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petuous Motions of the Mind, with a Pro-stand;" and well he might, for it is necesposal for a New Nomenclature of the Mus- sary to be not a little versed in the learning cles. This preface in a title-page was print- of the schools to detect in the concluding ed by W. W. for Humphrey Moseley, in clauses an allusion to the theory of those 1649, and was to be sold, along with the who maintained that all our passions are but book attached, in his shop at the Prince's modifications of desire and aversion, love Arms in St. Paul's Churchyard. It is suc- and hatred. Bulwer's object, however, was ceeded by an epistle dedicatory, in which not to elucidate this point, but to complain the author, addressing bis loving father, the that," among all the conscript fathers of aforementioned Mr. Thomas Bulwer, in- anatomy," no one had undertaken a general forms him that he will find in it, “ The survey of the muscles of the human body, clockwork of the head, or the springs and with a view to an accurate estimate of their inward contrivance of the instruments of importance in expressing the passions of the all our outward motions, which give motion mind, and to the construction of a nomento and regulate the dial of the affections clature founded on philosophical principles. which nature hath placed in the face of man; Galen, he says, in that excellent work on being a new light and the first irradiation the Motion of the Muscles (“wherein he which ever appeared through the dissections went beyond himself, and shewed the greatof a corporeal philosophy.” He then in- est miracle of his art; a book which all forms the world that he had intended it to anatomists kiss with veneration, as containhave been “illustrated with the ornamental ing the oracles of myology”), doth not so demonstration of many figures prepared for much as glance at it; and the writers in it;" but the stationers objecting to the ex- modern times on anatomy have almost unipense, he finds another reason to satisfy versally evaded any allusion to the soul, himself, which is, “that in such new and whose well-strung instrument the body is." unexpected matters too great a splendor Dr. Hood alone-so says Bulwer-in his might possibly have dazzled.” He adds peroration when he was Prælector of Anatthat he had met with little encouragement omy in the College of Physicians in Lonin his design, all the physicians and anato-don, A. D. 1620, sketched out a method in mists to whom he had given any hint of his which “the internal and spiritual man, theory having thought lightly of it, except which is rather to be dissected with living Dr. Wright, jun., who had planned an Ana- words than any knife, how sharp soevtomia Comparata, suggested by Lord Bacon er," was to form the subject of an “anain his book De Augmentis Scientiarum. tomical præludium.” Could it have been to This learned person incited Bulwer to pro- this expression that a more modern professor ceed with his design, promising to afford alluded when he declared his disbelief in him every facility, but death put a stop to the human soul, because he never met with his career; a circumstance regretted, says it under his scalpel ? At any rate, Bulwer his friend, " by all who had took notice of determines that it is "a thing worthy to be the most eminent and divine impulsions of corrected with the whip of ignorance, if any his anatomic genius.”

rashly plunge himself into the muscular sea But this accident did not prevent the Chi- of corporeal anatomy, or of the outward rosopher from prosecuting his design; and man, without any mention of the internal he accordingly continued to direct his stu- man;" and resolves to attempt something in dies towards physiognomy.

this way. Among other achievements, he “ Having resolved,” he says, “to trace the proposes to take away the blemish which discoursing actions of the head to the spring hath fallen upon the art, by the slovenly and and principle upon which their outward signi- careless denomination of some of the musfications depend; when I had passed the superficial parts and digged a little more than cles, and the six-footed barbarisms of those skin-deep into the mineral of cephalical motion, Greek conjuring names, which are fit only I came io the muscles, the instruments of vol- for the bombastical anatomy of Paracelsus." untary motion (or the instruments of those mo- What he proposed to substitute was a series tions that are done by an earnest affection, that of appellations derived from the significative is, from an inward principle); the effects of nature of each muscle. To attain this, he whose moving significantly appear in the parts determined to examine the nature of those moved, when, by an arbitrary motion, we freely reject or embrace things understood, not with muscles of the head which could be supposour mind only, but with our mind and body ed to express a meaning, and which enable both."

one, as it were, to touch and feel the inward “Here," adds our author, “I made a motions of the mind. The construction of

