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1864.

ded during the Crimean war, and their an-
swer to British remonstrances was that
they had used all their authority to prevent
such evasion, but could do nothing with-
out legal evidence. Her Majesty's goy-
ernment cannot, therefore, admit their lia-
bility for the proceedings of the Alabama,
but think that amendments to the foreign
enlistment act might give them greater
preventive power in the future. Similar
amendments should be made to the Amer-
ican law at the same time. Lord Russell
is ready to receive suggestions with a view
to such alterations.

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government might and should have prevented, and inquires whether, on these premises, the injured party has not the right to complain and ask redress. The claim of France to equip privateers in American ports was based on its construction of a treaty with the United States. Before the French government could be notified that the United States held to a different construction, several captures of British vessels were made by such privateers, for which the United States, admitting its responsibility for the omission to enforce its laws, made full reparation. Mr. Adams denies that the United States have induced British subjects to violate her Majesty's orders. The United States have simply purchased arms and supplies in the ordinary course of trade. British subjects, allies of the insurgents, have broken our lawful blockade, thereby committing an aggravated offense against the United States government, and have built, equipped, and manned privateers in violation of their own laws. No similarity exists between these two modes of action to justify Lord Russell in regarding the belligerents from the same stand-point. Mr. Adams quotes the President's message of 1855, showing that there had been no violations of neutrality by United States citizens, and refers to the government's prompt action in the case of the Maury and the resolutions of the New York Chamber of Commerce in relation thereto, as contrasted with the state of affairs in

England.
Incloses copy of his note to Lord Russell,

covering papers in reference to the Ala-
bama received with dispatch No. 429.

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100 THE ALABAMA-Continued.

No | From whom and

to whom.

Date.

Subject.

Page.

450

1863.
Mr. Seward to | Jan. 14 | Has received No. 281. Consideration of Earl | 112
Mr. Adams.

Russell's note therein inclosed will be re-
served until reception of Mr. Adams's an-

swer.
Earl Russell to | Jan. 28 Has received from Mr. Adams papers respect- | 112
Lord Lyons.

ing proceedings of the Alabama, which do
not affect the principles of international
law on which the answer of the British
government was based. The remedy for
such outrages is a matter for the United
States Navy. If, as alleged, there are
British subjects' among the Alabama's
crew, they are acting in violation of the
Queen's proclamation, but, unfortunately,
in accordance with the principles main-
tained by Mr. Seward in the case of the

Sunbeam. 454 | Mr. Seward to | Jan. 19 | Acknowledges receipt of Nos. 281 and 286, 113 1 Mr. Adams.

with inclosures. Mr. Adams's reply to
Earl Russell is approved. The latter's ar-
guments are not satisfactory, and it is
hoped he will reconsider the subject. Al-
though our enlistment act does not seem
to be defective, Earl Russell's suggestions
in amendment will be received. Incloses
intercepted rebel correspondence to be pre-

sented to British government. .310 Mr. Adams to Jan. 29 | Transmits note from Lord Russell, and his 114 Mr. Seward.

reply, in reference to the Alabama. Lord Russell, in reply to Mr. Adams's note of the 30th ult., asserts that the circumstances under which the vessel escaped were not "under the control" of her Majesty's government, and that measures for her detention were not intentionally delayed or neglected. They could not act without legal evidence. He quotes Mr. Jefferson's letter to show that in the cases in the French war in which redress was given by the United States for captures by French privateers, our government had purposely delayed action. In the matter of furnishing supplies, Lord Russell re-asserts the right of his government to complain of both belligerents having induced British subjests to violate the Queen's proclamation, and more strongly of the United States, because it has received the greater quantity. He did not mean to accuse Mr. Adams of encouraging enlistments of Bri'tish subjects in United States service, but refers to large bounties offered to those residing in the United States, and to Mr. Seward's avowal of this policy in case of the Sunbeam. Mr. Adams, in reply, re-asserts the position taken in his former note, of the responsibility of the British government for the escape of the Alabama, after timely notice had been given. Declines discussion of questions raised by Lord Russell, imputing other meanings to the language of his former note than those

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119

119

1863.

clearly expressed therein, and again dis-
claims any “systematic policy” of enlist-
ing British subjects on the part of the

United States. 466 Mr. Seward to Feb. 2 Incloses memorial in reference to destruction 118 Mr. Adams.

of ships Brilliant and Manchester by the
Alabama, for presentation to British gov-

ernment. 321 Mr. Adams to | Feb. 13 In obedience to instruction 454, has called 119 Mr. Seward.

Lord Russell's attention to his reply to Mr.
Adams's note of 20th November, in regard
to reparation for present damages by Ala-
bama, and future prevention, and stated
that he was not yet authorized to say any-

thing on his answer to first point.
Earl Russell to Feb. 14 It appears from conversation with Mr. Ad-
Lord Lyons.

ams, that the United States desire the con-
troversy in case of the Alabama to be car-
ried on in London rather than in Wash-

ington. 331 | Mr. Adams to | Feb. 19 Incloses copy of note to Lord Russell, trans- | Mr. Seward.

mitting memorial received with 466. 483 | Mr. Seward to Feb. 19 Has received No. 310, with inclosures. Mr. | 120

Adams's reply to Lord Russell is approved.
The United States cannot relinquish its
claim for redress of injuries committed by
Alabama. This government is anxious to
avoid all unfriendliness with foreign na-
tions, especially with Great Britain. The
President, therefore, hopes that Earl Rus-
sell will propose some amendments to the
foreign enlistment acts of both countries.
The Senate has prepared a bill giving the
President discretionary power to grant let-
ters of marque. Should it become law, as
is expected, foreign nations will be noti-
fied, if it should become necessary to en-

force it. 349 Mr. Adams to Mar. 13 | Incloses notes of Lord Russell in reply to his | 121 Mr. Seward.

