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ing, especially if we consider Louisiana and the western territory as the provincias internas of the great confederation of American republics.
I have described the state of the provincias in. ternas as it was when I left Mexico. A considerable change his since taken place in the military government of these vast provinces, of which the surface almost doubles that of the French empire. In 1807, two commundantes generales, br gadier generals brigadiers) Don Nemesio Salcedo and Don Pedro Grima est governed these northern provinces. The following is the pre-ent d vision of the Gobierno militar, which is now no longer in the hands of the governor of Chihuahua alone:
in which the whites have already made establishments, and exclude those which are either desert or inhabited by Indians, the territory of the United States in place of 200.340 ought not to be estimated above 100 or 120,000 square leagues. Author.
The author is correct enough in the number of acres which he assigns to the square mile, but he errs in converting the square miles into square leagues. The proportion by which be reduces the square niles into leagues is 144 : 25, which is equal to 5 76:1. This proportion corresponds exactly to geographical miles of 60 to the degree. But the English square mile of 040 acres is not a square geographical mile, but a mile of 69.2 to the degree. Hence the proportion to the square league is not 5.,6:1, but 7.660: 1. The territory of the United States therefore does not amount to 156,240, but to 117,478 square leagues. Trans.
Provincias INTERNAS DEL REYno de Nueva
B. Provincias internas crientales.
The new commandantes generales of the internal provinces, as well as the old, are considered as at the head of the administration of finances in the two inti ndancies of Sonora and Durango, in the province of Nuevo Mexico, and in that part of the intendancy of San Luis Potosi which comprehends Texas and Cohahuila. As to the small kingdom of Leon and New Santander, they are only subject to the commandant in a military point of view.
New Spain, (extent of the whole viceroyalty without including the
kingdom of Guatimala.)
te (provincias internas del
1A. Provincias internas
1. Nuevo Reyno de Leon .'.'.":
de la comandancia general)
Vondő TERRITORIAL DIVISIONS.
No. of inha. Surface in square Population reduced bitants to lleagues of 25 to the to the epoqua 01 the square degree.
New Spain (extent of the whole viceroyalty without including the
kingdom of Guatimala.)
B. New Spain, properly so called, immediately subject to the
viceroy, comprehending los Reynos de Mexico, Mechoa
can y Nueva Galicia, and the two Californias ,
Santander, Texas, Cohahuila, and the kingdom of Leon).
This statistical table proves the imperfection of the territorial division. It appears that in confiding to intendants the administration of police and finances, the object was to divide the Mexican soil on principles analogous to those followed by the French government on the division of the king. dom into generalities. In New Spain every intendancy comprehends several sub-delegations. In the same manner the generalities in France were governed by sub-delegates, who exercised their functions under the orders of the intendant. But in the formation of the Mexican intendancies, little regard has been paid to the extent of territory or the greater or less degree of concentration of the population. This new division indeed took place at a time when the ministers of the colonies, the council of the Indies, and the viceroys, were un. furnished with the necessary materials for so im. portant an undertaking. How is it possible to possess the detail of the administration of a country of which there has never been any map, and regarding which the most simple calculations of political arithmetic have never been attempted ?
Comparing the extent of surface of the Mexican intendancies, we find several of them ten, twenty, even thirty times larger than others. The intendancy of San Luis Potosi, for example, is more ex. tensive than all European Spain, while the intendancy of Guanaxuato does not exceed in size two or three of the departments of France. The fol