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which name implies only the manner of the, Bulwer, “ with his very countenance alone, outward action, and not any inward affection can express all his mind and desire, when of the mind exhibited thereby, the Latins hav. at any time it happens to be inconvenient ing no word to signify both, which the Greeks
or unlawful to open it in words at length.” have, with whom qudsiv is both to love and to kiss. This muscle, from its office, might be “In prosuse laughter," observes our author, called the loving pair-par dilectionis, or the "the motions that appear in the face are very sphincter of salutation."
remarkable, there being not any particle of the
iace that is movable but it is moved by comThe Chirosopher discusses also whether mon or its particular muscles, which lie under or not men can shake their ears as a general the skin of the face, and whose actions introrule. Pliny, of whom he takes no notice, duce so notable a change and alteration in the decides in the negative."
countenance. Man only laughs because he
hath a countenance furnished with muscles to “Claramontius,” says our author, “and, in- declare what is signified thereby. In other deed, all semeiotical philosophers, are here creatures the face, or muzzle rather, is dull lost, concluding that there is scarce any re- and heavy, and seems to sleep in an inmovfluction of the affection into the ears, and that able habit; not but that other creatures are of themselves they have no order at 'all to mo- stirred up after their nanner 10 express some
signs of exultation and delight, which supply
the place of laughter : but because they do --which explains the cruel irony of the ex. not, as we do, change their countenance, They pression “Go shake your ears. The
are not said 10 laugh.
* In this drama whole family of the Flacci at Rome, how of the muscles performed by excessive laughever, with Hercules and the Emperor Jus- the mouth seems to lead the chorus.”
jer upon the theaire of mirth, the countenance, tinian, are said to have been not quite so
After this Bulwer enters into a minute helpless; and St. Augustin speaks of those description of the confusion produced in the who could move one or both ears at pleas- face by excessive laughter" (passing from
Casaubon and Hofman had themselves seen individuals who could perform and explains by the way why it causes the
the lips to the nose, eyes, and eyebrows), this achievement. Vesalius had met at Pa
jaws to ache, and why some ladies refrain monius, a Forojuliensian, and a valiant and from langbing. He also advances what he stout man called Petrus Ravisierius, of Ge- the forehead is immovable in laughter. If,
maintains to be a new theory, namely, that neva, who could with great facility wag however, it be new, it is false. Some men's their ears. Scipio Duplesis, moreover, sur foreheads in laughter wrinkle excessively, named “the Resolver," writes of two in
a true representation of which may be seen habitants of Gascony whom he had ascer
in the Laughing Faun. tained from personal observation 10 possess
Into further details, however, we cannot this faculty. Bulwer himself reports that a school fellow of his used in sport to move the new nomenclature proposed by the Chi
enter, and shall conclude with a word on his ears; and we ourselves can add, that whilst undergoing the process of education rosopher. As the reader will have already we were fortunate enough once to encounter suspected, he derives the names he pro a boy who could not only shake his ears, tions of the mind they assist in expressing:
poses to give to the muscles from the affecbut fold them like a leaf of the sensitive A few specimens will impart some idea of plant shrinking from the hand of man. We cannot refrain, before concluding the act of nodding are called the assenting
his plan. The two muscles which perform this paper, from giving a brief sketch of John Bulwer's speculations on laughter. tion; those which assist in bowing are the
or yielding pair, or the muscles of approbaHe introduces them by a description of the
reverential pair, or the muscles of adorabroad membrane which covers the face like a vizard, and under which work the forty-head is performed are called musculos ab
tion; those by which the shaking of the six muscles that concur in producing the
nuentes, denying muscles; that which turns varied expressions of the countenance,
the eye towards the nose is the squinting, twenty-four being destined to assist the tions of the eyes and eyebrows alone, which tragic, or hobgoblin muscle; and so on.
