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hour hanging on abject conditions, every ex-order and virtue ? It may not be improper to pression of personal preference in religion and throw a classical relief over the comparison. politics scornfully denied, we may wonder at Where did the ancient mythology place its their forbearance. They are often cared for most monstrous forms? In the gardens, by less than the clod of the valley, or the herd of the streams, among the woods.

There reign the stall. Soils will be improved ; breeds shall Pan and Silenus, the Sylvani, the Satyrs, the be perfected; stock shall be adjudged with Fauns. The Dryads are also there. They honor; cultivation shall be assisted with every approach not the cities nor disfigure the towns. experiment, and be rewarded with every prize. -pp. 46, 47. And then, when some monstrous growth, some crass carcase, some field implement, has been The Fifth Report of the Registrar-Genlauded to the echo which applauds again, a eral, concerning marriages, published in poor laborer is introduced, and he shares in the hogors of the show, for having brought up cation in the rural, and in the city and manu

1843, shows the comparative state of eduso many children without parish pay! Nature and ingenuity have been racked in the facturing districts. It is required that parother instances of success, and surely not less ties who cannot write their

name shall

sign in this ! It is an appropriate climax to the with a mark. In Suffolk, Essex, and Camfête. An admiring district can scarcely deter- bridgeshire, there were forty-seven in the mine where the greater glory of the invention hundred compelled to sign with a mark; falls.'— pp. 41-46.

in Bedfordshire, forty-nine; in Herts, fifty;

but in the metropolitan divisions, only The next extract brings out another point eleven in the hundred. The inference from in this comparison :

these facts cannot be mistaken. Of the "The question of the comparative morality

kind of education which Dr. Hamilton inof these departments is

, of all, the most import- culcates, the reader may judge from the ant. It is not to be decided by a glance. It following passages : is commonly taken for granted that the country Any education is nearly worthless that is is the favorite scene and haunt of the virtues. not intelligent. The mind must be aroused to The cottier is the old Adamite, dressing his think for itself. Mental digestion alone proplot on the outer fence of Eden. The village duces mental life and health. Violent efforts green and oak might be the neighborhood of of the memory often discourage even that lower Mamre. Here simplicity has received no blight, faculty without strengthening the judgment. and purity no taint. Pastorals fill the air, and Let children be taught the reasons of facts; and the melodies of the brooks and woods swell the when this cannot be done, let it be shown how chant of native reeds. But there may be ob- reasonable is the ground of conviction in their servers who yield to no such romance; they approved truth. Why is it?-how can it be? yet hold that, in the rural portions of the king. --wherefore do you believe it? are questions dom, there is a more spotless state of morals. which will draw up the soul from its depths, Now, will it be contended that there is in them and liberate it from its fetters. This is the irue as exalted sense, as generous practice of mor- praxis of education. Self-knowledge, self-conals, as is often demonstrated in our city marts ! trol, self-examination, self-culture, will follow It is maintained that the vices of our towns as effects You have caused him who was are not rife in our villages ? Perhaps the com- created a thinking being to think; you have plaint simply respects the number of offences. done reverence to the Father of Spirits in the Our country calendars must determine that evocation of that spirit. Then, do we feel bold in the argument, that the "We feel that something is wanting to raise most numerous and most ovlious crimes come the national mind; il is oppressed by habitude not from the towns, but from scattered hamlets and phlegm. We desire to bring it to a greater and solitary dwellings. The quarter sessions, force and quickness; it stands in need of acit will be said, dispose of cases that come from tivity, perception, vigor. It has been long overthe towns, and they are not heard of in the borne by tyranny and besotted by ignorance ; gaol delivery of the shire. But these enormi- it has been bought by gifts and suborned by ties, wherever committed, must go to the high- bribes. There is a natural love of justice and er court. And are there not sessions for the tone of generosity in it; it strongly inclines to counties, and the divisions of the counties, as independence, but it has been worp down by well as for the boroughs ? Let the truth-it is neediness and beaten down by rigor. It comextorted from those who are impartial-be prehends all the elements of greatness; it resimply told. The proportion of criminals to sembles some noble falchion capable of the every thousand inhabiiants is higher in Wor- keenest edge and the brightest polish, uninjured cestershire than in Middlesex, and is equal to in its temperament even now, but blunted, that of Lancashire. Herefordshire exceeds soiled, threatened to be corroded by its rust. Leicestershire. Dorset surpasses Notting- It must be awakened to exertion, and to greater hamshire. The county of Oxford is on a par confidence in itself; it must be drawn from the with that of Stafford. Does this account just-low amusements which have hitherto been its ify the transcendence of rural over municipal only recreation. It is ready for growth in know