of 9th, 16th, and 19th of February, dis-
claiming all responsibility of British gov-

ernment for acts of Alabama.
Earl Russell to | Mar. 27 Refers to his interview with Mr. Adams yes- | 122
Lord Lyons.

terday, in which the latter read a dispatch from Mr. Seward in relation to the Alabama and Oreto. In reply to Lord Russell's statements, that the Alabama was fitted out in Portuguese waters, and that the British government only required sufficient evidence to act in similar cases, Mr. Adams dwelt upon the enormity of this kind of warfare, and feared that the issue of letters of marque by the United States might prove the only remedy. Lord Russell suggested the offer of large rewards for the capture of the vessels. Mr. Adams thought that England should declare her condemnation of these infractions of her law; also, that if the law was sufficient, the government should enforce it; if not, they should amend it. Lord Russell replied that the cabinet thought the law sufficient, and

THE ALABAMA-Continued.

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1863.

that the government had done their best
to execute it. Admitting the cases of the
Alabama and Oreto to be a scandal and a
reproach to the laws, he thought that the
assistance given by British subjects to the
federals greatly outweighed that given to
the confederates. Mr. Adams totally de-
nied this, and said that there was a mani-
fest conspiracy in England in the rebel in-
terest to provoke America to declare war.
He had worked to the utmost for peace,
but the task had become most difficult.
Mr. Adams fully deserves the character of
having always labored earnestly for peace.
Lord Russell trusts his efforts and those of

the two governments will be successful. 356 Mr. Adams to Mar. 27 | Reports result of conference with Lord Rus 124 Mr. Seward.

sell yesterday. After deploring the prob-
able success of operations of rebel agents
in England, as shown by inclosed letter,
and stating the object of the interview to
be to obtain their prevention by her Maj-
esty's government, Mr. Adams read Mr.
Seward's dispatch No. 505, and expressed
his regret of the possible nécessity, therein
referred to, of issuing letters of marque.
Lord Russell repeated the desire of the
government to remain neutral, and their
disapproval of proceedings in Liverpool,
but said that legal evidence of these pro-
ceedings was necessary. He referred to
his speech of Monday last, which had been
approved by Lord Palmerston, Mr. Adams
suggested an official condemnation of the
violations of law referred to would have
great weight in America. Lord Russell's
tone throughout was friendly. He regret-
ted the departure of the two privateers,
but wondered that they had not yet been
captured. Mr. Adams left a copy of reso-
lutions of Congress on intervention; also,
alluded to a letter received from Liverpool
suggesting that the United States prose-
cute the offenders in the case of the gun-
boats. Should this appear advisable, Lord
Russell promised to inform him. In view
of the better disposition now evinced by
the government and people of Great Bri-
tain, Mr. Adams recommends postpone-
ment of all minatory measures on our

part. 359 ....... do ........ Mar. 28 Transmits Morning Star's report of last even- | 129

ing's debate in Commons, the result of
which will tend to undo the effect of Lord

Russell's speech. 54 | Mr. Dudley to | Mar. 28 Incloses copies of letters and papers. ob 128 Mr. Seward.

tained from C. R. Yonge, clerk to Captain

Bullock; has sent originals to Mr. Adams.
Do........ April 1 In reference to present connection of M. G.

Klingender with the Alabama.
58
do ........ April 3 | Has taken affidavit of Clarence R. Yonge,

former paymaster in confederate navy. |

128

120

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Evidence furnished by him is sufficient to convict the Lairds and others under foreign enlistment act. Transmits correspondence with Lord Russell | 129

in regard to hostile vessels preparing at Liverpool. Has urged action of some sort to prevent their success. Incloses papers received from Mr. Dudley and laid before Lord Russell, showing Captain Bullock's position in the confederate navy, his appointment of Yonge as paymaster, accompanied by instructions, and Captain Semmes's subsequent revocation of said appointment. Transmits published official documents show- 134

ing steps taken by customs authorities, in reference to the Alabama before and after her departure. Incloses affidavit of rebel paymaster Yonge 143

in reference to Captain Bullock and the

56 290." Incloses for presentation to Lord Russell me- | 143 morial of Panama Railroad Company, and others, in regard to destruction of bark Golden Rule by Alabama. In this, as in similar cases, the United States holds Great

Britain responsible. Transmits copy of his note to Lord Russell, 144

covering Yonge's deposition showing operations of Captain Bullock and certain persons in Liverpool, as naval and financial agents of the rebels, and exhibiting English character of the Alabama's crew; also transmits Lord Russell's acknowledgment of its receipt. Has received No. 364, and laid inclosures 152

before Secretary of the Navy. Mr. Adams's

proceedings in Yonge's case are approved. Transmits copy of his note to Lord Russell, | 153

covering memorial of Panama Railroad Company and others, received with No. 542. Incloses Lord Russell's acknowledgment of | 155

his letter of the 29th ultimo with memo

rial, &c. Incloses copies of letter of Edwin H. Robin- 155

son and others, and of protest of Edward A. Swift and others, in relation to destruction of ship Golden Eagle by the Alabama, to be presented to British government as

part of claims. Inclosing copy of his note to Lord Russell, 156

transmitting papers received with No. 630, and Lord Russell's acknowledgment

thereof. Inclosing memorial of George B. Upton, in 159 reference to ship Nora destroyed by the Alabama, to be presented to British government as part of claims. Transmits copy of his note to Lord Russell, 160

inclosing Upton memorial received with No. 673.

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