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a convenient nomenclature, however, was most convenient. At any rate "animal" by no means his chief object. In bestow- and" voluntary” are by no means convertiing significant names upon the muscles, he ble terms. desired to enable us “ to read their signifi- Voluntary motions are the result of eleccations couched in their names;" and assist tion consequent on a kind of mental solilous in finding out, by a scrutiny of the acci- quy, of which the form is, “ To do, or not dents of the head and face, those of the to do, that is the question.” They are of mind, of which the former are types and two kinds; the one ihe result of deliberation representations. It is evident, therefore, immediately preceding, the other of former that he considered his work as a contribu- deliberation which has produced a habit. tion to the science of physiognomy; and so Under the latter head should, perhaps, be indeed it is.

ranged many actions which are improperly For a man to be ignorant, he affirms, of termed instinctive. For example, we raise the manner in which the motions of the head our hand to ward off a blow, from a habit are brought about, is “to have no better a acquired by precedent experience of pain; headpiece than that which, counterfeiting and all may observe in children, that they the natural motions of speech, uttered its are very far from having any instinctive fear mind to Thomas Aquinas, the learned Fri- of what will hurt them, until by frequent ar Bacon.” He might have proceeded, " or trials they have acquired a sort of rough crithan that which in Saragossa, to the inex- terion by which to distinguish danger from pressible perplexity of the knight of La its opposite. Mancha, and the wonderful amazement and It is certain, however, that Scaliger,* the horror of his squire, did converse of things Master of the Subtleties, is right, when he past, present, and to come.:: As for his reproves Cardan for assigning custom as own conclusions on the subject, he professes one of the fountains of muscular motion disto offer them very modestly to the world, ac- tinct from the action of the soul; for nothknowledging that ere they are made canon- ing that has not a soul can acquire a habit; ical it will be necessary to assemble a whole the existence of the first is an essential concollege, or rather a national synod of anato- dition to that of the second, which, ftheremists. Still, he maintains that he has fore, cannot be the primary cause of any sprung a new vein; adding, however, “If muscular motion. they are contented to allow me to have been the first that by art endeavored to link the

"Custom, indeed," says Bulwer, "and the muscles and the affections together in a Pa- the doing or perfecting of some motions; and

aptitude of parts, do advance and help forward thomyogamia, or, at least, to have published it is worth our admiration to see how in a Chithe bans between Myologus and Pathology, ronomer, who has his soul in his fingers, the so that any philological handfast that can muscles of his hand should be directed, so marry them stronger might do it if he pleas- swiftly to the nerves of his instrument, while ed, I ask no more.”

it may be he is afflicted in mind, his hand being Before proceeding to details the Chiros- driven by the command of his will to such moopher breaks up some metaphysical ground, fingers being done by the nods of his soul,

tions, all the ready variations of his cunning and starts the question, Whether the motions though unknown to him—unknown by reason which, appearing on our countenance, be- of lung custom, by which such actions become come symbolical of the affections of the most easy.' mind, are voluntary or involuntary! “Phy

Bulwer rejects the supposition that we sicians," he says, “call that an animal or voluntary motion which is made by preced- that is to say, without co-operation of the

perform any motions whatever instinctively; ing knowledge, either of the intellect or im- soul. agination, whereby the motive faculty is excited, that it may move the members after

“We do not always mind the motion,” he divers manners, according to the diversity observes, of every particle in our head and face, of the appetite." With this opinion our au-ercise, even when we know not whether we

yet all the gestures of the parts which we exthor in the main agrees. We ourselves, use them or not, are motions of the soul, since however, have been accustomed to divide performed by the work of the muscles. And animal motions into voluntary, instinctive, I think,' saith Marinellus, there is no

. and passionate. It is true that all these can man when he moves after any manner his be brought under one head, and referred to whole head, distorts his face, eyebrow, lip or a common origin; but, for practical

nose, or winks with one eye, which actions

purposes, the division we have adopted is the

* De Subtilitate, 99, p. 339.