From these xamples it will be seen that show the importance of these features in
our friend Bulwer wishes to establish that the physical language of the passions, " By all the muscles of the face are employed to means of these instruments, man," says
express the passions of the mind, and that * Hist. Nat. lib. xi. c. 50.
by observing their motions we may become
acquainted with the character of the per-| to precede you, sub consule Planco, in the sons with whom we mix in the world. And good days of William IV. I feel as if there there can be no doubt that the physiogno- were something ghostlike in my momentary mist is able, in a limited degree, to effect return to my ancient haunts, no longer in this. But whether it be possible to reduce the editorial robe and purple, but addressthe observation of "the pathetical motions ing a new chief, and in great part, a new of the countenance into a science is assembly : For the reading public is a creaanother thing. We think it is not. The ture of rapid growth-every five years a art of detecting the inner workings of the fresh generation pours forth from our instispirit by scrutinizing the features may be tutes, our colleges, our schools, demanding, attained by a man of calm understanding and filled with fresh ideas, fresh principles and acute observation, but this power can- and hopes. And the seas wash the place not be communicated in any thing like per- where Canute parleyed with the waves. fection to another. There is no progres- All that interested the world, when to me sive improvement in physiognomy. All de- (then Mr. Editor), now your humble servant, pends on the individual ability of one man. contributors addressed their articles-hot At the same time the study is by no means and seasoned for the month, and like all unuseful. If it be difficult or impossible good articles to a periodical “warranted to attain the power of " finding the mind's not to keep,” have passed away into the construction in the face,” it is yet within lumber-room, where those old maids, History the reach of all to acquire some knowledge and Criticism, hoard their scraps and relics, of the workings of the passions as connected and where, amidst dust and silence, things with their outward manifestations. By old-fashioned ripen into things antique. The studying physiognomy also, the speculator roar of the Reform Bill is still, Panny Kemon moral phenomena will greatly assist him- ble acts no more, the “ Hunchback awaits self, for the mind loves to find something upon our shelves the resuscitation of a new material whereon to rest. It soon grows Julia; poets of promise have become mute, weary of the circling flight of the eagle, and Rubini sings no more, Macready is in the alights with pleasure on a pinnacle whose provinces; “Punch” frisks it on the jocund base reposes on the earth. Those, there throne of Sydney Smith, and over a domain sore, who can reconcile themselves to Bul- once parcelled amongst many, reigns wer's quaint style, frigid allegories, ridicu
Scattered and voiceless the old lous conceits, and absurd nomenclature, contributors-a new hum betrays the changwill not go away uninstructed from his ing Babel of a new multitude. Gliding pages. Let them, therefore, look out for his thus, I say, ghostlike, amidst the present volume. It is rare, and we wish they may race, busy and sanguine as the past, I feel get it. The man had much sterling sense, that it best suits with a ghost's dignity, to a good knowledge of the scholastic philoso- appear but for an admonitory purpose; not phy, a considerable—nay, a profound ac- with the light and careless step of an ordiquaintance with anatomy, and though not nary visitor, but with meaning stride, and always successful in his explanations, or finger upon lip. Ghosts, we know, have philosophical in his theories, he is almost appeared to predict death-more gentle I, always ingenious, and invariably contrives my apparition would only promise healing, to enliven his disquisitions by some odd ex- and beckon not to graves and charnels, but pression or eccentric idea.
to the Hygeian spring.
And now that I am fairly on the ground, let us call to mind, Mr. Editor, the illustri. ous names which still overshadow it at once
with melancholy and fame. Your post has CONFESSIONS AND OBSERVATIONS OF A been filled by men, whose fate precludes WATER-PATIENT.
the envy which their genius might excite. BY S. E. BULWER LYTTON, BART.