ledge, it invites, it even thirsts for education. ties. In France, the schools instituted by Stimulated by that discipline which we incul- the government, exist in thirty-three thouscate, it will rouse from sloih; possessing the mo: and communes, or parishes, out of thirty-. tives for improvement, its inborn energy will vindicate itself ; it will stand forth in iis viva- seven thousand, in which three millions of city without lightness, in its strength without children are educated. Where practicable, violence, in its stability without grossness, in separate schools exist for catholics and its activity without lubricity, in its ascendancy protestants; and where the schools are without disdain.

mixed, the best available provisions are 'It is almost unnecessary to say, that the in- made to secure the rights of conscience struction of the child is as nothing, save as you from invasion. There are also forty-six imbue him with the laste and furnish him with the means of self-education. Every man,' royal colleges, in which a higher education says Gibbon, 'who rises above the common is given, including some eighteen thousand level has received two educations: the first, students; and two hundred and eighty-seven from his teachers; the second, more personal communal colleges, in which there are more and important, from himself. Once inspired than twenty-six thousand students. In 1842, to think wisely and religiously, it is not very the government voted £80,000 towards the probable that he will relapse. Study will be his habit, and piety his inner life. Should he expenses of these colleges. Attendance of never rise in society he has already gained an

children at the primary schools is volunhonored and a holy position; he carries with tary. Even now, however, about one-third him a blessed charm to lighten toil, to assuage of the people of France can neither read affliction, to purify attachment, and to conquer nor write. The Prussian system covers its death, He has been trained in the way in territory more completely than the French, which he should go, and when he is old, he and is compulsory. In all other respects, will not depart from it. "We would, therefore, when certain writere France has followed the example of Prussia'

. urge moral training, admit the idea, but at the Systems of this complexion obtain, with same time greatly expand it beyond their am- slightly varying degrees of efficiency, as is bition. We see clearly that education has well known, in Austria, Switzerland, Holhitherto scarcely touched the spiritual good land, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, and the of man; the higher principles of Christianity United States. Everywhere they are subhave found little access to the people's heart

. stantially the same, subject in part to local In them is the power which is now wanted to regenerate society. General discipline may management, but holding the same relation do much for the public mind, and even public to a central government, which enjoins morality, but there it stops ; it leaves the real their existence, and authorizes the taxation nature of man the same; something more is necessary for their support. In six of the required to stem the eager passions of its self-states of the American Union the proportion ishness. Are the masters always the true re- of the population under instruction rises so formers of the soul ? Do not the Titans assail high as one-fourth. In an average of eight heaven? Is mental process the invariable of the countries the most advanced in this guide to virtue and piety? Is infidelity the mistake of the ignorant? Is war the exclusive respect in Europe, the proportion is onedelight of the rude? Is there not now an in- sixth. From the ‘Report of the Hon. and tense activity of mind laboring with all the Rev. Baptist Noel,' printed in the Minutes prodigies of evil? But in the gospel we pos- of the Committee of the Council of Educasess the instrument which called into existence tion,' relative to the state of education in the first Christians. It is eternally the same; Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Salyet , with an ever-adapting faculty, it antici

: ford, and Bury, we think it may be made belongs to all truth and all goodness ; it is the to appear that about one-sixth of the populainheritance of every age ; it is the friend of tion in those five towns, do receive some man in his every estate; it works by an as- kind of school instruction. But if we may similating action; it turns all into itself

. What be allowed to take those five towns as a samwould a nation of Christians be? What would ple of the kingdom, it must be remembered be a world? That is the ultimate design, that that the term, instruction,' as relating to the blessed reward, that the glorivus victory, the eight states on the Continent, is to be of true education !'-pp. 84-86.