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sometimes we do, not being aware of them, and This reminds us of a very extraordinary so against our knowledge and will; yet none proposition put forward by Descartes, in are so simple to think they are not the actions his work entitled, ' Les Passions de l'Ame.' of the soul, and done by voluntary motion.”

He maintains, that the symbolical signs of

our passions are purely arbitrary, that is, But how that can be done by voluntary that they are habits of our body, connected motion which is done “ against our know- by mere accident in infancy with certain ledge and will,Bulwer and Marinellus emotions of the mind,—an opinion evidentexplain not. Certain it is, that the winking ly formed on a very superficial observation of the eyes is so far from being a voluntary of a particular phenomenon, namely, that motion sometimes, that it is done against some men-in anger, for example, or any the express desire of the will on the ap- cognate passion-turn red, while others beproach of any outward object to too great a come pale. Had he here applied, however, proximity. And Noctambuli or Somnam- his own beautiful theory of the composite buli, whatever Sennertus may say, cannot nature of the passions, he might, perhaps, be believed to perform all their motions have accounted for this fact in a far more voluntarily.

philosophical manner, by supposing that in The passionate motions of the counte- one case a greater amount of some particunance are of a very different nature. But lar affection of the mind was mingled with they cannot be called voluntary, because it the pure passion of anger than in the other. is only the most consummate politicians, As it is, he falls into what appears to us a men of the world, and actors, that are able very absurd mistake, namely, the supposiin any wise to restrain and regulate them. tion that it is possible that the same acciCan any one believe, that in the ordinary dent should determine, in all the human circumstances of life the will is necessarily species, that the contraction of the brows, exerted to produce a smile, or a frown, or which we denominate frowning, should acthose other slight and evanescent motions company the passion of anger, and so on. which pass over the countenance like a To return, however, from our digression. ripple over the surface of water? There is Bulwer, in search of the cause of muscular an anecdote told of Mademoiselle Clairon, motion, finds it in what he calls “the aniby Herault de Sechelles, which will illus- nal faculty, which gives sense and motion, trate this subject. On one occasion, he which suggests cogitation, intellection, and says, she sat in a chair before a numerous memory, and which transmits sense and audience, and painted in succession upon motion from the brain by the conduct of her countenance the whole series of pas- the nerves, with the Greeks usually called sions, with all their various shades and loyiotin, that is, rationatrir, presiding over modifications. On being asked how she all the actions and motions that flow from accomplished this difficult task, she replied our will, that is from election and council.” that she had made a special study of anat- This is a lengthy descriptive definition of omy, and thus knew what particular muscle the principle of our existence, and the to put in requisition in order to express a source of all our actions, and seems to sugcertain passion of the mind. But this was gest a very material mode of viewing man's evidently a little bit of charlatanerie on the nature. However, we are not much the lady's part. For, the same muscle assist- wiser when we learn that of this “animal ing frequently in representing many and faculty" the “motive faculty” is a species, opposite passions, it is evident that no sci- which, among other effects, produces those entific knowledge of anatomy could endow which paint on the surface of the body the her with the power she possessed. We must inward agitation of the mind. rather believe, that by the mere force of her All the effects of this faculty, Bulwer, as imagination she was capable, in common we have said, esteems to be voluntary. He with other great performers, of rousing for cannot suppose that any impression made a moment in her mind the passions she on the mind should rebound, as it were, and wished to represent. Without this, the become manifest in the body, without the mere play of the muscles would have been exertion of the will. Nor can he underbut a convulsive caricature; with it, no stand that the motions of the countenance anatomical knowledge was necessary, the should exist for any other purpose than the expression of the countenance attending in- gratification of some appetite. We ant voluntarily and almost invariably on the that men employ their countenances in expassions of the soul.

pressing love and hatred, and in producing VOL. VI.-No. II. 16

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pleasure or pain in the minds of those that forced to dwell in perpetual silence, as in a behold them; but we still maintain that wooden ecstacy of congelation,-nay, his soul, they do this as often, at least, involuntarily which is only known by action, being otherwise as voluntarily, and that, in the latter case. very obscure, would utterly lose the benefit of

