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sented. Mr. Adams suggests that British
arguments which led to the treaty of 1794,
acknowledging validity of claims against
the United States for damage done by ves-
sels fitted out in American ports against
commerce of Great Britain, may be of value
should injury be done to our commerce by

the Oreto or the Alabama.
136 | Mr. Dudley to Oct. 1 Inclosing affidavit of a man named King in
Mr. Seward.

reference to the Alabama.
230 | Mr. Adams to Oct. 3 Is receiving accounts of ravages of the Ala-.
Mr. Seward.

bama. There are rumors from Liverpool
of the preparation of more cruisers. Thinks
the presence in European waters of one or
two good United States steamers, efficiently
commanded, would have a good effect. In-
closes copy of note to Earl Russell refer-
ring to serious impressions likely to be cre-
ated in the United States by the depreda-
tions of the Alabama, &c., and transmit-
ting affidavit of George King in reference
to transfer of Alabama's armament from

Bahama. 238

Oct. 10 | Inclosing

Inclosing copy of Lord Russell's note of the

4th, acknowledging receipt of his letter of
the 30th, and stating that much as her
Majesty's government desire to prevent
occurrences similar to those therein refer-
red to, they cannot go beyond municipal
and international law. Also, Mr. Adams's
reply, covering copy of intercepted letter
from Mallory to North, previously referred
to, reminding Lord Russell that his recent
representations have been based on evi-
dence of infringements of municipal law,
and referring to Mr. Collier's opinion, that
in its non-enforcement the United States

has serious ground for remonstrance.
242 ...... do ........ Oct. 16 Incloses copies of Lord Russell's note of the

9th, and the report of the customs commis-
sioners received therewith, setting forth
that as the armament, &c., of the Alabama
took place outside of British jurisdiction,
no offense cognizable by British law was
thereby committed, and that the officers
could not have interferred with shipment
of armanent or coal. Government is not
disposed to investigate acts complained of,
or prosecute the offenders; our main object

now is to complete the record.
373 | Mr. Seward to Oct. 20 Acknowledges receipt of No. 230, and approves
| Mr. Adams.

proceedings of Mr. Adams in reference to


THE ALABAMA--Continued.

No | From whom and

to whom.




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the “ 290.” Proposition of United States
to issue letters of marque had been relin-
quished, on the ground that confederates
had no ports wherein to fit out cruisers ;
yet we now see them making use of Brit-
ish ports to send out piratical vessels,
while entrance for supplies is denied to
our war vessels under proclamation of
neutrality. Will not the result be that
while Great Britain avows neutrality, her
subjects are practically allies of our ene-
mies. The President believes that her
Majesty's government will not allow this
result to be reached. The Navy Depart-
ment is taking measures to meet the new

374 | Mr. Seward to Oct. 20 Incloses letter of September 24, from Con-
Mr. Adams.

sul Dabney, at Teneriffe, to Mr. Perry, at
Madrid, giving an account of transfer of
cargo and armament to the Alabama at

244 | Mr. Adams to Oct. 23 Incloses letter from Earl Russell in reply to
Mr. Seward.

his of the 9th, stating that although the
foreign enlistment act may be evaded, her
Majesty's government cannot, on that ac-
count, go beyond the letter of the law.
The British government seems indifferent
to the consequences of its inaction, and in
the meanwhile the Alabama continués her
ravages. She is expected to attack the
California steamers. Nothing is known of

the Tuscarora.
378 Mr. Seward to Oct. 25 Has received No. 238, of October 10. Mr.
Mr. Adams.

Adams's reply to Earl Russell's note of the

4th is approved.
381 ...... do ......... Oct. 25 Incloses copies of papers received from Min-

ister Harvey, at Lisbon, concerning depre-
dations of the Alabama. These docu-
ments contain information of the destruc-
tion of ten American whalers near the
Azores. Mr. Harvey has taken precau-
tions to prevent further outrages by the
Alabama, but recommends that a swift
armed steamer be sent to the vicinity of
the Azores. Mr. Adams is directed to lay
these papers before Earl Russell, and to
endeavor to obtain from British govern-
ment, first, redress for injuries already sus-
tained by American commerce; and sec-
ond, prevention of such proceedings here-

after. 383

Oct. 27 Incloses resolutions of New York Chamber of

Commerce, lamenting the destruction of
American vessels by the Alabama, setting
forth the results of such proceedings in a
moral and commercial point of view,
warning British merchants that a repeti-
tion of these outrages by British-built and
manned vessels will produce wide-spread
exasperation in this country, and invok-
ing their influence to prevent the depart-
ure of such vessels in future from British

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ports. Mr. Adams may, if he thinks fit,

submit these resolutions to Earl Russell. 384 Mr. Seward to Oct. 30 Incloses communication from Navy DepartMr. Adams.

ment in reference to breach of interna-
tional obligations committed by her Maj-
esty's gunboat Bull-Dog, in transporting
officers for confederate service, and directs
that it be submitted to Earl Russell for

the purpose of investigation and redress. 385 ....... do ........ Nov. 3 Information of further devastation by Ala

bama received. The President is obliged
to regard these destructions as being com-
mitted by British subjects, in violation of
the law of nations, after repeated notice
to the British government. The legal
proofs to support claim for indemnity will

be forwarded as soon as possible.
390 ....... do ........ Nov. 4 | Has received No. 242 of 16th ultimo. The

President regrets to see no disposition on
the part of Great Britain either to redress
injuries already suffered from Alabama
and other vessels, or to prevent carrying
out of similar enterprises in future. In
hope of a change of opinion, however, evi-
dence will still be forwarded to be laid be-

fore the British government.
257 Mr. Adams to Nov. 6 Has again notified officers of Tuscarora and
Mr. Seward.