By Campbell, the high-souled and silver
tongued, and by Hook, from whom jest, and From the New Monthly Magazine.
whim, and humor, flowed in so free and DEAR MR. EDITOR :
riotous a wave, that books confined and I am truly glad to see so worthily filled narrowed away the stream; to read Hook is the presidency in one of the many chairs to wrong him. Nor can we think of your which our republic permits to criticism and predecessors without remembering your letters—a dignity in which I had the honor rival, Hood, who, as the tree puts forth the
most exuberant blossoms the year before its chronic, diseases fastening to the organs, decay, showed the bloom and promise of his send for the doctors in good earnest, and genius most when the worm was at the trunk. die as your predecessors and your rival died, To us behind the scenes, to us who knew under combinations of long-neglected malathe men, how melancholy the contrast be- dies, which could never have been known tween the fresh and youthful intellect, the had we done for the body what we do for worn out and broken frame; for, despite the mind-made it strong by discipline, and what I have seen written, Campbell when maintained it firm by habit. Not alone calltaken at the right moment, was Campbell ing to recollection our departed friends, but ever. Not capable indeed, towards the last, looking over the vast field of suffering which of the same exertion, if manifested by those those acquainted with the lives of men who poor evidences of what is in us, that books think and labor cannot fail to behold around parade, but still as powerful in his great and them, I confess, though I have something noble thoughts, in the oral poetry revealed of Canning's disdain of professed philanthroby flashes and winged words, though un- pists, and do not love every knife-grinder rounded into form. And Hook jested on as much as if he were my brother-I conthe bed of death, as none but he could jest. fess nevertheless that I am filled with an And Hood! wlio remembers not the tender earnest pity; and an anxious desire seizes pathos, the exquisite humanity which spoke me to communicate to others that simple forth from his darkened room? Alas! what process of healing and well being which prolonged pangs, what heavy lassitude, what has passed under my own experience, and death in life did these men endure! to which I gratefully owe days no longer
Here we are, Mr. Editor, in these days weary of the sun, and nights which no of cant and jargon, preaching up the edu- longer yearn for and yet dread the morrow. cation of the mind, forcing our children And now, Mr. Editor, I may be pardoned, under melon-frames, and babbling to the I trust, if I illustrate by my own case the laborer and mechanic, “Read, and read, system, I commend to others. and read,” as if God had not given us I have been a workman in my day. I muscles, and nerves, and bodies, subjected began to write and to toil, and to win some to exquisite pains as pleasures—as if the kind of a name, which I had the ambition body were not to be cared for and cultivated to improve, while yet little more than a boy. as well as the mind; as if health were no With strong love for study in booksblessing instead of that capital good, with with yet greater desire to accomplish myself out which all other blessings--save the hope in the knowledge of men, for sixteen years of health eternal-grow flat and joyless; as I can conceive no life to have been if the enjoyinent of the world in which we filled by occupation than mine. What time are, was not far more closely linked with was not given to the action was given to our physical than our mental selves; as if study; what time not given to study, to we were better than maimed and imperfect action-labor in both! To a constitution men; so long as our nerves are jaded and naturally far from strong, I allowed no pause prostrate, our senses dim and heavy, our or respite. The wear and tear went on relationship with Nature abridged and without intermission-the whirl of the wheel thwarted by the jaundiced eye, and failing never ceased. Sometimes, indeed, thoroughlimb, and trembling hand—the apothecary's ly overpowered and exhausted, I sought for
I shop between us and the sun! For the escape. The physicians said “Travel,”
” mind, we admit, that to render it strong and I travelled. “Go into the country," and clear, habit and discipline are required; and I went. But in such attempts at repose --how deal we (especially we, Mr. Editor, all my ailments gathered round me-made of the London world-we of the literary craft themselves far more palpable and felt. I -We of the restless, striving brotherhood) had no resource but to fly from myself to -how deal we with the body? We carry Ay into the other world of books, or thought, it on with us, as a post-horse, from stage to or reverie--to live in some state of being stage-does it flag? no rest! give it ale or less painful than my own. As long as I was the spur. We begin to feel the frame break always at work it seemed that I had no leiunder us ;-we administer a drug, gain a sure to be ill. Quiet was my torment. temporary relief, shift the disorder from one At length the frame thus long neglected pari to another-forget our ailments in our --patched up for a while by drugs and excitements, and when we pause at last, doctors-put off and trifled with as an inthoroughly shattered, with complaints grown trusive dun—like a dun who is in his rights
-brought in its arrears-crushing and ter ordinary circumstances, is the alteration of rible, accumulated through long years. habits from bad to good. The early rising, Worn out and wasted, the constitution the walk before breakfast, so delicious in seemed wholly inadequate to meet the de- the feelings of freshness and vigor which mand. The exhaustion of toil and study they bestow upon the strong, often become had been completed by great anxiety and punishments to the valetudinarian. Headgrief. I had watched with alternate hope ache, languor, a sense of weariness over the and fear the lingering and mournful death- eyes, a sinking of the whole system towards bed of my nearest relation and dearest friend noon, which seemed imperiously to demand -of the person around whom was entwined the dangerous aid of stimulants, were all the strongest affection my life had known that I obtained by the morning breeze and —and when all was over, I seemed scarcely the languid stroll by the sea shore. The to live myself.
