him and the Spanish general, on the 26th January 1782, at the Indian village of Siquani, situated in the province of Tinta. He lived tran. quilly in his family, till through an insidious and distrustful policy he was arrested on pretext of a new conspiracy.

The horrors exercised by the natives of Peru towards the whites in 1781 and 1782 in the


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