Kearsarge to keep lookout for the Ala-
bama, which is about to return to the
Western Islands. Some uneasiness is felt
in Liverpool and London on account of
her exploits, in view of possible reclama-
tions by our government. Mr. Adams has
from the commencement shaped his course
in correspondence with Lord Russell, so as
to sustain such reclamations. Activity in
forwarding supplies to British islands un-
abated. Guns are to be manufactured

here for defense of Charleston.
396 Mr. Seward to Nov. 10 Acknowledges receipt of No. 244. The Pres-
Mr. Adams.

ident regrets that our complaints in re- gard to the Alabama have not been more favorably received by her Majesty's government. Future outrages will, perhaps, induce then to give the matter more de

liberate consideration.
157 | Mr. Dudley to Nov. 11 Inclosing copy of his note to Mr. Squarey,
Mr. Seward.

asking whether everything was done that
could possibly have been done on our part
to prevent the sailing of the Alabama;
also the latter's affirmative answer, adding
that in his judgment and that of Mr. Col-
lier the evidence was sufficient to have
justified her detention under the foreign
enlistment act. It is understood that the

Lairds are still interested in the Alabama. 260 Mr. Adams to | Nov. 13 Acknowledges receipt of instruction No. 381 Mr. Seward.

with inclosures. Will present the latter, with other papers in reference to Alabama to Lord Russell, with a view to obtaining redress and prevention. The attention of the government seems to have been drawn

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to the matter, and they are reported to
have taken steps to prevent exportation
of arms and supplies to the rebels. Their
tardy vigilance seems, however, to be di-
rected against those who have least offend-
ed, while the more notorious have here-
tofore escaped by reason of the amount
of evidence required as to destinations of
vessels. Mr. Adams hopes to learn the
reason for this in his expected interview

with Lord Russell.
Nov. 14 | Has received No. 250. The President is grat-

ified at the apparent change in British
opinion. Calls attention to the anomaly
of our fortifying New York against an ex-
pedition from Liverpool. Lord Lyons has

arrived and been cordially received.
Nov. 20 Has received dispatches 383 to 388 inclusive.

Is preparing a note to Lord Russell, covering the whole case of the Alabama, and will postpone action on the other matters. Our policy of reclamations, as set forth in Mr. Seward's letter to New York Chamber of Commerce, is construed in England as encouraging foreign difficulties to counteract the tendency of home elections. Mr. Adams believes the question can be more conveniently discussed and settled hereafter. The publication of the notes of the three powers on the proposition of France, together with the revival of the anti-slavery feeling in England, has caused a better sentiment toward the United States. Incloses a copy of his note to Earl

262 | Mr. Adams to

Mr. Seward.

from Washington and Liverpool in reference to the Alabama; recounting the circumstances of her building, departure, and


ted by a British crew and sometimes under British colors; showing the inevitable consequences to commerce of government toleration of such proceedings; raising the question of reclamations in the light of the treaty of 1794; and finally soliciting present reparation for, and future preven

tion of, such injuries. Nov. 21 | In his conference with Lord Russell last week

Mr. Adams had apprised him of the complaints in reference to the Alabama which he was about to present. Lord Russell referred to the delay in stopping the vessel occasioned by the illness of Sir John Harding, and denied John Bright's reported statement that he had warned the vessel of proposed proceedings in time for her escape. No investigation seems to have been made of the action of the collector in

permitting her to leave. 265 ....... do ........ Nov. 27 Hás received dispatches 389 to 398 and print 185

ed circular 27. Lord Russell has only briefly acknowledged his note of the 20th.

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ners still continue. Mr. Adams is await-
ing details in order to present to the gov-
erument a comprehensive statement of
hostile operations now going on in British

421 Mr. Seward to Dec. 8 Has received No. 262. The President ap-
Mr. Adams.

proves Mr. Adams's course in presenting claims. This government has no desire to harass Great Britain at present, but asks prevention for the future. Claims are to be presented to us for injuries done to foreigners by the rebels, to which we should have no answer if we did not use all our efforts to put down the insurrection. It seems to the President incontestable that Great Britain must, redress our injuries inflicted by her subjects, unless she can show that she has done all in her power to prevent them. The recognition of a contrary doctrine would be followed by universal piracy. British interest in the establishment of this principle is no less than ours. The fact that the Alabama was built in one place and armed, manned, and equipped elsewhere aggravates rather

than extenuates the offense. 429 ...... do .... .... | Dec. 20 Incloses additional papers in reference to

ravages of the Alabama. 281 Mr. Adams to Dec. 25 Incloses Lord Russell's note of the 19th, to Mr. Seward.

the minor points of which he is preparing an answer. Lord Russell adverts to cir

as being materially different from those in case of the Alabama. It was the deliberate violation of international law in the former case, and not accidental evasion of a municipal law, which was made the basis of British complaints. Her Majesty's government have been much concerned at, and endeavored to discourage shipments of contraband of war to belligerents, in violation of the Queen's proclamation, which withdrew her protection from subjects engaged in such enterprises. The United States, however, have been much the largest gainers by these shipments. The British government has just grounds of complaint against both parties for haying induced its subjects to such practices, and cannot be held responsible for them by either. In support of this view Lord

message of 1855. He then refers to the case of the Alabama, and repeats that she sailed in opposition to British municipal law, and in spite of earnest endeavors to enforce it. This should not surprise, the United States, because their own law, almost identical in terms, was similarly eva

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