suspension from study only afflicted me with At this time, about the January of 1844, intolerable ennui, and added to the profound I was thoroughly shattered. The least at- dejection of the spirits. The brain, so long tempt at exercise exhausted me. The accustomed to morbid activity, was but withnerves gave way at the most ordinary ex- drawn from its usual occupations to invent citement-a chronic irritation of that vast horrors and chimeras. Over the pillow, surface we call the mucous membrane which vainly sought two hours before midnight, had defied for years all medical skill, ren- hovered no golden sleep. The absence of dered me continually liable to acute attacks, excitement, however unhealthy, only aggrawhich from their repetition, and the increas- vated the symptoms of ill health.; ed feebleness of my frame, might at any time It was at this time that I met by chance, be fatal. Though free from any organic in the library at St. Leonard's, with Captain disease of the heart, its action was morbidly Claridge's work on the “Water Cure," as restless and painful. My sleep was without practised by Preisnitz, at Graafenberg. refreshment.
At morning more Making allowance for certain exaggerations weary than I laid down to rest.
therein, which appeared evident to my comWithout fatiguing you and your readers mon sense, enough still remained not only further with the longa cohors of my com- to captivate the imagination and Aatter the plaints, I pass on to record my struggle to hopes of an invalid, but to appeal with favor resist them. I have always had a great be- to his sober judgment. Till then, perfectly lief in the power of will. What a man ignorant of the subject and the system, exdetermines to do—that in ninety-nine cases cept by some such vague stories and good out of the hundred I hold that he succeeds jests as had reached my ears in Germany, I in doing. I determined to have some insight resolved at least to read what more could be into a knowledge I had never attained since said in favor of the ariston udor, and exmanhood—the knowledge of health. amine dispassionately into its merits as a
I resolutely put away books and study, medicament. I was then under the advice sought the airs which the physicians esteem- of one of the first physicians of our age. ed most healthful, and adopted the strict I had consulted half the faculty. I had regimen on which all the children of Æscu- every reason to be grateful for the attention, lapius so wisely insist. In short, I main- and to be confident in the skill, of those tained the same general habits as to hours, whose prescriptions had, from time to time, diet (with the exception of wine, which in flattered my hopes and enriched the chemist. moderate quantities seemed to me indispen- But the truth must be spoken-far from sable,) and, so far as my strength would being better, I was sinking fast. Little reallow, of exercise, as I found afterwards mained to me to try in the great volume of instituted at hydropathic establishments. I the herbal. Seek what I would next, even dwell on this to forestall in some manner if a quackery, it certainly might expedite my the common remark of persons not well ac- grave, but it could scarcely render life-at quainted with the medical agencies of least the external life-more unjoyous. Acwater-that it is to the regular life which cordingly I examined, with such grave water-patients lead, and not to the element thought as a sick man brings to bear upon itself that they owe their recovery. Never. bis case, all the grounds upon which to justheless I found that these changes, however tify to myself—an excursion to the snows salutary in theory, produced little if any of Silesia. But I own that in proportion practical amelioration in my health. All as I found my faith in the system strengthen, invalids know, perhaps, how difficult, under I shrunk from the terrors of this long jour
