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be attributed to some accidental mistake on the part of the engraver. It is corrected in the edition of M. Bausa in 1803. The name of the capital of Mexico is effaced in it, and the Pic d'Orizaba is placed at 999 47' 30" of longitude. M. Ferrer fixes the mountain, as is proved by manuscripts in my possession, drawn up in 1793, at 19° 2' 1" of latitude, and 99° 35' 35" of longitude. The same result was also obtained by M. Isasvirivil, whose great accuracy I had occasion to know, having observed along with him at Lima and Callao in 1802.
It appears astonishing that the most recent map which we possess of that part of New Spain which we are analysing, and which bears the name of a justly esteemed author, should be the falsest of all. I speak of the large English map, which has for title, Chart of the West Indies and Spanish Dominions in North America, by Arrousmith, published in June 1803. From Mexico to Vera Cruz the names appear to be scattered at random. The position of the Pic d'Orizaba is indicated in it in a manner which might prove dangerous to navigators. The following table gives the position of the principal points, such as this map, very beautiful in other respects, indicates them. I have added the result of my astronomical observations. The longitudes are reckoned to the east of Vera Cruz, to avoid introducing into this comparison the absolute position of this port.
The errors of latitude are consequently of more than half a degree. It is difficult to conceive what is meant to be designed in the map of Arrowsmith by the three mountains named Orizaba, False Orizaba, and Volcano of Tlascala. They are all indicated to the north-west of the port of Vera Cruz, while the true Pic d'Orizaba (and the Mexicans know but one, called in the Azteque language Citlaltepetl) lies to the south-west of Vera Cruz, between the city of Cordoba and the villages of San Andres, San Antonio, Huatusco, and St. Jean Coscomatepec. There is added to the False Orizaba the note “visible to the eye at 45 leagues distance." Now Citlaltepetl is the summit which navigators first see in approaching the coast of New Spain ; consequently it might be inferred that the learned English geographer named it False Orizaba. But in this case, the latitude of this problematical mountain would be a degree false, and Orizaba would be seven marine leagues to the north of the city of Xalappa, while in reality it is only twelve to the south-south-west. Or should the Pic d'Orizaba of Arrowsmith be the Coffre de Perotte? But the Coffre lies also to the south-east, and not to the south-west of the village of Perotte. This fable of two mountains of the Dame of Orizaba is to be found also in the atlas of Thomas Jeffereys (The West-Indian atlas, London, 1794), where an attempt is made to convey minute information as to the road from Vera Cruz. to Mexico. The latitudes are there 36' false.
The difference of longitude between the port and the capital is marked 2° 29' instead of 3° 38' as in the map of Arrowsmith, and instead of 2° 56 so" the result of my astronomical observations. It is also very improbable that the Volcano of Tlascala indicated in this new English map, is the Sierra de Tlascala, called in the country Malinche; for this Sierra is neither very remarkable for its elevation, nor very distant from la Puebla. This confusion is so much the more astonishing, as in 1803 the excellent observations of Don Jose Joacquin Ferrer, published in 1798, were known in London*, as well as the maps drawn up by the Deposito Hydrografico of Madrid ; though even M. An. tillon places it in 1802, in his map of North America, la Puebla 32 too much to the south.
* Ephemerides geographiques de M. de Zach, 1793, T. II. p. 393. It is from this map that I cite the results obtained by M. Ferrer. They sometimes differ from those indicated in the manuscripts, which that excellent and indefatigable ob. server had, probably from less careful calculations, drawn up upon the spot, of which I am in possession of copies. I am bound to make this observation for the sake of those, who, having procured copies of my works, may be astonished at finding numbers in them differing from those now published by me. It is only after calculating carefully every observation that we can arrive at exact results.
POINTS SITUATED BETWEEN MEXICO, GUANAXUATO, AND VALLADOLID.
In two excursions which I made, the one to the mines of Moran and to the porphyretical summits(organos)of Actopan, the other to Guanaxuato and to the volcano of Jorullo in the kingdom of Mechoachan, I determined the position of ten points, whose longitudes are almost all founded on the transference of time. These points have enabled me to give with some accuracy a great part of the three intendancies of Mexico, Guanaxuato, and Valladolid. The longitude of the city of Guanaruato was verified by distances from the moon to the sun. Its latitude, deduced from the observation of a de la Grue, is 21° 0' 9". Fomachant gave me 21° 0' 28", and ß de la Grue, 21° O'8". The Jesuits in their map, engraved at la Puebla in 1755, placed Guanaxuato at 220 50' of
and 112° 30' of longitude, an error of go! M. Velasquez, who observed the satellites of Jupiter at Guanaxuato, found this city 1° 48' to the east of Mexico, but at 20° 45' 0" of latitude, as is proved by his manuscript map of New Spain. This error of latitude is so much the more extraordinary, as the difference in longitude which it indicates is to within an arc of 1', the same with what results from my observations.