understood as referring to the full training The chapters on the advantages of popu- of the day schools, while with us, this numlar education, and on Sabbath schools, con- ber of the taught must be made up of all tain much valuable matter ; but we pass on who come under instruction in any form or to those relating to the foreign systems and degree, from the lowest dame school, or means of education, the state of education mere Sunday instruction, upwards; not in this country, and to our consequent du- more than a fourth of this number being

attendants at the elementary day schools | A royal council assists the minister. The designed for the working classes. Com- seven functionaries, of which it consists, divide paring ourselves with the continental and the faculties and departments of education American states adverted to, we cannot be among them. Under them are the inspectorssaid to place the same number under instruc- constituted over their respective provinces.

general. Then the heads of the academies are tion ; but in the amount and quality of the All is detail and surveillance; there is nothing instruction given, we fail much more than which can elude the jealous care of the most in the number of the taught, few being ed-balanced system. But freedom is sacrificed ucated in our elementary schools in so good on the elaborate altar ; teacher and pupil cana degree, so far as the usual elements of not know it. The school is the ward of one school learning are concerned, as in the great panoptic prison-house, with the keepers schools of the same class in most of the rain gives a deplorable account of the state of

. work states referred to, both in the old world and things. He was one of the four hundred and the new.

ninety inspectors sent forth by Guizot to exOn the whole, it must be confessed, that amine into the primary schools. He proceeds in this comparison, the scale turns, and upon their general reports. The tale is somewhat strongly, against us.

'Two almost incredible of the miscreants who were causes preclude our adopting the continental called schoolmasters, and the hovels that system—the exclusiveness of our national vice, the squalor, the audacious dissimulation

were called schools. The incapacity, the church, and the more advanced social in- and deception, nearly surpass the power of telligence and feeling of our people. No belief. The moral influence is too apparent. system, we think, could be made accepta- It is the characteristic of the brave and free to ble to this nation which should be so ad- rest upon themselves. The desire of the true justed as to satisfy our established clergy. patriot is in everything to circumscribe the And if that difficulty could be removed, the province of government, where it can be done power of the government among us is still Inour country, the loan of the state is generally

by extending the sphere of individual action. so formidable, that many calm and thought- deprecated; we would allow nothing of our ful men cannot avoid the conclusion, that commerce or our undertakings to fall into its the remedy, as coming from that quarter, hands. But when education is resigned to it would be worse than the disease. It might we are henceforth children; the mind is discause a greater degree of school-learning, couraged and debased ; we consent to receive but might occasion a loss of many things, with a royal device. We are under tutors and

our ideas, and those only, which are minted which are more excellent. On this subject, governors. Self-reliance, the soul of virtue, however, we prefer that our author should the talisman of success, is beaten down. speak. He would vest the responsibility France is infidel or superstitious at a bidding; of educating the young in the parent, and generation is a conflict with generation as the not in the state. He contends that this educatory machine is set. The nation looks is the law of Revelation, and that, as a up for its direction to the existing raler or rule, the parent is better fitted and better bondage. It is not the people, but that power.

government; it can, therefore, only be in disposed to the discharge of this duty than That power is a great deputation to do every, the state. We counsel those who may be thing. And why is this? Because the mind inclined to despise his reasoning on this of the nation is made prisoner, and led captive ground to attempt to grapple with it. In by the training which it meets at the outset of the following extract the reader may trace life, which binds it to uniformity, impresses it the drift of Dr. Hamilton's argument on with helplessness, and satisfies it with dependthis subject :

ence. Hence the absence of enterprise, the

dearth of large and stirring views of great National education does exist in many of

and far-seeing principles. The quarrel of the the continental states. It has operated long people may be with the government; emeute enough for its decided effects to be seen may shake it, or revolution may overthrow it, There is abundance of organization: there but they keep to the one idea, the one idol of are grand referendaries; there are portfeuilles the government still

. The high-souled reand bureaux. Local check is unknown; sell form of the nation, the regeneration of the government is repudiated; all hangs upon one people, enters not into their thoughts. They centre. Let us examine the great scholastic think themselves free, but it is in the sale of regimen of France. There is a minister of their freedom. They capitulate to a system public instruction; he is the master of the uni- of egregious vain glory; for empty honor and versity, which is the keystone to the whole pageant, they lay down their arms and abanedifice of education. It has dependent upon time their folly. It will not be long before

don their garrisons. They may find out in it, academies, royal colleges, commercial colleges, institutions, pensions, primary schools. they see how men ride over their heads.