ney to the rugged region in which the ception, they were unanimous in the veheprobable lodging would be a laborer's cot- mence of their denunciations. Granting tage,* and in which the Babel of a hundred even that in some cases, especially of rheulanguages (so ayreeable to the healthful de- matism, hydropathy had produced a curelight in novelty—so appalling to the sickly to my complaints it was worse than inapplidespondency of a hypochondriac,) would cable-it was highly dangerous—it would murmur and growl over a public table spread probably be fatal. I had not stamina for with no tempting condiments. Could I the treatment-it would fix chronic ailments hope to find healing in my own land, and into organic disease-surely it would be noi too far from my own doctors in case of much better to try what I had not yet tried. failure, I might indeed solicit the watery What had I not yet tried? A course of gods—but the journey! I who scarcely prussic acid! Nothing was better for gaslived through a day without leech or potion! irite irritation, which was no doubt the main -the long-gelid journey to Graafenberg cause of my suffering! If, however, I were
- I should be sure to fall ill by the way obstinately bent upon so mad an experiment, to be clutched and mismanaged by some Doctor Wilson was the last person I should Gerinan doctor-to deposite my bones in go to. I was not deterred by all these insome dismal church-yard on the banks of timidations, nor seduced by the salubrious the Father Rhine.
allurements of the prussic acid under its sciWhile thus perplexed, I fell in with one of entific appellation of hydiocamic. A little the pamphlets written by Doctor Wilson, of reflection taught me that the members of a Malvern, and my doubts were solved. Here learned profession are naturally the very
an English doctor, who had himself persons least disposed to favor innovation known more than my own sufferings, who, upon the practices which custom and prelike myself, had found the pharmacopeia in scription have rendered sacred in their eyes. vain-who had spent ten months at Graaf A lawyer is not the person to consult upon enberg, and left all his complaints behind bold reforms in jurisprudence. A physician him—who, fraught with the experience he can scarcely be expected to own that a Sihad acquired, not only in his own person, lesian peasant will cure with water the disbut from scientific examination of the cases eases which resist an armament of phials. under his eye, had transported the system And with regard to the peculiar objections to our native shores, and who proffered the to Dr. Wilson, I had read in his own pamphproverbial salubrity of Malvern air and its let attacks upon the orthodox practice suffiholy springs, to those who, like me, had cient to account for—perhaps to justifyranged in vain, from simple to mineral, and the disposition to depreciate him in return. who had become bold by despair-bold Still my friends were anxious and fearful; enough to try if health, like truth, lay at the to please them I continued to inquire, though bottom of a well.
not of physicians but of patients. I sought I was not then aware that other institu- out some of those who had gone through tions had been established in England of the process. I sifted some of the cases of more or less fame. I saw in Doctor Wil-cure cited by Doctor Wilson. I found the son the first transporter—at least as a phy- account of the patients so encouraging, the sician of the Silesian system, and did not cases quoted so authentic, that I grew impause to look out for other and later pupils patient of delay. I threw physic to the of this innovating German school.
dogs, and went to Malvern. I resolved then to betake myself to Mal- It is not my intention, Mr. Editor, to devern. On my way through town I paused, tail the course I underwent. The different in the innocence of my heart, to inquire of resources of water as a medicament, are to some of the faculty if they thought the wa- be found in many works easily to be obter-cure would suit my case. With one ex- tained, and well worth the study. In this
letter I suppose myself to be addressing * Let me not disparage the fountain head of those as thoroughly unacquainted with the the water-cure, the parent institution of the great Preisnitz. I believe many of the earlier Bard: system as I myself was at the first, and I ships complained of at Graafenberg have been deal therefore only in generals. removed or amended ; and such as remain, are The first point which impressed and no doubt well compensated by the vast experi struck me was the extreme and utter innoence and extraordinary tact of a man who will cence of the water-cure in skilful handsrank bereafter amongst the most illustrious discoverers who have ever benefited the human in any hands indeed not thoroughly new to
the system. Certainly when I went, I be