, they are imitating the involuntary motions motions of the affections and passions which of themselves and others.

outwardly appear by the operation of the musWe cannot refrain, before quitting this cles. subject, from alluding to an extraordinary “Man," continues our author, further on, notion advanced by Galen. He inclines 10 " who, in respect to the variety and excellency the opinion that all our motions are volun- of his actions, is a most perfect creature, has a tarily performed, but is withheld from ma: able to the variety of his actions, and every

body withal composed of divers parts, answerking a dogmatic assertion by observing that way fitted to signify and explain the affections infants move and are yet ignorant of the of his mind; among which, the most eminent offices of muscles. He might as well have and obvious part, the head, wherein the whole been staggered by the fact, that all men man seems to dwell

, hath a prerogative in besides anatomists are not immovable. For point of significative motion, and, being the if knowledge be required to precede motion, forum of the affections, hath many advantages it is not a knowledge of the mechanism of for declarative action of the subordinate and the muscles, but of the end 10 be attained by a good right, as being the root of the affec

more private parts of the body. And all this But this did not suggest itself to Galen, tions and the principle of motion. Hence the who asks how it happens that infants, who instruments of voluntary motion, the muscles, are ignorant of the “peculiar instrument disposed in the head or face, are so honorable of motion,” should rather move their lips and remarkable, that if man were deprived of than their feet? He proposes to solve the them he would look like a Socratical statue, difficulty by the supposition that it is not ture. There might be facies, but no vultus,

for his face would be always in one fixed poswe, after all, that move our muscles, but or voluntary explanation of his mind. It would that when we desire to do so, God is present be like a cabinet locked up whose key is lost. to assist us !

No certain way of entrance into his mind being But we have lingered too long amid these to be found, Momus his cavil would be just; quaint, general speculations. Let us leave all the inward motions and affections of his the exainination of the differences and remind would be obscured in silence, and besemblances of spontaneous and voluntary without the moving virtue of the muscles, or

come altogether invisible; the countenance, motion in the hands of Picholhomenes, dained in time to measure out the passions and Nancelius, Archangelus, and Riolanus ; affections of the mind, remaining like a watch, and, taking for granted that there are seven whose spring or principle, and the wheels that parts in a muscle, descend at once lo par- served for motion, were taken out." ticulars. Bulwer's object in applying himself to "the virgin philosophy of gesture" We have, soon after this, an enumeration was, as we have already hinted, to enumer- of the motions of the head-in a place, ate and methodize all he knew of the out- from a place, to a place, and by a place, ward workings of the mind in the body. " when its potential abilities of signification An idea of the importance he attached to are reduced into act, by any affection or the research may be best conveyed by the pathetical motion of the mind." The most following extraordinary speculation : obvious of these motions are the most com

“If we could conceive in our mind all the plex, which are perceived before we notice organs of motion taken out, we should leave the simple motions of which they are comfew parts to remain, and you would not ac- posed. In a nod, for example, we first knowledge man to be a living creature; and notice the inclination of the head, and then that not only in regard he is depraved in his the contraction and extension of the musstructure, but because he hath sustained a cles of which it consists. “Some of these greater loss in being deprived of his motion. For were the abilities that proceed from motion instruments and their motions, in lean and and its instruments separated from the body, muscular men, do evidently appear without without doubt man would almost cease to be a any dissection through the veil of the skin." man, and would degenerate into a plant or Bulwer now enters into anatomical destock, whereupon you could no more observe tails concerning the muscles by which the those motions of the muscles which are neces- head is swayed in its movements, and then sary to life ; for he could neither follow that develops the philosophy of nodding, which which is wholesome, nor avoid what is noisome. He would be left destitute of the action, he says, expresses