[graphic]

They have bowed themselves to the despot-| sinks it to the same. A dull monotony sucism, and they must not complain that it tram- ceeds. To this is a noble people made slave ples upon thein, Like other fortifications, and victim. What high deeds can such discithey will at last learn that educaiory bulwarks pline provoke? Where are the excellences are for their own intimidation. All will be which this culture can inspire? They who turned against themselves. We have a hun- anticipate the reign of mind and religion, can dred governments in England; if they do see in all of this mechanism, no preparatory wrong, the tribunals proscribe and punish- process, no encouraging earnest, no prophetic but with one much-grudged exception, (save hope ! - pp. 242, 243. that of the registration, which requires a central safe-keeping and archive,) centraliza- We have been more free than usual in tion, that subordinate ramification which gives to a Parisian board its national ubiquity, is our extracts from this volume, partly that unknown to us.'-pp. 239-241.

our criticisms on the style and manner of the author may not go forth without suita

ble and sufficient illustration; and partly The Prussian system finds no more favor in the hope that our readers will be diswith our author than the French.

posed by these specimens to make them"The education which is established in selves acquainted with the entire work. Prussia is a theme of very wide and vehement In a volume embracing so great a variety eulogy. It has been exalted as a model of of topics, and topics on which there is so perfection. The best, the only safeguard of much room for diversity of judgment, we fiberty, is hitherto withheld. The constitution shall not be thought to concur in everything which was promised, when a popular spirit was to be awakened, which was the signal

we meet with. The coloring is sometimes cry for levies of youth and treasure, is still partial; and positions of some peril are ocperfidiously and ungratefully refused. The casionally taken, as we think, with more Jast and the present monarch have borne their resoluteness than discretion. But, as a faculties meekly, and have exhibited many whole, the publication is admirable. We amiable virtues.' But poor and to be accursed conclude by recommending it, not merely are the virtues which undo a country;' The to the perusal, but to the meditative thought private excellence and domestic goodness of of our readers. It is a work characterized the despot are not uncommon. His nature must have some vent of tenderness. Wield-by sound information, large views, and ing a mighty machinery of oppression, it is not close reasoning; and in the eloquence likely that be will carry cruelty and violence which pervades it, bespeaks equally the phiinto his home. It is a respite of self-torment lanthropy, the patriotism, and the piety of its to find here pastime and caress. It is relief author. But ihe friends of a self-sustained from the heavy powers of state. It is only a popular education must remember, that variety of selfishness. Who commends the their work is not done because eloquent lion, as it devours its prey, that it is loving 10 its mate, and playful with its cubs ? No more

things have been written about it. Nondire misfortune has fallen on man than this conformists, especially, will do well to bear amiableness of tyrants. It osten is pretence. in mind, that their responsibilities in relaBetter were it to be so. Often it is real. It tion to this subject are the most weighty is then pleaded for excuse to crush millions of that Providence has ever laid upon them. families, to send desolations through millions Their social position in the time to come of households. A Nero and a Caligula could will depend greatly on the manner in not do half the mischief of a William and a Nicholas. What is this country of which we which they acquit themselves with regard to speak--this kingdom of boasted light--this this duty. land of universal education ? A camp of maneuvrers, an arsenal of weapons, a barrack of troops. All are trained to military service. Upon this martial regulation is founded the system of instruction. It supplies, of course, BULWER'S MUSCLES OF THE MIND. immense facilities for it. A thousand subalterns are ready to conduct it. Pedagogues

From Frazer's Magazine. are the orderlies and sentries. The drum and

« Is there an art the drill are the notions and exercises. An

To find the mind's construction in the face ?" elementary education, very complete as far as it goes, is confessedly afforded. But what is

We have all heard the anecdote of Socrathe national character which it can shape ? tes and the physiognomist, which in our It severs the proper sympathies of parent and child. It extinguishes the proud conscious- opinion, however, proves nothing but that ness of free agency and personal accountabil- the latter had not got beyond the rudiments ity. It raises mind to one level-it as often of his art. Being asked to decipher the face of the wisest and most virtuous of men, from the decision, and can scarcely allow he could discover nothing in his features but even Lavater himself to be a good substitute folly and vice. He imagined—for we can- for a jury of twelve stupid honest Englishnot accept the excuse of Socrates for him-men. that deformity of visage necessarily indi- In spite of all this, however, we maintain cared deformity of mind, and could not detect that the language of the passions is written the expression of the saint beaming forth upon the countenance; that its character, from the coarse persona (npóoorov) of the though obscure, indeed, and known only man Socrates. The ancients indeed gen- like the Egyptian hieroglyphics to a sew, erally, in their treatises or scattered obser- are not perfect enigmas; and that Gregory vations on physiognomy, seem in a great Nazianzen, in painting the expression and measure to have sought for indications of gestures of Julian the Apostate, furnishes the mind's character from those parts which us with ample materials for forming a conwere most likely to resist the impressions of ception of the construction of his mind." passion and the plastic operations of the soul. But to understand this language it is necesHippocrates and Aristotle, among others, sary to be acquainted with the alphabet in lay more stress on the conformation of which it is written; not merely to glance at the nose, the size of the eye, the greater or the letters on the page of the human counless protuberance of the forehead, the co- tenance, which would be like attempting to lor of the hair, than on the subtle variations discover the mechanism of a telegraph by of form which distinguish one mouth, for seeing it work, but to take them one by one, example, from another; and they have not analyze their nature, study their conformabeen without their followers in modern tion, and attain a clear idea of the force and times. Gaspar Taliacottus, whose wonder- signification of each. ful achievements are celebrated in Hudi- These letters are what Bulwer calls “ the bras, and who ought to have known some- muscles significative of the affections of the thing of noses, since he made a good many mind." They have one peculiarity, which with his own hands, appears to have ima- is, that when they have been often disposed gined that his favorite feature was the pal- in a certain order upon a face, they have an ace of the mind, whose shape could be as- aptitude to assume that order once more. certained, like that of an ankle through a For this reason, a countenance which has silk stocking, by the most cursory inspection. been accustomed to represent certain pasA nose with a sharp edge, he says, indicates sions acquires at length from this circumaptitude for anger ; a thick and depressed stance what is called an expression ; that nose denotes most vicious inclinations; a is to say, the animal spirits, if it be the anifull, solid, and obtuse nose, like that of lions mal spirits by which the effect is brought and Molossian dogs, is a sign of courage and about, wear themselves a beaten path, an audacity ; hooked and aquiline nose re- habitual state is induced, and the more flexveals a royal and magnificent mind, but a ible features at length constantly represent crooked soul is betrayed by a nose that is the favorite posture of the mind. Idiots bent and on one side. These, and such as have no expression, because they are very these, are the conclusions to which his nasal rarely intent for a sufficient length of time studies led Taliacottus, who doubtless assist- upon one object. Their vacant stare reed in forming the theory of Walter Shandy, veals accurately the character of their Esq. However this may be, we must ven- thoughts. ture to dissent toto cælo from his conclusions, Bulwer is of opinion—but who is Bul. especially as such a theory pushed to ex- wer? Not a baronet, certainly, nor the autremes might lead to very serious conse- thor of a dozen novels? No. John Bulquences. Already has the sage Valesius, wer, son of Thomas Bulwer, was surnamed in his Sacred Philosophy, proposed to in the Chirosopher, and wrote a book “now troduce the science of physiognomy into the seldom pored on,” entitled, Pathomyotomia; courts of law. When two persons accused or, a Dissection of the Significative Mus. of crimes, he says, are brought up before a cles of the Affections of the Mind: being judge, let him unhesitatingly select the most an Essay to a New Method of Observing ill-favored of them, and put him to the tor- the most Important Movings of the Muscles ture: there is no doubt about the matter ; of the Head, as they are the near st and rack him till he confesses-he is the villain ; | immediate Organs of the Voluntary or Imwoe betide the morning that he was born with so ugly a face! We beg to appeal

* Hist. Eccles. iii. 19.

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