“ the yielding grace of elocution, and his mind would be en- Alexibility of the will.” In this manner we assent, affirm, yield, grant, vote, confirm, duce many acute explanations of the pheconfess, admit, allow, and approve of a nomenon. thing, as a witty saying, for example. It Much of the amusement of Bulwer's will be impossible to descend into the mi-work is derivable from the most extraordinute investigations into which our author nary and quaint expressions and similes he plunges, in his endeavors to determine the employs. He discusses the arrogant and true value and signification of the various elate bearing of the head aloft like a ship’s kinds of nods, tosses, and wags of the head. mast upheld by the rigging, the “voluntary We can only observe, that he attributes the crick of stiff-necked cruelty,” and “the constant paralytical shake of old men's chameleon-like expression" of shrugging, chins to a perpetual state of uncertainty which he calls also a "dive-dopper, or

, between assent and denial, which we sup- dob-chick of the mind.” By the way he pose must be understood allegorically; and starts a curious discussion on the monk's that he makes some curious remarks on the hood, thought by Vesalius to have derived turning away of the face by rustics and its origin from the muscle trapezius, someshamefaced people, as well as by those limes called cucullaris, and compared by who are suspicious, and said, according to old anatomical writers, now to a maid's the Spanish proverb, to wear their beards coif or kercher, now to “the clout which on one shoulder.

the women of Cremona wear upon their

shoulders." Bulwer, not satisfied with "Light displeasure, also,” says he, “makes us shake our heads, and cast it into a sort of these similitudes, denominates it " a monk ague of distaste; which gesture we also use and tacit confessor of the living monastery when we disallow, chide, forbid, rebuke, coil- of Mount Cephalon, and of the Order of demn, doubt, lament, condole, repent,' &c.; Nature.” From the trapezius he passes to and is nothing else but a slow and definite the serratus, and, to use his own exprestrembling, and an effect arising from the same sion, “ follows the unhappy hint of another cause that (ordinary) trembling and horror do, namely, from the retiring of the spirits, but in allegory," which we cannot repeat. a less degree. The muscles by whose

This, which is an outline of Bulwer's

operation this important motion is produced are the first great division, will give some idea of oblique muscles of dislike, moving reciprocally his mode of handling the subject. He disby short turns, and so multiplying the single cusses in the same manner the motions of motion of oblique disallowance into a redou- the forehead, brows, ears, nose, cheeks, bled and more ample circle of distaste. The lips, and eyes. In the various sections dequick succession of the same oblique muscles voted to these subjects we find the whole of one side working alone, and their fellows on the other side taking it by turns to main- theory of nose-wisdom, snorting, winking, tain the rotation, accomplisheth also that mo- pouting, mocking, kissing, gaping, yawntion of the enraged and frantic mind which ing, shewing the tongue, &c. &c. wheels and swings about the lead in a volun- further specimen of the style in which these tary and giddy vertigo of frenzy or baccha- important matters are treated, we give the nalian fury.”

following for the ladies :In the tenderness of love and supplica- “In salutation, valediction, reconciliation, or tion, as well as in grief and languishing of renewing of love, congratulation, approbation, the mind, the head is bent down laterally adulation, subjection, confederation, but more on one side, as the Ghost of Hermione is

especially and naturally in token of love, we

use to kiss, which is done by drawing togethdescribed in the Winter's Tale.

er the lips into themselves, and a little putting “The intimations,” says Bulwer, " that are

forth the parts that lie loosely scattered about exhibited by this lateral motion of the neck the mouth, this being the usual prologue to a have no peculiar muscles assigned unto their kiss, which cannot be decently done unless we action, there being not particular and private

a little contract our mouth; which significamuscles allowed to every motion of the mind tions of our will are thus exhibited by the energetically working out its signification by moving of the muscle commonly called the the motion of the head."

constringent pair of the lips, or corrugans,

from puckering the mouth, which is done after Shakspeare, in the passage alluded to this manner :-The upper lip is not only drawn above, represents Hermione as now hang- together, but withal

pulled downward, and the ing her head to one side, now to another ; lected and reduced into themselves.

lower lip lifted up, whereby the lips are col

This but Baldus and Bulwer observe that on muscle I find, from its employment, to be these occasions the head inclines rather to called osculatórium, because it contracts the the right shoulder than to the left, and ad- lips when we sasten a kiss upon another;

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